Southeastern Aust Seasonal Temperature Outlook: probabilities for April to June 2010, issued 23rd March 2010
For southeastern Australia, the outlook for mean minimum temperatures over the June quarter (April to June), shows a strongly varying pattern in the odds: cooler nights are indicated in the southern parts of the region, while warmer than average nights are favoured in the northeast half of NSW and across the far north of SA. As far as daytime maximum temperatures are concerned, cooler conditions are indicated for a relatively small area along NSW's northern border.
The pattern of seasonal temperature odds across southeastern Australia is due to recent higher than average temperatures in both the Pacific (El Niño) and Indian Oceans.
The average minimum temperature for April to June is favoured to be above the long-term median minimum temperature over the northern parts of both SA and NSW (see map), with odds between 60 and 80%. This means that for every ten years with ocean patterns like the current, about six to eight June quarters would be expected to be warmer than average overnight in these regions, while about two to four would be cooler.
In contrast, there is a 60 to 75% chance of cooler than normal nights averaged over the coming three months in Victoria, far southern NSW, SA agricultural areas and northern Tasmania. This means that below normal temperatures would be expected to occur in around six or seven years for every ten that ocean patterns are similar to the present.
Outlook confidence is related to how consistently the Pacific and Indian Oceans affect Australian temperatures. During the June quarter, history shows this effect on minimum temperatures from April to June to be moderately consistent over most of NSW, Victoria and SA agricultural areas. However, over parts of the NSW South Coast, the northern half of SA, coastal Victoria and all of Tasmania the effect is only weakly to very weakly consistent during this time of year (see background information).
The average maximum temperature for April to June is favoured to be below the long-term median minimum temperature over parts of the northern and northeast border areas of NSW (see map). The chances of increased daytime warmth (averaged over the June quarter) are between 35 and 40% in these areas, meaning that cooler than average days have a 60 to 65% likelihood. This is consistent with the rainfall outlook which favours a wetter than average three months in the same region. Across the remainder of southeastern Australia, the odds are 50:50 meaning that a warmer or cooler than normal season are both about as equally likely.
History shows the oceans' effect on maximum temperatures in the June quarter to be moderately consistent over much of the northeast quarter of NSW, parts of western Victoria, western and northern SA and northern Tasmania. However, for the remainder of southeast Australia confidence is only weakly to very weakly consistent.
Click on the maps above for larger versions of the maps. Use the reload/refresh button to ensure the latest forecast maps are displayed.
More information on this outlook is available Monday to Friday from 9.00am to 5.00pm local time by contacting the Bureau's Climate Services sections in Queensland, NSW, SA, Victoria and Tasmania at the following numbers:
|Sydney -||(02) 9296 1555|
|Adelaide -||(08) 8366 2664|
|Melbourne -||(03) 9669 4949|
|Hobart -||(03) 6221 2043|
THE NEXT ISSUE OF THE SEASONAL OUTLOOK IS EXPECTED BY 22nd April 2010
The Bureau's seasonal outlooks are general statements about the probability or risk of wetter or drier than average weather over a three-month period. The outlooks are based on the statistics of chance (the odds) taken from Australian rainfall/temperatures and sea surface temperature records for the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. They are not, however, categorical predictions about future rainfall, and they are not about rainfall within individual months of the three-month outlook period. The temperature outlooks are for the average maximum and minimum temperatures for the entire three-month outlook period. Information about whether individual days or weeks may be unusually hot or cold, is unavailable.
This outlook is a summary. More detail is available from the contact people or from SILO (Seasonal Climate Outlook Products).
Probability outlooks should not be used as if they were categorical forecasts. More on probabilities is contained in the booklet The Seasonal Climate Outlook - What it is and how to use it, available from the National Climate Centre. These outlooks should be used as a tool in risk management and decision making. The benefits accrue from long-term use, say over 10 years. At any given time, the probabilities may seem inaccurate, but taken over several years, the advantages of taking account of the risks should outweigh the disadvantages. For more information on the use of probabilities, farmers could contact their local departments of agriculture or primary industry.
Model Consistency and Outlook Confidence: Strong consistency means that tests of the model on historical data show a high correlation between the most likely outlook category (above/below median) and the verifying observation (above/below median). In this situation relatively high confidence can be placed in the outlook probabilities. Low consistency means the historical relationship, and therefore outlook confidence, is weak. In the places and seasons where the outlooks are most skilful, the category of the eventual outcome (above or below median) is consistent with the category favoured in the outlook about 75% of the time. In the least skilful areas, the outlooks perform no better than random chance or guessing. The rainfall outlooks perform best in eastern and northern Australia between July and January, but are less useful in autumn and in the west of the continent. The skill at predicting seasonal maximum temperature peaks in early winter and drops off marginally during the second half of the year. The lowest point in skill occurs in early autumn. The skill at predicting seasonal minimum temperature peaks in late autumn and again in mid-spring. There are also two distinct periods when the skill is lowest - namely late summer and mid-winter. However, it must always be remembered that the outlooks are statements of chance or risk. For example, if you were told there was a 50:50 chance of a horse winning a race but it ran second, the original assessment of a 50:50 chance could still have been correct.
The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is calculated using the barometric pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin. The SOI is one indicator of the stage of El Niño or La Niña events in the tropical Pacific Ocean. It is best considered in conjunction with sea-surface temperatures, which form the basis of the outlooks. A moderate to strongly negative SOI (persistently below −10) is usually characteristic of El Niño, which is often associated with below average rainfall over eastern Australia, and a weaker than normal monsoon in the north. A moderate to strongly positive SOI (persistently above +10) is usually characteristic of La Niña, which is often associated with above average rainfall over parts of tropical and eastern Australia, and an earlier than normal start to the northern monsoon season. The Australian impacts of 25 El Niño events since 1900 are summarized on the Bureau's web site (El Niño - Detailed Australian Analysis).
© Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology