A warm October to December likely for Australia

National Seasonal Temperature Outlook: probabilities for October to December 2012, issued 19th September 2012

A warm October to December likely for Australia

The national outlook averaged over October to December 2012 shows that:

  • warmer days and nights are more likely over most of Australia

This outlook is mostly a result of persistent warmer than normal waters in the Indian Ocean, with a lesser influence from warmer than normal tropical Pacific waters.

probability of exceeding median maximum temperature - click on the map for a larger version of the map

The chances that the October to December maximum temperature will exceed the long-term median maximum temperature are above 60% over most of the country. Probabilities rise above 80% over the eastern Top End of the NT, much of northern Queensland, and large parts of southeast Australia (see map above). This means that for every ten years with ocean patterns like the current, about six to eight October to December periods would be expected to be warmer than average over these areas, with about two to four being cooler than average.

Outlook confidence is related to how consistently the Pacific and Indian Oceans affect Australian temperatures. During the October to December period, history shows this effect on maximum temperatures to be moderately consistent over the southern interior of WA, both the southeast and Top End parts of the NT, southern and central Queensland, northern NSW, most of SA, Victoria and northeast Tasmania. Over the remainder of the country, the effect is only weakly to very weakly consistent (see background information). Users should exercise caution when using this outlook in areas of low skill.

probability of exceeding median minimum temperature - click on the map for a larger version of the map

The chances that the average minimum temperature for October to December will exceed the long-term median minimum temperature are above 60% over most of Australia. Probabilities exceed 80% over most of the southern half of WA (see map above).

History shows the oceans' effect on minimum temperatures during spring to be moderately consistent over most of Australia, with the exception of northwestern Australia, where the skill is only weakly to very weakly consistent.

 

Click on the maps above for larger versions of the maps. Use the reload/refresh button to ensure the latest forecast maps are displayed.

 

The following climate meteorologists in the National Climate Centre can be contacted about this outlook: Andrew Watkins on (03) 9669 4360, Catherine Ganter on (03) 9669 4679, Elise Chandler on (03) 9669 4748.

 

Regional versions of this media release are available: | Northern Aust | Southeastern Aust | WA |

Regional commentary is available from the Climate Services Sections in the Bureau's Regional Offices:

Queensland -(07) 3239 8660
New South Wales -(02) 9296 1555
Victoria -(03) 9669 4949
Tasmania -(03) 6221 2043
South Australia -(08) 8366 2664
Western Australia -(08) 9263 2222
The Northern Territory -(08) 8920 3813

 

THE NEXT ISSUE OF THE SEASONAL OUTLOOK IS EXPECTED BY 24th October 2012

Corresponding rainfall outlook

Maximum temperature departures from average for June to August 2012 - base period 1961-1990

Minimum temperature departures from average for June to August 2012 - base period 1961-1990

 

Background Information

  • The Bureau's seasonal outlooks are general statements about the probability or risk of wetter or drier than average weather over a three-month period. The outlooks are based on the statistics of chance (the odds) taken from Australian rainfall/temperatures and sea surface temperature records for the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. They are not, however, categorical predictions about future rainfall, and they are not about rainfall within individual months of the three-month outlook period. The temperature outlooks are for the average maximum and minimum temperatures for the entire three-month outlook period. Information about whether individual days or weeks may be unusually hot or cold, is unavailable.

  • This outlook is a summary. More detail is available from the contact people.

  • Probability outlooks should not be used as if they were categorical forecasts. These outlooks should be used as a tool in risk management and decision making. The benefits accrue from long-term use, say over 10 years. At any given time, the probabilities may seem inaccurate, but taken over several years, the advantages of taking account of the risks should outweigh the disadvantages. For more information on the use of probabilities, farmers could contact their local departments of agriculture or primary industry.

  • Model Consistency and Outlook Confidence: Strong consistency means that tests of the model on historical data show a high correlation between the most likely outlook category (above/below median) and the verifying observation (above/below median). In this situation relatively high confidence can be placed in the outlook probabilities. Low consistency means the historical relationship, and therefore outlook confidence, is weak. In the places and seasons where the outlooks are most skilful, the category of the eventual outcome (above or below median) is consistent with the category favoured in the outlook about 75% of the time. In the least skilful areas, the outlooks perform no better than random chance or guessing. The rainfall outlooks perform best in eastern and northern Australia between July and January, but are less useful in autumn and in the west of the continent. The skill at predicting seasonal maximum temperature peaks in early winter and drops off marginally during the second half of the year. The lowest point in skill occurs in early autumn. The skill at predicting seasonal minimum temperature peaks in late autumn and again in mid-spring. There are also two distinct periods when the skill is lowest - namely late summer and mid-winter. However, it must always be remembered that the outlooks are statements of chance or risk. For example, if you were told there was a 50:50 chance of a horse winning a race but it ran second, the original assessment of a 50:50 chance could still have been correct.

  • The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is calculated using the barometric pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin. The SOI is one indicator of the stage of El Niño or La Niña events in the tropical Pacific Ocean. It is best considered in conjunction with sea-surface temperatures, which form the basis of the outlooks. A moderate to strongly negative SOI (persistently below −10) is usually characteristic of El Niño, which is often associated with below average rainfall over eastern Australia, and a weaker than normal monsoon in the north. A moderate to strongly positive SOI (persistently above +10) is usually characteristic of La Niña, which is often associated with above average rainfall over parts of tropical and eastern Australia, and an earlier than normal start to the northern monsoon season. The Australian impacts of past El Niño events since 1900 are summarized on the Bureau's web site (El Niño - Detailed Australian Analysis), and past La Niña events (La Niña - Detailed Australian Analysis)

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