South Australia in December 2010: Record December rainfall across south-eastern South Australia.

  • Above average rainfall across southern and eastern South Australia from widespread thunderstorm activity and intense rainfall early in the month, with record December rainfall across south-eastern South Australia.
  • Cooler than average temperatures from the cloudy and wetter than average conditions.

Rainfall

Rainfall across the state was highly variable this month. The far west and far north of the state saw only low totals, and near or below average rainfall. The remainder of South Australia had above average rainfall, with a large areas of southern and eastern South Australia having well above average rainfall and totals two to five times average, largely from a widespread severe thunderstorm event in the first week of December. This event broke many daily December rainfall records across this area, and was the main contributor to a large area of south-eastern South Australia having record highest December rainfall totals.

Pastoral Districts

Rainfall over the pastoral districts was near average in the north, tending to be below average in the west. Rainfall totals were in the range 20 to 40 mm generally, tending to the lower end of that range in the west. The east saw some higher totals, with 93.2mm at Gluepot in the Northeast Pastoral district the highest December total in the pastoral areas.

Agricultural Districts

Rainfall totals over most of Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, the Mid North and Upper North, and much of Yorke Peninsula were in the 30- 60mm range, and were above average for December. The remainder of the South Australian agricultural areas had very much above average rainfall, typically in the top 10% of December totals on record, reaching record levels at many locations. Totals associated with this were typically in the 80 to 160mm range. Much of this rainfall occurred in a widespread thunderstorm and rain event around the 7th December 2010. Many stations also had record highest December daily rainfall totals, with a few stations recording their highest daily rainfall total across the whole record. The highest December total was 199.2mm at Birdwood in the Mount Lofty Ranges, also the highest in the state as a whole.

Some sites had their highest total December rainfall on record.
Some sites had their highest total December rainfall for at least 25 years.
Some sites had their lowest total December rainfall for at least 25 years.
Some sites had their highest December daily rainfall on record.
See a map of rainfall deciles.

Temperature

Temperatures this December were generally below average across the state, particularly in the pastoral areas in the northern half of South Australia, though the agricultural areas were near average. Night-time temperatures tended to be slightly warmer than average under cloudy conditions. The cooler conditions were from cloudy conditions associated with the above average rainfall in the first half of the month, which then gave way to a persistent cooler southerly air-stream through the second half. For mean temperature (the average of daytime maximum temperatures and overnight minimum temperatures) across the state as a whole it was 0.5 degrees below average, the coldest December for South Australia since 2001.

Maximum

Mean maximum temperatures over the pastoral districts of the state were generally 1 to 2 degrees below average, with mean maximum temperatures ranging from 29.7C at Yunta Airstrip in the North East district to 34.9C at Oodnadatta Airport in the Far North district. The highest recorded maximum temperature for December was 45.1C at Tarcoola Aerodrome on the 31st of the month.

Over the agricultural areas the mean maximum temperatures were generally within 1 degree of the long-term average. Maximum temperatures for the month as a whole across the agricultural areas ranged from 20.8C at Mount Lofty in the Mount Lofty Ranges to 31.3C at Port Augusta Aerodrome. The lowest recorded maximum temperature for December was 11.3C at Mount Lofty on the 10th of the month, with the hottest day being recorded at Ceduna with 45.6C on the 30th.

Minimum

Mean minimum temperatures over the pastoral districts were generally between 1 to 2C below average, ranging from 13.9C at Gluepot Reserve in the North East District to 20.2C at Oodnadatta in the Far North District. The warmest overnight minimum temperature for December was 29.8C recorded at Oodnadatta Airport in the Far North district on the 30th.

Over the agricultural areas overnight minimum temperatures were generally within 1 degree of average, though tending to be slightly warmer than average. The minimum temperatures in this area ranged from 10.8C at Mount Lofty in the Mount Lofty Ranges to 16.4C at Port Augusta Airport. The lowest recorded daily minimum temperature for December was 0.0C recorded at Karoonda in the Murray Malley district on the 14th.

Some sites had their highest December temperature on record.

 

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Extremes in December 2010
Hottest day 45.6 °C at Ceduna AMO on the 30th
Warmest days on average 34.9 °C at Oodnadatta Airport
Coolest days on average 20.8 °C at Mount Lofty
Coldest day 11.3 °C at Mount Lofty on the 10th
Coldest night 0.0 °C at Karoonda on the 14th
Coolest nights on average 10.8 °C at Mount Gambier Aero
Warmest nights on average 20.2 °C at Oodnadatta Airport
Warmest night 29.8 °C at Oodnadatta Airport on the 30th
Warmest on average overall 27.6 °C at Oodnadatta Airport
Coolest on average overall 16.1 °C at Mount Lofty
Wettest overall 199.2 mm at Birdwood
Highest wind gust 135 km/h at Woomera Aerodrome on the 7th

Record highest December daily rainfall
Highest daily rainfall
in December 2010 (mm)
Previous wettest
for December
Years of
record
Kapunda 85.0 on the 8th 46.7 on the 18th in 1923 128
Angaston 74.0 on the 7th 41.7 on the 28th in 1929 127
Auburn 65.8 on the 8th 50.3 on the 12th in 1917 127
Balaklava 84.2 on the 8th 46.0 on the 12th in 1917 127
Blyth 63.6 on the 8th 62.5 on the 21st in 1921 127
Farrell Flat 89.6 on the 8th 69.3 on the 27th in 1929 127
Greenock 98.8 on the 8th 50.5 on the 28th in 1896 127
Gumeracha 73.4 on the 8th 58.4 on the 27th in 1920 127
Mannum Council Depot 130.0 on the 8th 62.2 on the 25th in 1946 127
Saddleworth 74.8 on the 8th 60.5 on the 17th in 1902 127
Tanunda 94.0 on the 8th 48.5 on the 5th in 1966 127
Marrabel 70.0 on the 8th 50.8 on the 12th in 1917 126
Mount Pleasant 73.6 on the 8th 48.2 on the 1st in 1987 126
Tarlee 109.8 on the 8th 64.8 on the 24th in 1954 126
Williamstown 94.6 on the 8th 45.7 on the 27th in 1920 126
Riverton 90.0 on the 8th 63.0 on the 12th in 2008 125
Hoyleton 74.2 on the 8th 62.0 on the 12th in 2008 124
Lyndoch 86.4 on the 8th 39.9 on the 25th in 1946 124
Birdwood 128.2 on the 8th 62.5 on the 25th in 1948 122
Bute 66.0 on the 8th 35.0 on the 3rd in 1989 119
Manoora 77.0 on the 8th 52.8 on the 12th in 2008 119
Mount Bryan 76.6 on the 8th 57.9 on the 25th in 1946 114
Adelaide (Glen Osmond) 64.8 on the 8th 53.1 on the 23rd in 1913 113
Lameroo Comparison 73.0 on the 8th 60.0 on the 26th in 1999 112
Palmer 86.2 on the 8th 81.0 on the 18th in 1992 110
Sutherlands 87.0 on the 8th 83.1 on the 26th in 1946 110
Mintaro 66.8 on the 8th 54.6 on the 12th in 1917 109
Spalding 53.0 on the 8th 52.3 on the 1st in 1966 109
Gulnare 61.0 on the 8th 50.3 on the 1st in 1966 107
Pinnaroo 64.0 on the 8th 38.4 on the 28th in 1962 107
Smithfield 68.8 on the 8th 45.7 on the 27th in 1920 107
Parilla 79.0 on the 8th 74.0 on the 26th in 1999 98
Karoonda 73.6 on the 8th 57.2 on the 28th in 1929 97
Sandalwood 82.0 on the 8th 36.8 on the 22nd in 1964 97
Whyalla (Mullaquana) 44.8 on the 8th 39.2 on the 12th in 2008 93
Mindarie 85.0 on the 8th 35.6 on the 27th in 1920 92
Paruna 64.6 on the 8th 40.6 on the 22nd in 2000 91
Alawoona 65.0 on the 8th 53.6 on the 31st in 1983 90
Booborowie 71.4 on the 8th 49.0 on the 1st in 1966 84
Gawler Council Depot 72.8 on the 8th 35.6 on the 19th in 1922 84
Purnong (Claypans) 75.0 on the 8th 48.0 on the 28th in 1929 82
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 90.0 on the 8th 28.4 on the 25th in 1964 80
Parafield Airport 51.2 on the 8th 47.0 on the 28th in 1929 63
Stockport (Clifton) 88.2 on the 8th 43.0 on the 12th in 2008 52
Burra Community School 64.0 on the 8th 49.0 on the 18th in 1997 49
Braemar 61.2 on the 8th 45.0 on the 5th in 2003 47
Freeling 96.3 on the 8th 38.5 on the 13th in 2008 47
Nildottie 81.2 on the 8th 32.0 on the 1st in 1987 44
Williamstown (South Para Reservoir) 59.6 on the 2nd 38.6 on the 22nd in 2007 43
Adelaide (Magill Secure Care Centre) 63.0 on the 8th 54.8 on the 14th in 1993 42
Edinburgh RAAF 58.8 on the 8th 35.4 on the 14th in 1993 39
Bolivar Treatment Works 43.4 on the 8th 28.2 on the 14th in 1993 38
Policeman Point 36.8 on the 8th 30.0 on the 13th in 2008 38
Caliph 64.0 on the 8th 42.4 on the 20th in 1992 37
Adelaide (Kent Town) 66.2 on the 8th 37.4 on the 14th in 1993 34
Adelaide (Hope Valley Reservoir) 49.2 on the 8th 47.2 on the 14th in 1993 32
Blackwood (Wittunga) 54.0 on the 8th 42.5 on the 14th in 1993 32
Kensington Upper (Burnside) 67.2 on the 8th 57.2 on the 23rd in 1913 32



Record highest total December rainfall
Total rainfall
for December 2010 (mm)
Previous wettest
for December
Years of
record
Average for
December
Kapunda 132.2 103.1 in 1902 150 26.2
Auburn 140.0 120.8 in 1966 146 28.2
Tanunda 177.4 120.4 in 1875 143 27.3
Saddleworth 139.0 112.1 in 1902 139 26.3
Bridgewater 160.5 148.6 in 1992 135 42.0
Mannum Council Depot 173.0 138.6 in 2004 135 21.3
Riverton 197.0 123.7 in 1902 134 27.3
Hoyleton 109.6 104.2 in 2008 133 24.7
Farrell Flat 141.6 122.4 in 1894 132 25.5
Balaklava 129.2 80.9 in 1894 131 20.9
Williamstown 167.0 115.4 in 1992 131 30.0
Greenock 152.4 94.8 in 2008 130 28.0
Tarlee 183.6 121.0 in 1992 130 26.3
Marrabel 126.0 110.6 in 1992 128 27.5
Bute 96.0 66.7 in 1922 124 20.3
Lyndoch 160.0 107.2 in 1992 124 26.6
Birdwood 199.2 177.8 in 1992 123 33.5
Wolseley 129.6 106.0 in 1894 121 26.6
Manoora 135.4 104.4 in 1992 120 27.2
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 153.7 91.8 in 1992 115 24.4
Smithfield 129.8 109.5 in 1966 113 25.4
Lameroo Comparison 107.8 88.1 in 1962 112 25.0
Pinnaroo 86.0 71.6 in 1992 107 20.8
Gawler Council Depot 118.8 109.7 in 1861 105 23.3
Keith 137.8 78.1 in 1937 105 27.2
Peake 107.9 107.0 in 1929 102 26.9
Parilla 140.6 100.4 in 1937 100 22.2
Karoonda 142.4 103.6 in 1992 97 24.7
Sandalwood 113.5 92.8 in 1937 97 22.4
Mindarie 132.4 84.0 in 1992 96 21.2
Paruna 91.6 87.6 in 1992 92 20.7
Alawoona 112.0 77.0 in 2004 90 20.0
Point Pass 175.4 99.6 in 1946 90 26.4
Booborowie 122.2 99.6 in 1966 86 24.7
Purnong (Claypans) 142.0 87.7 in 1929 84 22.8
Stockport (Clifton) 179.4 98.6 in 1992 52 27.0
Freeling 153.8 90.2 in 1992 48 27.4
Nildottie 148.8 74.4 in 1992 44 22.0
Edinburgh RAAF 127.0 76.4 in 1992 39 25.1
Bolivar Treatment Works 70.0 65.5 in 1992 38 24.8
Policeman Point 111.2 81.8 in 1999 38 28.0
Caliph 129.7 94.8 in 1992 37 21.9
Adelaide (Kent Town) 92.2 72.8 in 1993 34 29.9
Adelaide (Hope Valley Reservoir) 87.0 84.2 in 1993 32 32.1
Kensington Upper (Burnside) 100.6 76.3 in 1913 32 29.9
Coonawarra 114.2 96.0 in 2008 26 39.8

Highest total December rainfall for at least 25 years
Total rainfall
for December 2010 (mm)
Most recent December
at least this wet
Years since
wetter
Average for
December
Two Wells 94.8 105.4 in 1922 88 22.3
Gumeracha 145.2 149.2 in 1922 84 34.8
Adelaide (Glen Osmond) 92.6 101.3 in 1929 81 29.7
Parrakie 97.6 102.6 in 1929 80 24.0
Frances 109.6 129.1 in 1936 74 29.6
Lucindale Post Office 137.8 176.1 in 1937 73 32.4
Paskeville 57.6 80.3 in 1936 68 18.7
Tintinara 101.2 119.7 in 1937 68 26.9
Woodside 113.2 130.0 in 1929 68 32.7
Tailem Bend 75.6 99.9 in 1946 64 26.6
Wallaroo 70.6 71.7 in 1946 64 17.2
Cooke Plains 75.8 120.8 in 1946 63 23.6
Parafield Airport 81.4 99.3 in 1929 62 25.2
Sutherlands 135.6 155.9 in 1946 61 22.3
Finniss 75.4 110.5 in 1946 48 23.0
Mount Bryan 117.8 123.5 in 1966 44 26.5
Burra Community School 99.6 108.4 in 1966 43 27.9
Gulnare 94.6 109.8 in 1966 43 25.4
Meningie 91.6 109.9 in 1966 43 23.8
Robe Comparison 86.4 135.1 in 1966 43 28.5
Adelaide (Pooraka) 67.0 78.5 in 1966 42 25.0
Mintaro 108.0 108.5 in 1966 32 28.4
Adelaide (Morphett Vale) 63.2 64.2 in 1966 25 25.8
Geranium 91.6 117.2 in 1983 25 25.9



Lowest total December rainfall for at least 25 years
Total rainfall
for December 2010 (mm)
Most recent December
at least this dry
Years since
drier
Average for
December
Nullarbor 2.6 2.0 in 1975 26 14.7



Record highest December temperature
Highest temperature
in December 2010 (°C)
Previous warmest
for December
Years of
record
Average for
December
Whyalla Aero 44.5 on the 31st 44.3 on the 30th in 2005 27 28.1



Summary statistics for December 2010
Maximum temperatures
for December
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
for December
(°C)
Rainfall
for December
(millimetres)
Mean for
December
2010
Diff
from
average
Highest for
December
2010
Mean for
December
2010
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
December
2010
Total for
December
2010
Average
for
December
Rank of
December
2010
Fraction of
December
average
Northwest (district 16)
Andamooka 33.0 -1.4 42.8 31st 18.5 -0.9 12.2 20th 28.2 18.9 high 149%
Coober Pedy Airport 32.8   43.0 31st 18.5   12.4 20th 17.4
Ernabella (Pukatja) 32.8   40.5 31st 17.4   10.4 2nd 22.4
Marla Police Station 34.3 -0.7 43.3 7th 18.7 -1.4 12.0 1st 22.4 37.4 average 60%
Nonning 30.2 -1.1 42.9 31st 14.8 -0.1 9.6 20th 21.2 18.5 average 115%
Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome) 32.7   43.1 31st 16.8   10.5 28th 37.2
Tarcoola Aero 33.5   45.1 31st 16.2   8.6 20th 4.6
Woomera Aerodrome 31.6 -0.7 43.1 31st 17.2 -0.4 10.8 20th 26.6 14.3 high 186%
Far North (district 17)
Arkaroola 30.4 -2.2 40.2 31st 15.3 -2.5 10.0 1st 31.5 24.7 average 128%
Leigh Creek Airport 31.6 -1.4 41.8 31st 17.2 -1.4 10.8 20th 31.8 24.2 high 131%
Marree Aero 33.7   43.6 31st 18.7   13.1 20th 25.6
Marree Comparison 34.1 -1.9 43.0 30th 19.2 -0.3 13.4 20th 27.4 16.6 high 165%
Moomba Airport 34.0   41.1 31st 19.7   12.3 21st 20.2
Oodnadatta Airport 34.9 -1.4 44.0 7th 20.2 -1.0 14.4 21st 13.2 17.6 average 75%
Western Agricultural (district 18)
Ceduna AMO 27.5 +0.2 45.6 30th 14.9 +0.9 7.6 22nd 48.8 21.0 high 232%
Cleve 26.6 -0.1 41.5 30th 14.4 +0.4 9.2 16th 41.2 26.0 high 158%
Cleve Aerodrome 26.7   42.3 30th 13.9   9.2 22nd 37.4 23.8 high 157%
Coulta (Coles Point) 25.0   39.5 30th 14.5   9.1 13th 25.0
Cummins Aero 26.9   42.5 30th 13.5   7.6 13th 42.4
Elliston 24.6 +0.1 40.0 30th 14.9 +0.4 9.2 28th 39.8 16.7 high 238%
Kimba 27.9 -1.3 42.8 31st 13.5 -0.4 7.6 16th 40.0 20.1 high 199%
Kyancutta 29.7 -1.1 44.2 30th 13.2 +0.3 7.5 22nd 22.2 21.1 average 105%
Minnipa Pirsa 29.3   43.5 30th 13.7   7.8 21st 21.4
Neptune Island 20.6 +0.1 31.1 4th 15.0 +0.2 12.8 19th 20.4 17.1 average 119%
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 24.2   36.8 14th 14.0   8.9 13th 31.8
Nullarbor 26.9 +0.3 43.9 30th 13.9 -0.2 8.4 28th 2.6 14.7 low 18%
Port Augusta Aero 31.3   45.5 31st 16.4   10.8 11th 36.4
Streaky Bay 26.8 -0.5 42.8 30th 15.7 +0.8 10.7 13th 30.1 14.6 high 206%
Whyalla Aero 28.2 +0.1 44.5 31st 15.5 -0.3 10.3 11th 58.0 23.2 high 250%
Wudinna Aero 30.0   44.4 30th 13.0   6.7 28th 24.0
Upper North (district 19)
Hawker 31.1 -0.7 42.3 31st 15.3 -0.5 9.0 20th 26.4 21.8 high 121%
Yongala 27.7 -0.9 41.0 31st 11.5 0.0 5.2 21st 54.6 24.2 v high 226%
Northeast (district 20)
Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) 29.8   44.2 31st 13.9   7.8 28th 93.2
Yunta Airstrip 29.7   42.5 31st 14.1   6.5 20th 23.2
Lower North (district 21)
Clare High School 25.8   39.5 31st 12.9   7.3 13th 87.0
Port Pirie Aerodrome 29.5   43.0 31st 15.8   10.2 20th 62.0
Port Pirie Nyrstar Comparison 29.5 -0.5 42.2 31st 17.4 +1.1 12.0 20th 34.5 22.8 high 151%
Snowtown (Rayville Park) 29.6   43.4 31st 12.4   6.0 28th 93.4
Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)
Edithburgh 24.3   33.6 14th 14.3   10.0 13th 35.2
Kadina AWS 28.6   41.9 30th 13.8   8.0 28th 68.8
Maitland 26.4 +0.2 40.5 30th 14.9 +1.3 10.5 13th 54.2 23.8 v high 228%
Minlaton Aero 26.6   39.6 30th 14.3   7.6 22nd 31.0
Stenhouse Bay 22.7   38.5 4th 14.7   11.4 19th 25.6
Warooka 24.9 -0.5 36.2 4th 14.0 +0.4 9.2 10th 38.4 17.6 v high 218%
Kangaroo Island (district 22B)
Cape Borda 21.4   33.2 4th 12.9   8.1 22nd 18.6
Cape Willoughby 20.9 +0.3 30.9 4th 14.4 0.0 9.9 20th 38.4 22.9 high 168%
Kingscote Aero 25.0   35.3 4th 12.1   4.1 22nd 24.0
Adelaide Plains (district 23A)
Adelaide (Kent Town) 26.7 -0.3 39.6 30th 16.0 +0.5 11.3 22nd 87.0 28.0 highest 311%
Adelaide Airport 25.9 +0.2 39.2 30th 15.5 +1.0 9.9 22nd 36.8 24.2 high 152%
Edinburgh RAAF 27.0 -0.8 40.5 31st 15.5 +0.8 9.7 22nd 127.0 25.1 highest 506%
Parafield Airport 27.7 +0.1 39.8 30th 15.5 +0.7 10.3 20th 81.4 25.2 v high 323%
Roseworthy AWS 28.7   43.2 31st 13.1   6.7 22nd 61.0
County Light (district 23B)
Nuriootpa Viticultural 25.5   40.0 31st 12.8   8.3 13th 130.6
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 27.2 -1.0 42.0 31st 14.2 +0.8 9.5 13th 153.7 24.4 highest 630%
Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)
Hindmarsh Island AWS 24.7   36.1 31st 14.5   9.0 28th 50.2
Kuitpo Forest Reserve 22.7   35.2 30th 12.6   8.0 20th 86.6
Mount Barker 24.6 -0.4 36.1 30th 11.5 +1.1 5.4 22nd 108.6 35.0 v high 310%
Mount Crawford (Mt Crawford AWS) 23.4   36.6 31st 11.9   7.2 20th 163.8
Mount Lofty 20.8   33.1 30th 11.0   6.2 20th 127.6
Noarlunga 25.5   38.4 30th 15.5   10.9 19th 23.0
Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) 21.3   33.2 4th 12.3   7.6 10th 65.4
Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay) 24.3   36.5 4th 13.2   6.1 22nd 37.6
Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)
Loxton Research Centre 28.8 -0.8 43.6 31st 13.5 +0.5 7.0 27th 28.4 21.3 high 133%
Renmark Aero 29.3   44.4 31st 14.6   9.2 16th 95.4
Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)
Eudunda 26.0 -0.9 40.0 31st 12.5 +0.3 8.2 21st 106.2 26.2 v high 405%
Meningie 24.9 +0.5 37.2 4th 13.6 +0.7 7.0 28th 91.6 23.8 v high 385%
Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) 27.6   41.8 31st 12.3   4.8 28th 77.6
Murray Bridge Comparison 27.9 +0.4 42.4 31st 13.7 +0.5 7.7 28th 74.4 23.6 v high 315%
Strathalbyn Racecourse 25.8   37.3 31st 13.1   6.8 22nd 58.4
Murray Mallee (district 25A)
Karoonda 28.1   43.9 31st 12.1   0.0 14th 142.4 24.7 highest 577%
Upper Southeast (district 25B)
Keith 26.4 -1.2 41.0 31st 12.9 +1.0 6.8 28th 137.8 27.2 highest 507%
Keith (Munkora) 27.4   40.1 31st 11.7   4.6 20th 144.8
Lameroo (Austin Plains) 27.8   43.3 31st 12.5   6.1 20th 110.0
Lameroo Comparison 27.8 -1.1 42.5 31st 13.2 +1.1 7.1 20th 107.8 25.0 highest 431%
Lower Southeast (district 26)
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 22.4   32.6 4th 13.2   6.2 28th 99.8
Coonawarra 24.3 -0.4 36.2 31st 10.9 +0.9 3.0 22nd 114.2 39.8 highest 287%
Mount Gambier Aero 23.2 +0.3 35.0 31st 10.8 +0.9 4.0 22nd 98.6 39.0 v high 253%
Naracoorte Aerodrome 25.6   37.2 4th 11.2   4.5 20th 144.8
Padthaway South 25.1   37.0 31st 11.5   3.9 20th 120.2
Robe Airfield 22.5   32.5 4th 12.8   5.9 28th 85.8
Robe Comparison 21.5 +0.3 30.1 6th 13.7 +1.0 8.1 22nd 86.4 28.5 v high 303%

Notes

A Monthly Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 9 am on Tuesday 4 January 2011. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 20 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
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