Climate Model Summary

Updated: Unavailable

Australian climate is influenced by temperature patterns in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. This page provides information on Pacific and Indian Ocean outlooks for the coming six months based on a survey of international climate models. It is updated monthly.


Majority of models still favour spring El Niño

Warming in the tropical Pacific Ocean since the beginning of 2014 has primed the climate system for an El Niño in 2014, although an atmospheric response is yet to be observed. As a result, the transition towards El Niño conditions has slowed in recent weeks. While five out of eight climate models surveyed by the Bureau suggest El Niño will become established by October, all have eased their strength over the past few months. Three models suggest an El Niño will not occur in 2014, while another indicates only a brief period of El Niño-like conditions.

El Niño is often, but not always, associated with below-average rainfall during the second half of the year across large parts of southern and inland eastern Australia. Daytime temperatures also tend to be above average over southern Australia.

The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) remains neutral although the index has been below the negative threshold in recent weeks. It needs to remain negative for several more weeks to be considered a negative IOD event. Model outlooks suggest the IOD index is likely to return to neutral values during the spring months. A negative IOD pattern typically brings wetter conditions to inland southern Australia during winter and spring.

For more details on both ENSO and the IOD, please see the ENSO Wrap-Up.

Average of international model outlooks for NINO3.4

The average NINO3.4 value taken from 7 international models at a three month outlook
The average NINO3.4 value taken from 7 international models at a five month outlook

The arrows on the dials above indicate the combined average of monthly NINO3.4 outlooks from a survey of international global climate models. Note that the individual model runs vary around the average.

More information:

NINO3.4 outlook

The latest NINO3.4 forecasts (initialised in July) indicate the tropical Pacific Ocean is most likely to continue warming over the coming months, however, three models suggest temperatures will remain steady at neutral values. The remaining five models indicate sea surface temperatures in the central tropical Pacific will be above or close to El Niño thresholds by October.

The most recent NINO3.4 value is +0.3 °C for the week ending 13 July 2014. Sustained NINO3.4 values above +0.8 °C indicate El Niño conditions.

The following graph shows the average forecast value of NINO3.4 for each international model surveyed for the selected calendar month. If the bars on the graph are approaching or exceeding the blue dashed line, there is an increased risk of La Niña. Similarly, if the bars on the graph are approaching or exceeding the red dashed line, there is an increased chance of El Niño.

NINO3.4 covers the central Pacific region.

NINO3.4 Outlook

Nino 3.4 2 month outlook Models information

Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) outlook

Although the IOD remains neutral, IOD index values have been below the negative threshold since mid-June. Index values would need to remain negative until at least early August to be considered a negative IOD event. The latest weekly index value (to 13 July 2014) is –0.4 °C, with model outlooks suggesting negative values to continue during August before returning to neutral later in spring. A negative IOD pattern typically brings wetter conditions to inland and southern Australia during winter and spring.

The following graph shows the average forecast value of the IOD index for each international model surveyed for the selected calendar month. If the majority of models are approaching or exceeding the blue dashed line, then there is an increased risk of a negative IOD event. If the majority of models are approaching or exceeding the red dashed line, then there is an increased risk of a positive IOD event.

IOD Outlook

These form controls display per month outlook graphs.

Latest POAMA IOD outlook Models information

Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA)

POAMA, run at the Bureau of Meteorology, generates an eight-monthly forecast on the first day of each month. The most recent model run (started in July) predicts NINO3.4 is likely to remain close to zero (neutral) throughout the forecast period. The following forecast values (at the top of the table) are for the ensemble mean.

Month 2

NINO3.4 forecast value: Not available

Range Category Frequency distribution
below −0.8 °C: (Cool) Unavailable
  (Neutral) Unavailable
above +0.8 °C: (Warm) Unavailable

Month 4

NINO3.4 forecast value: Not available

Range Category Frequency distribution
below −0.8 °C: (Cool) Unavailable
  (Neutral) Unavailable
above +0.8 °C: (Warm) Unavailable

Month 6

NINO3.4 forecast value: Not available

Range Category Frequency distribution
below −0.8 °C: (Cool) Unavailable
  (Neutral) Unavailable
above +0.8 °C: (Warm) Unavailable

More information:

Model details

The models used within our survey are listed below with links to their agency homepages, model output and technical information about the model.

Agency/Source/Provider Latest
NINO3.4
Latest
IOD
Model Model run used in this survey:
BOM - Bureau of Meteorology View NINO3.4 data
View IOD data POAMA
Unavailable
Meteorological Service of Canada View NINO3.4 data (via IRI multi model plume Unavailable CanSIPS Unavailable
ECMWF (EU) View NINO3.4 data Not public System4 Unavailable
JMA View NINO3.4 data Unavailable JMA/MRI-CGCM Unavailable
METEO-FRANCE Not public Not public ARPEGE 1 April 2013
NASA - GMAO (USA) View NINO3.4 data
View IOD data GEOS5
1 April 2013
NOAA - NCEP (USA) View NINO3.4 data
Unavailable CFSv2 Unavailable
UKMO View NINO3.4 data Not public GloSea4 Unavailable

Product Code: IDCKGLM000

Next update expected Unavailable

Model data are provided for Bureau of Meteorology use by the agencies detailed in the Models section. Respective agency copyright applies to these data.