Monday, 1 June 2009 - Monthly Climate Summary for Queensland - Product code IDCKGC24R0

Queensland in May 2009

  • Well above average rainfall in the southeast districts.
  • Cooler day time temperatures in the north
  • Below average overnight temperatures in the central interior

An archive of previous monthly summaries for Queensland is also available, as are summaries for other states and many other climate summaries and diagnostics.


Rainfall

The most significant rainfall that occurred in May was about the greater southeast Queensland area from the 19th to 22nd May. Early on the 20th, a low formed near Cape Moreton and moved slowly south west over the Brisbane area. Near and on the southern side of this low, very heavy rain and gale force winds were observed. An intense upper level low was the main driving force for this significant rainfall. Widespread areas of rain fell over the southeast of the state, with locally heavy falls and isolated thunderstorms.

The wettest single day 332 mm at Godwin Beach, 301.8 mm at Beerburrum Forest Station, 274 mm at Narangba - Browns Crk Road, 257 mm at Morayfield Alert and 254 mm at Deception Bay Alert, all on the 20th. Some sites had their highest May daily rainfall on record.

On Friday the 21st, the upper level low was positioned over southeast Queensland. A surface trough of low pressure extended northeast from Point Lookout into the Pacific, along which a series of lows were forming. Strong to gale force winds and areas of rain were forming to the south of the trough.

By the 22nd, the surface trough was near the New South Wales border and extended northeast into the Pacific, with a low pressure system lying on this trough well offshore of the south Queensland coast.

The wettest overall was 567.8 mm at Beerburrum Forest Station, followed by 515.9 mm at Springbrook Road, followed by 494.8 mm at Daradgee, followed by 488.4 mm at Glengaven, followed by 486.0 mm at Morayfield Alert. Some sites had their highest total May rainfall on record.

See a map of total rainfall. See a map of rainfall deciles.

Maximum temperature

The hottest day was 33.9°C at Burketown Airport on the 1st, and the warmest days on average were 31.9°C at Kowanyama Airport and also at Musgrave.

The coldest day was 12.0°C at Applethorpe on the 20th. Applethorpe also had the coolest days on average, with 17.5°C for May.

See a map of mean maximum temperatures. See a map of maximum temperature anomalies.

Minimum temperature

The coldest night was −4.0°C at Stanthorpe Leslie Parade on the 15th, and the coolest nights on average were 5.1°C at Stanthorpe Leslie Parade.

An upper low that moved into the Wide Bay and Burnett districts on the 22nd was the main mechanism for the rainfall over southeast Queensland and cold nights in the north. Overnight on the 22nd and 23rd, several locations in the far north recorded their lowest minimum temperatures for May, including Palmerville, Weipa and Lockhart River. 

See a map of mean minimum temperatures. See a map of minimum temperature anomalies.

Wind

The strongest recorded wind gust was 117 km/h at Gold Coast Seaway on 20th May. This was a result of the East Coast Low that formed near Cape Moreton and moved slowly south west. Cape Moreton Lighthouse recorded 106km/hr, also on the 20th.

Further information

Tamika Tihema
Queensland Climate Services Centre
Bureau of Meteorology
Phone (07) 3239 8662
Email climate.qld@bom.gov.au

Extremes

Hottest day
Highest temperature
33.9°C at Burketown Airport on the 1st
33.9°C at Normanton Airport on the 1st
Warmest days on average
Highest mean daily maximum temperature
31.9°C at Kowanyama Airport
31.9°C at Musgrave
Coolest days on average
Lowest mean daily maximum temperature
17.5°C at Applethorpe
Coldest day
Lowest daily maximum temperature
12.0°C at Applethorpe on the 20th
12.0°C at Applethorpe on the 21st
Coldest night
Lowest temperature
−4.0°C at Stanthorpe Leslie Parade on the 15th
Coolest nights on average
Lowest mean daily minimum temperature
5.1°C at Stanthorpe Leslie Parade
Warmest nights on average
Highest mean daily minimum temperature
24.1°C at Willis Island
Warmest night
Highest daily minimum temperature
26.5°C at Coconut Island on the 13th
Wettest overall
Highest total rainfall
567.8 mm at Beerburrum Forest Station
515.9 mm at Springbrook Road
494.8 mm at Daradgee
488.4 mm at Glengaven
486.0 mm at Morayfield Alert
Wettest day
Highest daily rainfall
332.0 mm at Godwin Beach on the 20th
301.8 mm at Beerburrum Forest Station on the 20th
274.0 mm at Narangba - Browns Crk Road on the 20th
257.0 mm at Morayfield Alert on the 20th
254.0 mm at Deception Bay Alert on the 20th
Highest wind gust
117 km/h at Gold Coast Seaway on the 20th
106 km/h at Cape Moreton Lighthouse on the 20th
96 km/h at Gold Coast Seaway on the 21st
94 km/h at Coolangatta on the 20th

Records

Record highest May daily rainfall
Highest daily rainfall
in May 2009 (mm)
Previous highest
for May
Years of
record
Texas Post Office 58.6 on the 22nd 52.1 on the 30th in 1921 113
Alderley 206.2 on the 21st 193.2 on the 2nd in 1996 103
Peachester 207.0 on the 20th 182.0 on the 2nd in 1996 93
Lake Manchester 187.0 on the 21st 120.0 on the 3rd in 1996 92
Pechey Forestry 113.6 on the 20th 95.6 on the 3rd in 1996 83
Somerset Dam 147.6 on the 20th 121.2 on the 3rd in 1996 72
Amberley AMO 142.2 on the 21st 121.0 on the 9th in 1980 68
Meandarra Post Office 105.8 on the 20th 95.3 on the 26th in 1938 68
Beerburrum Forest Station 301.8 on the 20th 203.2 on the 31st in 1903 63
Ballandean Post Office 79.2 on the 22nd 60.6 on the 9th in 1980 43
Namarah 74.8 on the 20th 68.4 on the 1st in 1996 38
Glenlyon Dam 58.0 on the 22nd 53.0 on the 9th in 1980 35
Strathpine Colonial Drive 206.0 on the 20th 196.4 on the 2nd in 1996 33



Record highest total May rainfall
Total rainfall
for May 2009 (mm)
Previous highest
for May
Years of
record
Average for
May
Beerburrum Forest Station 567.8 478.6 in 1903 60 125.6
Highvale 322.6 318.8 in 1980 42 85.3



Record lowest May temperature
Lowest temperature
in May 2009 (°C)
Previous lowest
for May
Years of
record
Average for
May
Weipa#
12.7on the 23rd       15.0on the 30th in 1960  3021.3
Palmerville 6.5 on the 22nd 7.8 on the 24th in 1896 56 17.3
Lockhart River Airport 11.5 on the 23rd 13.3 on the 31st in 1965 44 21.9
# Previous record occurred at a site that is now closed.


Summaries

In this table, key sites have been highlighted to make them easier to find. This table is very wide and may not fit if printed.

Summary statistics for May 2009
Maximum temperatures
for May
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
for May
(°C)
Rainfall
for May
(millimetres)
Mean for
May
2009
Diff
from
average
Highest for
May
2009
Mean for
May
2009
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
May
2009
Total for
May
2009
Average
for
May
Rank of
May
2009
Fraction of
May
average
North Peninsula (district 27)
Coen Airport 30.4   32.4 20th 18.8   8.0 23rd 4.8
Horn Island 29.8 −0.1 30.5 13th 24.0 −0.7 17.7 23rd 180.2 75.4 high 239%
Scherger RAAF 31.3   32.8 18th 20.4   11.9 23rd 12.8
Weipa Aero 31.1 −0.8 32.5 31st 20.7 −0.5 12.7 23rd 17.8 21.6 average 82%
South Peninsula (district 28)
Lockhart River Airport 28.8 +0.2 31.1 18th 21.5 −0.4 11.5 23rd 102.4 110.9 high 92%
Musgrave 31.9 +1.2 33.4 14th 16.3 −0.6 8.2 22nd 1.0 15.3 low 7%
Palmerville 30.7 −0.5 32.9 14th 16.9 −0.5 6.5 22nd 12.2 16.5 average 74%
Lower Carpentaria (district 29)
Burketown Airport 31.3   33.9 1st 18.5   10.9 21st 0
Burketown Post Office 30.3 −0.2 33.1 1st 18.9 +1.9 12.0 21st 9.0 6.1 high 148%
Century Mine 30.2   32.3 1st 16.9   10.5 24th 0
Cloncurry Airport 28.8 −0.6 31.1 1st 15.2 −0.3 10.7 22nd 1.2 5.2 average 23%
Croydon Township 30.1 −1.6 32.3 31st 18.0 +0.1 9.4 22nd 0.6 7.9 average 8%
Julia Creek Airport 29.4   31.8 27th 13.4   7.5 21st 0.8
Kowanyama Airport 31.9 −0.2 33.8 1st 19.2 +0.1 9.5 22nd 2.4 11.3 average 21%
Mornington Island 28.8 −0.1 32.1 28th 20.8 +0.7 13.9 23rd 0 9.3 lowest 0%
Mount Isa Aero 27.4 −0.4 30.4 27th 13.6 −0.4 6.2 21st 0 12.3 lowest 0%
Normanton Airport 30.9   33.9 1st 20.0   12.8 22nd 0.4
Sweers Island 28.0   29.5 30th 21.5   14.4 23rd 0 4.0 very low 0%
Upper Carpentaria (district 30)
Georgetown Airport 29.4   32.4 1st     5.3 22nd 1.2
Hughenden Airport 27.8   30.2 28th 13.6   6.2 22nd 12.4
Richmond Airport 29.0 −0.8 31.9 1st 12.9 −0.2 6.4 21st 0.6 6.3 average 10%
Richmond Post Office 29.1 0.0 31.7 31st 14.4 +1.3 8.0 22nd 1.2 15.2 average 8%
Barron North Coast (district 31)
Cairns Aero 27.3 −0.3 30.1 1st 19.7 −0.2 12.8 23rd 89.4 91.5 average 98%
Cape Flattery 29.1   30.8 21st 22.9   12.2 22nd 48.6
Cooktown Airport 27.9   29.4 21st 21.1   9.1 22nd 24.2
Green Island 25.1 −0.8 27.3 1st 22.5 +0.1 19.2 23rd
Kairi Research Station 23.1 +0.1 26.8 20th 13.9 −0.9 4.8 22nd 37.6 58.0 low 65%
Low Isles Lighthouse 27.2 −0.4 28.8 2nd 22.6 −0.2 19.6 23rd 77.2 98.8 average 78%
Mareeba Airport 26.4   29.6 20th 16.4   8.1 23rd 10.0
Walkamin DPI 24.6 −0.3 28.1 20th 15.5 −0.7 6.8 22nd 18.1 27.0 average 67%
Herbert North Coast (district 32)
Cardwell Marine Pde 26.4 −0.8 28.4 1st 18.4 +0.8 12.0 22nd 99.5 95.2 average 105%
Ingham Composite 26.6 −0.5 29.2 20th     12.0 23rd 134.2 112.5 high 119%
Innisfail 26.0 −0.4 29.0 1st 19.1 +0.8 13.7 23rd 445.1 302.4 high 147%
Lucinda Point 24.9 −1.2 26.9 1st 20.7 −0.5 17.1 23rd 124.0 65.2 very high 190%
South Johnstone Exp Stn 26.1 −0.2 29.0 1st 18.5 +0.3 11.7 23rd 334.0 270.4 average 124%
Townsville Aero 27.8 +0.1 29.8 1st 17.5 −0.1 11.6 22nd 7.0 33.0 low 21%
East Central Coast (district 33)
Alva Beach 26.4 −0.8 28.5 1st 17.4 −0.3 12.9 24th 22.6 27.1 average 83%
Ayr DPI Research Stn 27.0 −0.6 28.9 1st 16.0 −0.2 10.0 22nd 6.8 42.7 low 16%
Bowen Airport 26.5 −0.7 28.4 2nd 17.6 −0.5 10.4 17th 2.0 44.4 low 5%
Collinsville Post Office 27.3 −0.3 30.0 2nd 13.1 −0.7 7.6 22nd 2.8 32.4 low 9%
Hamilton Island Airport 23.9   26.8 1st 20.3   17.9 21st 116.4
Mackay Aero 25.3 +0.1 27.4 1st 15.6 +0.1 9.0 17th 33.4 94.2 low 35%
Mackay M.O 23.9 −0.3 26.1 1st 17.2 0.0 12.1 17th 79.8 107.7 average 74%
Proserpine Airport 26.1 −0.5 28.0 3rd 15.1 −0.8 8.2 17th 34.2 72.4 average 47%
Samuel Hill Aero 24.2   26.2 1st 13.9   7.4 17th 81.0
St Lawrence 26.7   28.9 3rd 14.3   9.3 17th 5.8
St Lawrence Post Office 26.8 0.0 29.1 3rd 15.2 +0.1 10.7 17th 5.3 47.8 low 11%
Williamson 26.3   28.5 1st 13.0   7.3 17th 4.6
Woolshed 23.3 −0.9 25.7 20th 13.9 −0.6 5.8 24th 13.0 17.0 average 76%
Yeppoon The Esplanade 23.8 −0.5 26.0 1st 15.8 0.0 10.5 17th 38.4 77.6 low 49%
West Central Coast (district 34)
Charters Towers Airport 26.2 −1.4 28.5 14th 14.7 −0.7 7.2 22nd 19.0 21.3 high 89%
Moranbah Water Treatment Plant 25.9 −0.6 28.6 3rd 12.6 −1.8 9.0 17th 2.6 35.9 low 7%
Central Highlands (district 35)
Brigalow Research Stn 26.0 +0.6 28.3 3rd 11.9 +0.4 8.0 16th 13.9 47.9 low 29%
Clermont Sirius St 25.9 −0.1 28.2 29th 10.6 −0.8 6.0 18th 17.8 35.0 average 51%
Emerald Airport 26.3 −0.1 28.4 29th 12.1 −1.1 9.0 21st 8.8 18.8 average 47%
Rolleston 25.9 −0.2 28.1 5th 10.1 −0.6 5.7 16th 20.7 35.7 average 58%
Springsure Dame St 25.2 −0.2 27.2 30th 11.5 +0.5 6.9 21st 5.4 35.7 low 15%
Tambo Post Office 24.9 −0.1 27.9 2nd 9.2 +1.0 4.9 17th 23.3 34.4 average 68%
Taroom Post Office 25.3 +0.8 27.4 2nd 9.8 +0.1 3.0 16th 20.6 40.6 average 51%
Central Lowlands (district 36)
Barcaldine Post Office 26.4 +0.5 29.1 3rd 13.6 +1.3 9.2 21st 3.1 30.8 average 10%
Blackall Airport 25.6   27.7 10th 11.3   8.0 17th 8.8
Isisford Post Office 26.5 +0.3 28.6 26th 12.2 +1.0 8.0 21st 8.2 28.8 average 28%
Longreach Aero 27.6 +0.6 29.6 4th 12.1 +0.1 6.7 21st 0.2 27.0 low 1%
Upper Western (district 37)
Camooweal Township 28.7 −0.2 31.3 25th 13.4 0.0 7.7 21st 0 11.0 lowest 0%
The Monument Airport 27.1   30.5 26th 12.0   7.8 21st 6.0
Trepell Airport 27.7   30.4 26th 12.8   9.6 21st 6.8
Urandangi 27.3 −0.2 30.0 25th 11.8 −0.2 7.0 23rd 0 12.3 lowest 0%
Winton Airport 28.5   31.2 1st 12.6   7.1 21st 0.8
Winton Post Office 27.7 0.0 30.6 1st 14.1 +1.2 9.1 21st 2.2 20.4 average 11%
Lower Western (district 38)
Birdsville Airport 24.7   29.4 5th 11.2   7.7 15th 9.2
Boulia Airport 26.8 +0.1 29.9 25th 13.3 +0.8 10.5 21st 3.7 13.1 average 28%
Windorah Post Office 25.4 0.0 29.0 26th 12.1 +0.8 8.9 2nd 30.3 18.7 high 162%
Port Curtis South Coast (district 39)
Baralaba Post Office 26.7 +0.1 29.0 3rd 11.7 −0.7 6.0 17th 23.0 41.8 average 55%
Bundaberg Aero 24.3 −0.4 26.2 16th 14.4 +0.2 9.0 16th 83.4 71.2 average 117%
Gayndah Airport 25.0   27.0 8th 10.8   3.3 16th 29.2
Gayndah Post Office 25.5 +0.3 27.8 1st 11.2 +0.8 3.8 16th 38.1 41.0 average 93%
Gladstone Airport 25.4 −0.3 27.7 1st 15.1 −0.5 10.0 17th 9.6 36.0 low 27%
Gladstone Radar 26.0 +0.4 28.2 4th 16.6 −0.4 13.3 16th 10.6 59.6 low 18%
Lady Elliot Island 23.6 −0.5 25.4 1st 18.9 −0.7 12.6 17th 177.4 117.7 high 151%
Monto Township 24.1 −0.1 26.8 3rd 9.1 −1.1 2.8 17th 46.1 45.6 average 101%
Rockhampton Aero 26.4 +0.4 28.9 16th 14.3 +0.1 7.7 17th 10.0 47.6 low 21%
Rundle Island 22.8 −0.8 25.7 23rd 18.9 −0.5 16.1 22nd
Sandy Cape Lighthouse 23.8 −0.3 25.8 2nd 16.9 −0.5 14.4 22nd 168.4 118.3 high 142%
Seventeen Seventy 23.9 −0.3 25.5 15th 16.2 −0.8 13.8 23rd 51.8 110.3 low 47%
Thangool Winston Street 25.6 −1.0 28.0 3rd 10.7 +0.5 4.3 17th 20.0 40.3 average 50%
Moreton South Coast (district 40)
Amberley AMO 23.9 −0.2 26.6 16th 9.4 −0.6 1.8 15th 236.0 54.0 very high 437%
Archerfield Airport 23.5 −0.3 25.8 16th 11.6 −0.3 6.0 15th 237.4 75.7 very high 314%
Beaudesert Drumley Street 23.4   25.9 16th 9.8   2.3 15th 177.4
Beerburrum Forest Station 23.2 −1.0 25.9 16th 12.8 +0.2 8.9 16th 567.8 125.6 highest 452%
Brisbane* 24.0 +0.8 26.2 17th 14.0  +0.7 9.0 16th 240.8 73.7 very high 327%
Brisbane Aero 23.2 −0.4 25.8 16th 13.1 +0.3 7.0 16th 258.0 121.4 high 213%
Cape Moreton Lighthouse 21.7 0.0 23.3 7th 16.6 +0.1 15.0 22nd 203.4 171.4 average 119%
Coolangatta 23.0 0.0 26.3 16th 14.1 −0.1 5.7 16th 229.2 149.9 high 153%
Double Island Point Lighthouse 22.0 −0.3 25.9 14th 17.2 −0.1 15.6 22nd 198.0 147.7 high 134%
Gold Coast Seaway 23.8 +0.4 26.2 17th 15.0 −0.4 11.0 15th 183.4 115.6 high 159%
Gympie 23.1 −1.5 26.0 16th 10.9 +0.1 1.9 16th 79.4 72.1 average 110%
Hervey Bay Airport 23.6 −0.7 25.6 15th 14.1 −0.1 6.7 17th 89.6 106.9 high 84%
Jimna Forestry 19.6   22.5 17th 9.4   2.0 16th 74.4 48.3 high 154%
Kingaroy Airport 21.8   24.4 10th 8.4   −1.0 16th 40.4
Logan City Water Treatment 23.6 −0.4 26.2 17th 12.3 −0.1 6.6 16th 252.8 119.6 high 211%
Maleny Tamarind St 20.2   23.2 16th 11.9   10.0 16th 255.8 143.6 high 178%
Maroochydore Aero 22.8 −0.5 25.2 16th 14.0 +0.3 7.3 16th 282.8 181.5 high 156%
Maryborough 23.9 −0.7 25.8 1st 13.1 +0.1 5.1 16th 108.0 79.1 high 137%
Nambour DPI - Hillside 22.9   25.8 16th 13.8   8.2 16th 200.4
Point Lookout 24.4 +0.7 27.0 16th 16.3 −0.7 11.7 16th 379.6 158.0 very high 240%
Rainbow Beach 22.8 −1.0 24.7 15th       174.1 166.9 average 104%
Redcliffe* 22.8  −0.5 25.4 16th 14.4 −0.3 10.9 15th 262.0 105.6 very high 248%
Tewantin RSL Park 22.6 −1.0 25.8 16th 14.8 −0.1 8.8 16th 216.2 178.4 high 121%
Toolara 23.0 −1.5 26.0 1st 14.3 −0.2 12.1 16th 109.6 103.1 average 106%
University of Queensland Gatton 23.9 +0.2 26.0 8th 10.4 +0.2 3.7 15th 97.0 46.1 high 210%
East Darling Downs (district 41)
Applethorpe 17.5 +0.1 20.0 17th 5.5 −0.8 −2.0 15th 164.0 50.5 very high 325%
Dalby Airport 22.5 −0.9 24.8 4th 8.6 +0.1 1.0 16th 56.6 39.4 high 144%
Goondiwindi Airport 22.8 −0.5 26.0 8th 9.2 +0.6 2.4 1st 68.2 38.9 high 175%
Inglewood Forest 22.3   26.0 8th 9.5   5.7 1st 71.0 30.6 very high 232%
Oakey Aero 21.9 −0.3 24.5 8th 8.4 +0.4 0.0 16th 73.4 41.1 high 179%
Stanthorpe Leslie Parade 18.0 −0.4 21.1 9th 5.1 −0.3 −4.0 15th 139.6 46.8 very high 298%
Texas Post Office 22.8 −0.3 25.7 8th 8.7 +0.8 2.2 16th 98.6 39.7 very high 248%
Toowoomba Airport 19.5 −0.5 21.5 10th 10.0 +0.1 6.2 1st 49.4 33.9 high 146%
Warwick 20.5 −0.8 23.4 17th 8.0 +1.2 −1.5 15th 82.2 41.7 high 197%
West Darling Downs (district 42)
Miles Constance Street 23.6 −0.5 26.1 3rd 9.0 +1.0 0.6 16th 34.0 22.7 high 150%
Maranoa (district 43)
Injune Post Office 24.1 +0.6 26.6 9th 7.0 −0.9 1.6 1st 24.0 33.6 average 71%
Mitchell Post Office 23.9 +0.8 27.0 3rd 7.3 +0.2 1.1 1st 24.6 32.7 average 75%
Roma Airport 23.5 −0.3 26.7 9th 8.5 +0.5 0.9 1st 48.0 37.7 average 127%
St George Airport 23.1 −0.1 26.8 3rd 9.1 +0.2 2.5 1st 62.2 30.5 high 204%
Surat 23.7 +0.2 27.4 12th 8.1 −0.8 1.5 1st 34.0 34.7 average 98%
Warrego (district 44)
Bollon Mary St 23.9 +0.9 26.4 10th 8.8 +0.1 2.9 1st 37.5 32.8 average 114%
Charleville Aero 23.9 +0.7 26.6 4th 9.3 +0.3 4.2 1st 11.6 32.1 average 36%
Cunnamulla Post Office 23.6 +0.7 27.2 26th 10.3 +0.5 5.4 1st 3.8 30.2 low 13%
Far Southwest (district 45)
Ballera Gas Field 24.0   28.2 25th 11.7   7.7 30th 2.0
Quilpie Airport 24.9 +0.9 28.0 26th 11.3 +0.3 5.0 17th 13.0 27.1 average 48%
Thargomindah Airport 23.6   27.5 26th 11.8   6.8 16th 16.0 15.9 average 101%

Notes

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 9 am on Monday 1 June 2009. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Please note that the rainfall data from Bureau of Meteorology telemetry gauges (those with ALERT, AL or TM in their names) includes real-time operational data from automated systems and has not been checked.

Averages are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably. *In this case, averages from a nearby suitable site have been used instead (these are marked with an *). 

The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The temperature anomaly maps are calculated with respect to the reference period 1961−1990. The rainfall decile maps are based on a reference period comprising all gridded analyses from 1900 to the present available at the time the deciles are calculated.

Averages are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.