Sunday, 30 September 2012 - Monthly Climate Summary for South Australia - Product code IDCKGC13R0
South Australia in September 2012: A warm and dry start to spring
- Below average rainfall across most of the State, with record lowest September rainfall at several locations in the Mount Lofty Ranges.
- Daytime temperatures above average with, with several locations observing record warmest daily September maximum and minimum temperatures.
- Cool nights across central and eastern districts.
In 2012, across the State as a whole, South Australia received less than a quarter of the long term average September rainfall. Apart from far northern parts of the State where rainfall was average, most locations received below average rainfall throughout the month, with large parts observing very much below average rainfall. The wettest period for much of the State occurred between the 5th and 7th as a deep low pressure system that tracked eastwards across ocean waters produced squally showers and isolated thunderstorms across southern parts of South Australia. The passage of cold frontal system on the 13th brought rainfall totals of between 1 to 5 mm for southern parts of the State. Despite this, most of South Australia remained relatively dry up until the 28th when a large cloud band and trough of low pressure produced showers and isolated thunderstorms across southern and eastern districts.
See a map of rainfall deciles.
Rainfall totals over the pastoral districts were mostly below average tending to very much below average across southern parts of the pastorals. Rainfall totals were typically between 1 and 5mm, though Woomera Aerodrome reported no rainfall for the month, making September 2012 the second driest September in 64 years of observations. Several other locations across the Northwest and Far North recording no rainfall for September 2012, though not unusual for this time of year across northern parts of South Australia.
The wettest period for the pastoral districts was on September 28 and 29 as a cloud band and trough of low pressure which produced showers and isolated thunderstorms contracted to the northeast of the State. The wettest overall throughout the pastorals was at Gluepot Reserve in the Northeast district with 8.2 mm for the month.
Below average was observed across the agricultural districts with very much below average rainfall through the western agricultural, the upper north, parts of the Murray Valley and the southeast districts.
Totals were in the range of 20 to 30mm for most locations, but tending to higher totals of between 40 to 60mm across the Mount Lofty Ranges and the southeast districts of the State. Despite this, several locations across the Mount Lofty Ranges observed record lowest September rainfall total. The wettest overall for the month in the agricultural districts was Kuitpo Forest Reserve in the southern parts of the Mount Lofty Ranges with 85.4 mm.Some sites had their lowest total September rainfall on record. Some sites had their lowest total September rainfall for at least 25 years.
The mean temperature (the average of the maximum and minimum temperatures) for South Australia as a whole in September 2012 was 1.7 °C above the long-term average, the highest since 2008. By contrast, September 2011 was 1.3 °C above average. Mean temperatures across the State ranged from 10.2°C at Mount Lofty to 19.9°C at Oodnadatta Airport in the Far North.
Mean maximum temperatures over South Australia were above average across the entire State this September and the highest since September 2007. Several locations across northern parts of the agricultural districts and into the pastoral districts were in excess of 2.0°C above the long term September average. Southern parts of the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas, central districts and the Murray Valley observed daytime temperature average in excess of 1.0 °C above normal, elsewhere maximum temperatures were within 1.0 °C above average.
See a map of maximum temperature anomalies.
The warmest period for much of the state occurred on the 27th in the northerly air stream ahead of the strong cold front. Much of the State observed maximum temperatures well above average with several locations observing a record highest September maximums since observations began. The warmest day for any location was recorded was at Cooper Pedy Airport, reaching 39.4°C on the 27th, the warmest September day at this location since records began in 1996.
Some sites had their highest September temperature on record.
Earlier in the month, on the 7th, a strong cold front brought daytime temperatures to well below average for many locations around the State; Mount Lofty recorded the coldest for any location when its maximum temperature reached just 8.3°C.
Average daily maximum temperatures ranged from 13.9°C at Mount Lofty to 28.7°C at Moomba Airport in the Northeast district, resulting the warmest September at this site since 2003.
Mean minimum temperatures over South Australia were slightly above average across the entire State as a whole this September. The coolest parts of the State, with respect to overnight temperatures, was through the Central and into Pastoral districts where minimum temperatures tended below 1°C cooler than normal. Night time temperatures tended above normal across the western half of the State.
See a map of minimum temperature anomalies.
The warmest nights for many locations occurred between the 26th and 28th in the warm north-westerly air-stream ahead of an approaching cold frontal system. Arkaroola reported the warmest night for any location on the 27th with a minimum of 24.6°C, while Hawker observed a record warmest September overnight minimum with 23.5 °C. In 39 years of observations, the previous warmest September night at Hawker occurred on September 12, 2009 when 22.9 °C was observed.
The warmest nights on average were observed at Neptune Island with 11.7°C. The coolest nights on average were observed at Yongala with 3.6°C.
The coldest night for any location around the State was observed at Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) where the temperature fell to -1.9°C on the 25th.Some sites had their warmest September night (highest daily minimum temperature) on record.
|Extremes in September 2012|
|Hottest day||39.4 °C at Coober Pedy Airport on the 27th|
|Warmest days on average||28.7 °C at Moomba Airport|
|Coolest days on average||13.9 °C at Mount Lofty|
|Coldest day||8.3 °C at Mount Lofty on the 7th|
|Coldest night||-1.9 °C at Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) on the 25th|
|Coolest nights on average||3.6 °C at Yongala|
|Warmest nights on average||11.7 °C at Neptune Island|
|Warmest night||24.6 °C at Arkaroola on the 27th|
|Warmest on average overall||19.9 °C at Oodnadatta Airport|
|Coolest on average overall||10.2 °C at Mount Lofty|
|Wettest overall||85.4 mm at Kuitpo Forest Reserve|
0 mm at Leigh Creek (North Moolooloo)|
0 mm at Moomba Airport
0 mm at Tarcoola Aero
0 mm at Woomera Aerodrome
|Wettest day||32.0 mm at Piccadilly (Woodhouse) on the 7th|
|Highest wind gust||119 km/h at Cape Borda on the 5th|
|Record lowest total September rainfall|
for September 2012 (mm)
|Balaklava||5.4||= 5.4||in 1918||132||40.1|
|Adelaide (Tea Tree Gully Council)||4.9||14.7||in 1951||127||68.0|
|Woomera Aerodrome||0.0||= 0.0||in 2006||64||14.7|
|Loxton Research Centre||3.8||5.8||in 2008||29||26.0|
|Heathfield Works Depot||41.4||42.4||in 2008||28||111.0|
|Lowest total September rainfall for at least 25 years|
for September 2012 (mm)
Most recent September
at least this dry
|Tailem Bend||7.9||5.1||in 1944||68||38.0|
|Mannum Council Depot||5.2||3.8||in 1951*||59||29.7|
|Langhorne Creek||15.4||10.4||in 1981||31||39.3|
|Port Vincent||10.6||9.0||in 1981*||28||39.3|
|Adelaide (Hope Valley Reservoir)||24.2||23.2||in 1987||25||63.7|
|Adelaide (Pooraka)||12.8||12.4||in 1987||25||48.1|
|Blackwood (Wittunga)||29.6||27.6||in 1987||25||74.1|
|Mount Gambier Aero||51.0||27.4||in 1987||25||72.6|
* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported.
|Record highest September temperature|
in September 2012 (°C)
|Woomera Aerodrome||38.6||on the 27th||37.9||on the 30th in 1998||64||22.6|
|Andamooka||39.0||on the 27th||38.4||on the 30th in 1998||43||24.6|
|Hawker||36.3||on the 27th||34.5||on the 24th in 1990||39||21.6|
|Leigh Creek Airport||37.7||on the 27th||37.1||on the 22nd in 2003||29||23.2|
|Record highest September daily minimum temperature|
Highest daily minimum
in September 2012 (°C)
|Hawker||23.5||on the 27th||22.9||on the 12th in 2009||39||6.8|
|Nullarbor||19.3||on the 22nd||19.0||on the 29th in 2001||25||7.9|
|Summary statistics for September 2012|
|Northwest (district 16)|
|Coober Pedy Airport||27.1||39.4||27th||10.9||4.2||1st||0.2|
|Marla Police Station||28.3||+1.5||38.0||27th||9.4||-1.3||2.5||9th||0.8||10.5||low||8%|
|Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome)||26.2||38.5||27th||7.6||-1.1||1st||0.4|
|Far North (district 17)|
|Leigh Creek Airport||25.2||+2.0||37.7||27th||9.0||-0.3||3.2||10th||0.4||18.3||v low||2%|
|Western Agricultural (district 18)|
|Coulta (Coles Point)||19.0||+0.7||27.7||22nd||8.8||0.0||3.8||10th||26.8|
|North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS)||19.2||+0.6||27.8||26th||7.4||-0.6||3.5||10th||32.8|
|Port Augusta Aero||25.3||36.8||27th||7.3||0.0||1st||5.0|
|Upper North (district 19)|
|Northeast (district 20)|
|Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot)||23.9||35.1||27th||6.0||-1.7||10th||8.2|
|Lower North (district 21)|
|Clare High School||18.2||26.8||27th||5.2||0.3||1st||25.8|
|Port Pirie Aerodrome||22.7||32.2||27th||6.3||-0.6||1st||12.6|
|Snowtown (Rayville Park)||21.6||30.6||27th||4.7||-1.8||1st||18.8|
|Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)|
|Kangaroo Island (district 22B)|
|Parndana Cfs AWS||16.3||22.7||26th||6.8||2.8||29th||46.0|
|Adelaide Plains (district 23A)|
|Adelaide (Kent Town)||19.9||+0.9||28.2||27th||9.8||+0.1||5.3||1st||21.8||60.3||v low||36%|
|County Light (district 23B)|
|Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre)||19.9||+1.6||29.5||27th||6.5||-0.1||-0.5||1st||37.3||53.4||average||70%|
|Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)|
|Kuitpo Forest Reserve||16.5||24.6||27th||7.8||3.1||29th||85.4|
|Mount Crawford (Mt Crawford AWS)||15.7||24.5||27th||7.3||3.0||29th||43.2|
|Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS)||15.0||22.2||27th||7.9||3.5||29th||47.4|
|Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay)||18.6||26.8||4th||6.7||1.9||25th||58.2|
|Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)|
|Loxton Research Centre||22.6||+1.9||32.1||27th||6.7||+0.4||0.6||10th||3.8||26.0||lowest||15%|
|Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)|
|Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome)||20.5||29.6||26th||5.0||-1.9||25th||11.6|
|Murray Bridge Comparison||21.3||+1.5||30.4||27th||6.9||-0.3||1.0||25th||18.4||36.6||low||50%|
|Murray Mallee (district 25A)|
|Upper Southeast (district 25B)|
|Lameroo (Austin Plains)||20.0||29.3||27th||5.1||-0.8||25th||17.4|
|Lower Southeast (district 26)|
|Cape Jaffa (The Limestone)||15.9||-0.2||21.6||26th||7.6||-0.9||2.9||25th||37.4|
|Mount Gambier Aero||16.7||+0.9||23.2||4th||6.4||+0.1||0.4||19th||51.0||72.6||low||70%|
A Monthly Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.
This statement has been prepared based on information available at 5 pm on Sunday 30 September 2012. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.
Averages are long-term means based on observations from
all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site.
They are not shown for sites with less than 20 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.
The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site,
based on the
(very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3,
average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9
and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.