Notes for contributors to the Journal of Southern Hemisphere Earth Systems Science (JSHESS)

How to submit

The preferred form of submission is in electronic form, by e-mail to the Editor ((email: The Journal can handle a wide range of formats at the initial submission stage, but at final publication stage we prefer text in a text-based format (Word or similar), with images either included in the file or as separate files; in particular, we do not currently have the capacity to handle LaTeX files. For very large files (greater than 10MB), please contact the Editor to arrange an alternative means of submission.

Hard-copy submissions should be sent to the Editor, Journal of Southern Hemisphere Earth Systems Science, Bureau of Meteorology, GPO Box 1289, Melbourne VIC 3001, Australia.


The text should be double-spaced, with margins not less than 30 mm on the left-hand side and 20 mm on the right-hand side.

Hard-copy submissions should be typed on A4 paper on one side only, and three copies are required. All pages must be numbered consecutively.

For style refer to the publication Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers of Australian Government Publications (6th edition, 2002), and to recent issues of the journal.

Each manuscript generally includes the following components, which should be presented in the order listed.

1. Title, author's name, affiliation, and dateline. These items should appear on one page, separate from the remainder of the manuscript. The affiliation should be as concise as possible and in general should not constitute a complete address. The date of receipt of the manuscript will be supplied by the Technical Editor.

2. Abstract. An abstract is required at the beginning of each article and, at the discretion of the Editor, at the beginning of appropriate shorter contributions. Authors are reminded to summarise their conclusions in the abstract, as well as the methods used, since abstracts are frequently quoted verbatim in abstracting journals.

3. Text. The text should be divided into sections, each with a separate heading. The section heading should be typed flush left in upper and lower case in bold type. Subsection headings, when required, should be typed as section headings with underlining omitted. Sections and subsections should not be numbered.

4. Acknowledgments.

5. References. References should be arranged alphabetically without numbering. The text citation should consist of the name of the author and the year of publication. Thus, 'according to Halley (1686)', or 'as shown by an earlier study (Halley 1686)'. When there are two or more papers by the same author published in the same year, the distinguishing letters a, b, etc., should be added to the year.

In the listing of references, each reference must be complete and in the following form. For an article: author(s)-surname followed by initials, year, title of article, title of journal (abbreviated and in italics), volume number (italics), pages. For a book: author(s)-surname followed by initials, year, title of book (italics), publisher, city of publication, pages. Abbreviations for journal titles should in general conform to the World List of Scientific Periodicals. Abbreviations for the most commonly referenced journals are given in Notes for Authors.

6. Appendix. Lengthy mathematical analyses whose details are subordinate to the main theme of the paper should normally be put into an appendix.

7. Figure captions. Each figure must be provided with an adequate caption, and all captions should be typed together on one or more sheets (double spaced).

8. Illustrations. Each figure should be mentioned specifically in the text. Figure number and caption will be set in type and must not be part of the drawing. Lettering should be large enough so that after reduction the smallest character will be at least 1.5 mm high. Final size of drawings is normally single column width (70 mm) except where circumstances dictate otherwise. Submission of digital images is encouraged.

For hard-copy figures, good photographic reproductions (glossy prints) are preferred to original drawings if the latter are oversized and unwieldy for mailing. For drawings, original drawings are preferably made about one-and-a-half times to twice final size in black ink on white paper. One set of originals and two sets of copies of all hard-copy figures are required.

Mathematical symbols and formulae

Authors should attempt to visualise mathematical expressions as they will appear in print. From the standpoints of readability and printing cost, formulae should be composed carefully and with the utmost economy. Some general rules are:

1. The numbers that identify equations are to be placed at the right-hand margin. References in text to the equations may then usually be made by the number prefixed by Eqn.

2. Explain ambiguous or uncommon symbols by making marginal notes in pencil.

3. Double-line fractions should not be used in the body of the text. To indicate such fractions, use the solidus (/) or the negative exponent; thus a/b, or ab-1, or b-1a. Double-line fractions should be avoided also in centred equations if they can be expressed conveniently by any of the methods just noted and the resulting equation will appear on only one line.

4. The radical sign should be avoided. To indicate roots, use a fractional positive or negative exponent.

5. Avoid double superscripts or subscripts as well as superscripts attached to the same symbol.

6. Indicate vectors and matrices by placing a wavy line under the symbol. Do not underline any other symbols or use underlining as part of a symbol.

7. When the number e is modified by a complicated exponent, use the symbol exp.

8. In writing units, the solidus (/) may be used instead of negative exponents provided ambiguity is avoided: i.e. either J kg-1 K-1 or J/(kg K) is acceptable, but not J/kg/K. Multiple use of the solidus is never justified.


The International System of Units is standard in the Journal of Southern Hemisphere Earth Systems Science and SI (m, kg, s, K) units should be used throughout. Words and symbols for units should not be mixed; in general, symbols should be used only when preceded by a number (thus '10 m', but 'several metres'). Unit symbols are not punctuated, i.e. they are not treated as abbreviations; the same symbol is used for both singular and plural. Note that, although the kelvin is the unit of temperature in the SI, the degree sign must be used in writing temperatures or temperature differences in the Celsius scale, i.e. '272 K', but '22oC'. Day, month and year are written '29 December 1959' (do not abbreviate names of months). The recommended time zone is Coordinated Universal Time, abbreviated UTC. Time, time zone, day, month and year are written '2330 UTC 29 December 1959', in some instances the use of other time zones is permissible, for example, AEST (150oE meridian civil time).


Unless repetitive, abbreviations should be avoided, especially of organisations (write 'World Meteorological Organization' not 'WMO'), and acronyms should be identified with their first use, e.g. 'clear-air turbulence (CAT)'.

Proofs and reprints

Authors of papers accepted for publication will receive galley proofs only (together with copies of diagrams that require redrafting). Reprints are no longer provided as papers are freely available online for printing as required.

Last updated 3 February 2016 by Blair Trewin (