Mixed outlook for summer maximum temperatures

Northern Aust Seasonal Temperature Outlook: probabilities for Summer 2012/2013, issued 21st November 2012

Mixed outlook for summer maximum temperatures

The northern Australian outlook averaged over December 2012 to February 2013 shows that:

  • warmer days are more likely for tropical northern Australia
  • cooler days are more likely over southeastern Queensland

This outlook is a result of warmer than normal waters persisting in the Indian Ocean, as well as warmer than normal tropical Pacific waters.

probability of exceeding median maximum temperature - click on the map for a larger version of the map

The chances that the average December to February maximum temperature will exceed the long-term median maximum temperature are between 60 and 80% over far northern Australia (see map above). Such odds mean that for every ten years with similar ocean patterns to those currently observed, about six to eight December to February periods would be expected to be warmer than average in the far north, while about two to four years would be cooler for this time of year.

In contrast, there is between a 30 and 40% chance of warmer than normal days over southeastern Queensland. In other words, there is a 60 to 70% chance of cooler days over this region.

probability of exceeding median minimum temperature - click on the map for a larger version of the map

The chances that the average minimum temperature for December to February will exceed the long-term median minimum temperature are between 60 and 80% over most of the NT and northern parts of Queensland (see map above).

Outlook confidence is related to how consistently the Pacific and Indian Oceans affect north Australian temperatures. During December to February, history shows this effect on maximum temperatures to be moderately consistent across the region, with the exception of far western NT where it is only weakly to very weakly consistent (see background information).

The effect on minimum temperatures during this season is moderately consistent over the northern half of the NT and northern and eastern Queensland. Elsewhere the effect is only weakly consistent.

 

Click on the maps above for larger versions of the maps. Use the reload/refresh button to ensure the latest forecast maps are displayed.

 

More information on this outlook is available by contacting the Bureau's Climate Services sections in Queensland and the Northern Territory at the following numbers:

Darwin -(08) 8920 3813
Brisbane -(07) 3239 8660

 

THE NEXT ISSUE OF THE SEASONAL OUTLOOK IS EXPECTED BY 19th December 2012

Corresponding rainfall outlook

Maximum temperature departures from average for August to October 2012 - base period 1961-1990

Minimum temperature departures from average for August to October 2012 - base period 1961-1990

 

Background Information

  • The Bureau's seasonal outlooks are general statements about the probability or risk of wetter or drier than average weather over a three-month period. The outlooks are based on the statistics of chance (the odds) taken from Australian rainfall/temperatures and sea surface temperature records for the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. They are not, however, categorical predictions about future rainfall, and they are not about rainfall within individual months of the three-month outlook period. The temperature outlooks are for the average maximum and minimum temperatures for the entire three-month outlook period. Information about whether individual days or weeks may be unusually hot or cold, is unavailable.

  • This outlook is a summary. More detail is available from the contact people.

  • Probability outlooks should not be used as if they were categorical forecasts. These outlooks should be used as a tool in risk management and decision making. The benefits accrue from long-term use, say over 10 years. At any given time, the probabilities may seem inaccurate, but taken over several years, the advantages of taking account of the risks should outweigh the disadvantages. For more information on the use of probabilities, farmers could contact their local departments of agriculture or primary industry.

  • Model Consistency and Outlook Confidence: Strong consistency means that tests of the model on historical data show a high correlation between the most likely outlook category (above/below median) and the verifying observation (above/below median). In this situation relatively high confidence can be placed in the outlook probabilities. Low consistency means the historical relationship, and therefore outlook confidence, is weak. In the places and seasons where the outlooks are most skilful, the category of the eventual outcome (above or below median) is consistent with the category favoured in the outlook about 75% of the time. In the least skilful areas, the outlooks perform no better than random chance or guessing. The rainfall outlooks perform best in eastern and northern Australia between July and January, but are less useful in autumn and in the west of the continent. The skill at predicting seasonal maximum temperature peaks in early winter and drops off marginally during the second half of the year. The lowest point in skill occurs in early autumn. The skill at predicting seasonal minimum temperature peaks in late autumn and again in mid-spring. There are also two distinct periods when the skill is lowest - namely late summer and mid-winter. However, it must always be remembered that the outlooks are statements of chance or risk. For example, if you were told there was a 50:50 chance of a horse winning a race but it ran second, the original assessment of a 50:50 chance could still have been correct.

  • The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is calculated using the barometric pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin. The SOI is one indicator of the stage of El Niño or La Niña events in the tropical Pacific Ocean. It is best considered in conjunction with sea-surface temperatures, which form the basis of the outlooks. A moderate to strongly negative SOI (persistently below −10) is usually characteristic of El Niño, which is often associated with below average rainfall over eastern Australia, and a weaker than normal monsoon in the north. A moderate to strongly positive SOI (persistently above +10) is usually characteristic of La Niña, which is often associated with above average rainfall over parts of tropical and eastern Australia, and an earlier than normal start to the northern monsoon season. The Australian impacts of past El Niño events since 1900 are summarized on the Bureau's web site (El Niño - Detailed Australian Analysis), and past La Niña events (La Niña - Detailed Australian Analysis)

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