Wednesday, 31 October 2012 - Monthly Climate Summary for South Australia - Product code IDCKGC23R0
Throughout October 2012, across the State as a whole, South Australia received only about one-sixth of the long term average October rainfall, making it the State's fifth driest October since records begin in 1900. Apart from a few coastal locations where rainfall was near average, most locations received below average rainfall throughout the month, with large parts observing very much below average rainfall. The dry conditions are owing to the dominance of high pressure systems affecting the State throughout the month. The wettest period for much of the State occurred between the 10th and 11th as a high pressure system located in the Great Australian Bight directed a cold southerly air stream over South Australia.
Despite the generally dry and warm conditions during the month, a strong cold frontal system and associated cold air mass moved over the south of the State mid -month resulting in snow falls and hail in several locations about the Mt Lofty and Flinders Ranges, including Mt Lofty, Lobethal, Gumeracha, Mt Remarkable, Hallett, and Mt Bryan. Scattered showers and thunderstorms were also observed across southern agricultural districts, which extended into the upper north. The passage of the cold frontal system brought rainfall totals of between 10 to 30 mm for southern parts of the State. The remainder of the month saw only low rainfall totals across much of the state.
See a map of rainfall deciles.
Rainfall totals over the pastoral districts were mostly below average tending to very much below average across the Upper North and Northeast areas. Rainfall totals were typically between 1 and 5mm, though Oodnadatta Airport reported no rainfall for the month making October 2012 the driest October since 2007. Several other locations across the Northwest and Far North recording no rainfall for October 2012, though this is not unusual for this time of year across northern parts of South Australia.
The wettest period for the pastoral districts was on October 10th and 11th as a cold frontal system and low pressure trough produced showers and isolated thunderstorms as it contracted to the northeast of the State. The wettest overall throughout the pastorals was at Leigh Creek (North Moolooloo) in the Far North district with 6.2 mm for the month.
Below average rainfall was observed across the agricultural districts with very much below average rainfall through the western agricultural areas.
Totals were in the range of 10 to 20mm for most locations, but tending to higher totals of between 30 to 40mm across the Mount Lofty Ranges and the southeast districts of the State. The wettest overall for the month in the agricultural districts was at Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) in the southern parts of the Mount Lofty Ranges with 43.6 mm.Some sites had their lowest total October rainfall on record. Some sites had their lowest total October rainfall for at least 25 years.
The mean temperature (the average of the maximum and minimum temperatures) for South Australia as a whole in October 2012 was 1.4 °C above the long-term average, the highest since 2008. By contrast, October 2011 was 0.9 °C above average. Mean temperatures across the State ranged from 12.4°C at Mount Lofty to 24.3°C at Oodnadatta Airport in the Far North.
Mean maximum temperatures over South Australia were above average across the entire State this October and the highest since October 2008. Several locations across northern parts of the agricultural districts and into the pastoral districts were in excess of 2.0°C above the long term October average. Southern parts of the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas, central districts and the Murray Valley observed daytime temperature averages in excess of 1.0 °C above normal, elsewhere maximum temperatures were within 1.0 °C above average. See a map of maximum temperature anomalies
Average daily maximum temperatures ranged from 17.3 °C at Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) to 33.0°C at Moomba Airport in the Northeast district.
The warmest day for any location was recorded at Oodnadatta Airport, reaching 42.2°C on the 18th, the warmest October day at this location since October 27, 2007. However the warmest period with respect to daytime temperatures for much of the state occurred at the end of the month in the northerly air stream ahead of low pressure trough. This resulted in above average maximum temperatures for most locations on the 30th.
Earlier in the month, on the 10th and 11th a cold air mass brought daytime temperatures to well below average for many locations around the State; Mount Lofty recorded the coldest for any location when its maximum temperature reached just 7.8°C.
Some sites had their coldest October day (lowest maximum temperature) on record. .
Mean minimum temperatures over South Australia were slightly above average across the entire State as a whole this October. The coldest parts of the State with respect to overnight temperatures was through the central and eastern districts where minimum temperatures tended below 1°C cooler than normal. See a map of minimum temperature anomalies.
Night time temperatures tended above normal across the far western half of the State. Moomba Airport reported the warmest night for any location on the 21st with a minimum of 24.6°C.
The warmest nights for many locations around the State occurred between the 23rd and 24th in the warm north-westerly air-stream ahead of an approaching low pressure trough.
The warmest nights on average were observed at Oodnadatta Airport with 16.1°C. The coolest nights on average were observed at Mount Lofty with 12.4°C.
The coldest nights for much of the State was on the 11th and 12th although, the coldest night for any location around the State was observed at Keith (Munkora) where the temperature fell to -1.3°C on the 28th.Some sites had their coldest October day (lowest maximum temperature) on record.
|Extremes in October 2012|
|Hottest day||42.2 °C at Oodnadatta Airport on the 18th|
|Warmest days on average||33.0 °C at Moomba Airport|
|Coolest days on average||17.3 °C at Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS)|
|Coldest day||7.8 °C at Mount Lofty on the 11th|
|Coldest night||-1.3 °C at Keith (Munkora) on the 28th|
|Coolest nights on average||4.6 °C at Keith (Munkora)|
|Warmest nights on average||16.1 °C at Oodnadatta Airport|
|Warmest night||27.0 °C at Moomba Airport on the 21st|
|Warmest on average overall||24.3 °C at Oodnadatta Airport|
|Coolest on average overall||12.4 °C at Mount Lofty|
|Wettest overall||43.6 mm at Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS)|
0 mm at Oodnadatta Airport|
0 mm at Pedler Ck at Moana (Nrm)
0 mm at Tarcoola Aero
|Wettest day||29.0 mm at Kuitpo Forest Reserve on the 11th|
|Highest wind gust||111 km/h at Neptune Island on the 11th|
|Record lowest total October rainfall|
for October 2012 (mm)
|Oodnadatta Airport||0.0||= 0.0||in 2007||64||13.9|
|Lowest total October rainfall for at least 25 years|
for October 2012 (mm)
Most recent October
at least this dry
* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported.
|Record lowest October daily maximum temperature|
Lowest daily maximum
in October 2012 (°C)
|Whyalla Aero||13.5||on the 11th||14.5||on the 22nd in 1985||28||23.7|
|Summary statistics for October 2012|
|Northwest (district 16)|
|Coober Pedy Airport||30.6||39.9||23rd||14.7||5.9||12th||1.4|
|Marla Police Station||32.4||+2.7||41.7||23rd||14.8||+0.5||5.2||3rd||1.4||20.8||low||7%|
|Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome)||30.2||38.2||20th||12.0||2.6||13th||0.4|
|Far North (district 17)|
|Leigh Creek Airport||29.2||+2.6||37.7||20th||12.6||+0.2||3.0||12th||3.4||18.6||low||18%|
|Western Agricultural (district 18)|
|Ceduna AMO||26.1||+2.3||38.7||30th||10.4||+0.5||2.5||12th||1.4||25.3||v low||6%|
|Coulta (Coles Point)||22.2||+1.4||33.0||23rd||8.9||-1.3||1.5||12th||9.4|
|North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS)||22.0||+1.5||36.2||30th||8.6||-1.0||2.9||17th||10.4|
|Port Augusta Aero||28.1||37.4||30th||11.5||6.0||3rd||6.8|
|Upper North (district 19)|
|Northeast (district 20)|
|Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot)||26.4||35.3||30th||7.3||1.6||13th||4.3|
|Lower North (district 21)|
|Clare High School||22.7||32.2||30th||7.4||0.4||13th||23.6|
|Port Pirie Aerodrome||25.8||35.2||30th||9.2||2.9||12th||14.4|
|Snowtown (Rayville Park)||25.8||35.2||30th||6.6||0.3||13th||7.8|
|Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)|
|Kangaroo Island (district 22B)|
|Parndana Cfs AWS||18.8||29.1||30th||7.5||3.7||7th||24.8|
|Adelaide Plains (district 23A)|
|Adelaide (Kent Town)||23.1||+1.3||33.9||30th||10.7||-0.8||4.9||11th||20.0||43.8||low||46%|
|County Light (district 23B)|
|Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre)||23.8||+2.0||35.2||30th||7.5||-0.8||0.0||7th||17.4||44.0||low||40%|
|Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)|
|Hindmarsh Island AWS||20.9||33.7||30th||10.7||5.6||12th||21.2|
|Kuitpo Forest Reserve||19.3||29.9||30th||9.1||2.7||11th||40.0|
|Mount Crawford (Mt Crawford AWS)||19.5||30.5||30th||8.4||1.1||11th||5.6|
|Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS)||17.3||28.0||30th||8.8||2.9||12th||43.6|
|Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay)||20.5||33.4||30th||7.9||3.6||3rd||23.0|
|Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)|
|Loxton Research Centre||25.2||+1.2||34.6||30th||7.4||-1.0||2.8||17th||7.0||26.1||low||27%|
|Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)|
|Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome)||23.6||35.4||30th||6.4||0.2||7th||20.6|
|Murray Bridge Comparison||24.1||+1.4||35.7||30th||8.7||-0.3||3.5||7th||23.0||33.9||average||68%|
|Murray Mallee (district 25A)|
|Upper Southeast (district 25B)|
|Lameroo (Austin Plains)||23.9||34.4||30th||6.4||0.9||7th||9.0|
|Lameroo Comparison||23.7||+1.2||34.0||30th||8.2||+0.4||2.0||7th||8.4||36.9||v low||23%|
|Lower Southeast (district 26)|
|Cape Jaffa (The Limestone)||18.2||-0.3||29.7||30th||8.8||-0.3||3.7||28th||34.4|
|Mount Gambier Aero||18.6||+0.7||32.1||30th||6.7||-0.4||1.2||9th||31.4||61.0||low||51%|
A Monthly Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.
This statement has been prepared based on information available at 12 pm on Wednesday 31 October 2012. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.
Averages are long-term means based on observations from
all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site.
They are not shown for sites with less than 20 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.
The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site,
based on the
(very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3,
average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9
and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.