South Australia in April 2013: Warm days and warm nights with average rainfall

  • Warmest April, with respect to daytime temperatures, for South Australia since 2005 and sixth warmest on record.
  • Warm nights for most of the State, cooler nights across parts of the eastern districts.
  • Rainfall tending average to above average across southern districts but drier than normal in the north and the lower southeast.

Rainfall

Rainfall totals were average to below average across South Australia through April 2013, as high pressure systems dominated the weather across the State throughout the month. Through the early part of April, weak low pressure troughs delivered only small rainfall totals across coastal areas. The wettest period occurred during the latter half of the month as a series of vigorous cold fronts resulted in moderate to high totals that were mainly concentrated about southern areas of the State.

The growing season, for crop farming in agricultural districts, is typically viewed as starting in April, often with a significant rain event occurring towards the end of April as the break to the season. This year, a low pressure trough followed by a cold frontal system that moved across the State during the third week of the month saw rainfall totals of 25mm or greater in a 3 day period across the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas, parts of the Mount Lofty Ranges and across Kangaroo Island, but other areas did not see a definite break to the growing season occur in April 2013.

See a map of rainfall deciles.

Pastoral Districts

Rainfall across the pastoral districts was mainly below above average, with totals generally ranging between 5 to 20 mm. However some locations south of Marree received monthly totals in excess of 60 mm, owing mostly to the passage of a low pressure trough which produced severe thunderstorms in the early part of the month. Blinman in the southern parts of the Far North pastoral observed the wettest day for any location in the State, with a record highest 55.8 mm in the 24 hours 9am on the 7th. Leigh Creek (Pfitzners Well) was the wettest across the pastoral with a monthly total 67.6 mm, 32 mm of which was also reported from thunderstorms in the early part of the month.

Some sites had their highest April daily rainfall on record.

Agricultural Districts

Rainfall across the agricultural areas remained below average for the first half of the month; a series of cold frontal systems in the last 2 weeks increased totals for much of the Far west, the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas, the Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges and parts of the Murray Valley. Rainfall totals typically ranged between 10 to 30 mm, with higher values in the 40 to 60mm range about coastal and elevated locations. The wettest days occurred between the 21st and 24th and on the 29th of the month. Uraidla recorded the highest rainfall total for the month in the State with 73.4 mm, nearly half of which was observed in the 24 hours to 9am on the 22nd.

Some sites had their highest total April rainfall for at least 25 years.
Some sites had their lowest total April rainfall for at least 25 years.

Temperature

The average temperature (the average of the daily maximum and daily minimum temperatures) for South Australia as a whole throughout April 2013 was 1.2 C above the long-term average, the warmest April since 2010. By way of contrast, April 2012 saw temperatures average up to 0.7 C above normal.

Maximum Temperature

Maximum temperatures for the month were above average across the entire State, with Pastoral areas seeing daytime temperatures 2 to 3 C warmer than usual. April daytime temperatures averaged across the State as a whole were the warmest since 2005 and the sixth warmest on record. Maximum temperatures ranged from 18.0 C at Mount Lofty to 31.0C at Marree Comparison in the Northeast pastoral district. The hottest day of the month for any location was observed at Ceduna AMO on the 12th where the maximum temperature reached 35.5 C. Mount Lofty had the coldest day on the 21st with an observed maximum of 12.1C.

See a map of maximum temperature anomalies.

Minimum Temperature

Overnight minimum temperatures were widely above average across South Australia throughout April 2013, with some locations in the western parts, the Upper North and the Adelaide region observing minimum temperatures close to 2 C above normal. Despite this, some locations near the eastern border and the lower southeast observed cooler than normal nights. The warmest period for most locations occurred between the 12th and 13th as a high pressure system located in the Tasman Sea maintained fine weather over most of South Australia. Coolest nights were observed on the 20th and 21st as a cool and moist west to southwesterly airstream, in the wake of a low pressure trough, moved through the State.

Night time minimum temperatures across South Australia ranged from 7.7C at Coonawarra and Naracoorte Aerodrome in the south-east of the state to 16.4 C on Neptune Island. Moomba Airport recorded the warmest night of the month with a minimum of 23.6C on the 15th, while Naracoorte Aerodrome observed the coldest night of the month on the 20th with a minimum temperature of -3.0 C.

See a map of minimum temperature anomalies.

Further information

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Extremes in April 2013
Hottest day 35.5 °C at Ceduna AMO on the 12th
Warmest days on average 31.0 °C at Marree Comparison
Coolest days on average 18.0 °C at Mount Lofty
Coldest day 12.1 °C at Mount Lofty on the 21st
Coldest night -3.0 °C at Naracoorte Aerodrome on the 20th
Coolest nights on average 7.7 °C at Coonawarra
7.7 °C at Naracoorte Aerodrome
Warmest nights on average 16.4 °C at Neptune Island
Warmest night 23.6 °C at Moomba Airport on the 15th
Warmest on average overall 22.8 °C at Moomba Airport
22.8 °C at Oodnadatta Airport
Coolest on average overall 13.9 °C at Mount Lofty
Wettest overall 73.4 mm at Uraidla
Driest overall 0 mm at Ernabella (Pukatja)
Wettest day 55.8 mm at Blinman on the 7th
Highest wind gust 91 km/h at Neptune Island on the 21st

Record highest April daily rainfall
Highest daily rainfall
in April 2013 (mm)
Previous wettest
for April
Years of
record
Blinman 55.8 on the 7th 50.8 on the 4th in 1891 130
Cowell (Winter Springs) 27.2 on the 29th 21.0 on the 12th in 1998 44



Highest total April rainfall for at least 25 years
Total rainfall
for April 2013 (mm)
Most recent April
at least this wet
Years since
wetter
Average for
April
Penong 46.4 120.8 in 1983* 29 22.4

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.




Lowest total April rainfall for at least 25 years
Total rainfall
for April 2013 (mm)
Most recent April
at least this dry
Years since
drier
Average for
April
Port Elliot Caravan Park 2.0 0.0 in 1923 90 39.9




Summary statistics for April 2013
Maximum temperatures
for April
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
for April
(°C)
Rainfall
for April
(millimetres)
Mean for
April
2013
Diff
from
average
Highest for
April
2013
Mean for
April
2013
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
April
2013
Total for
April
2013
Average
for
April
Rank of
April
2013
Fraction of
April
average
Northwest (district 16)
Andamooka 29.0 +1.7 33.4 6th 15.8 +1.8 10.6 27th 2.2 14.8 average 15%
Coober Pedy Airport 28.7   33.7 14th 15.8   11.0 22nd 5.6
Ernabella (Pukatja) 28.2   31.5 14th 12.9   9.3 25th 0
Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome) 28.9   33.4 8th 13.4   7.1 26th 2.6
Tarcoola Aero 28.6   33.9 8th 13.6   6.7 22nd 3.2
Woomera Aerodrome 27.5 +2.0 32.5 13th 14.9 +1.8 10.0 21st 10.2 11.4 high 89%
Far North (district 17)
Arkaroola 26.8 +1.6 31.5 14th 10.7 -0.4 4.8 20th 17.8 14.5 high 123%
Leigh Creek Airport 28.0 +1.8 32.6 6th 13.4 +0.5 9.0 23rd 5.6 13.1 average 43%
Marree Aero 29.8   33.8 9th 14.2   8.8 28th 2.8
Marree Comparison 31.0 +2.5 35.0 10th     0.0 29th 3.4 10.7 average 32%
Moomba Airport 30.6   33.9 8th 14.9   9.5 20th 0.6
Oodnadatta Airport 30.8 +2.3 34.5 14th 14.9 +0.5 10.0 27th 0.2 10.9 low 2%
Western Agricultural (district 18)
Ceduna AMO 25.7 +1.5 35.5 12th 12.2 +1.5 8.2 10th 36.6 19.4 high 189%
Cleve 23.4 +0.7 32.7 12th 13.5 +1.2 9.4 23rd 39.8 28.5 high 140%
Cleve Aerodrome 23.5   33.1 12th 13.1   9.7 23rd 34.8 24.9 high 140%
Coulta (Coles Point) 23.8 +1.6 30.1 11th 12.8 +1.0 7.1 17th 21.0
Cummins Aero 24.3   33.1 12th 11.4   6.0 17th 31.0
Elliston 23.7 +1.4 30.5 12th 13.0 +0.8 9.2 17th 42.1 27.5 high 153%
Kimba 24.8 +0.8 32.0 12th 12.3 +1.1 7.8 24th 36.4 22.4 high 163%
Kyancutta 26.9 +1.6 34.7 12th 11.0 +1.5 6.2 17th 19.4 19.3 average 101%
Minnipa Pirsa 25.4   33.5 12th 13.0   9.2 17th 25.8
Neptune Island 20.9 +1.4 24.0 27th 16.4 +1.4 14.2 16th 28.2 31.2 average 90%
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 23.5 +1.4 34.5 12th 13.0 +0.9 8.0 17th 16.8
Nullarbor 25.9 +1.1 35.3 12th 12.8 +1.2 7.3 17th 53.6 22.4 high 239%
Port Augusta Aero 27.2   34.3 12th 13.9   8.4 22nd 16.8
Streaky Bay 25.8 +2.1 33.5 13th 14.2 +1.4 9.2 25th 26.9 24.0 average 112%
Whyalla Aero 24.8 +0.9 33.2 12th 12.8 +1.1 9.1 5th 13.0 19.3 average 67%
Wudinna Aero 26.4   34.4 12th 11.0   5.9 17th 19.4
Upper North (district 19)
Hawker 26.5 +1.0 31.8 8th 12.7 +1.7 7.0 22nd 9.0 19.4 average 46%
Yongala 23.5 +1.5 30.5 12th 9.3 +2.1 4.6 20th 26.6 24.6 average 108%
Northeast (district 20)
Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) 25.5   32.0 13th 9.3   -1.0 20th 18.0
Yunta Airstrip 25.3   31.3 7th 10.5   1.3 20th 10.8
Lower North (district 21)
Clare High School 22.8   30.0 12th 10.3   5.5 26th 26.2
Port Pirie Aerodrome 25.8   33.0 12th 13.2   8.3 17th 19.1
Snowtown (Rayville Park) 24.9   32.4 6th 10.6   6.1 17th 20.8
Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)
Edithburgh 21.8 +0.7 27.2 27th 14.3 +1.4 9.7 26th 28.6 24.1 average 119%
Kadina AWS 24.9   32.8 12th 10.9   5.5 16th 39.0
Maitland 23.5 +1.0 31.7 12th 13.5 +0.9 10.5 16th 33.2 43.4 average 76%
Minlaton Aero 23.9   31.9 12th 12.3   8.7 16th 28.8
Stenhouse Bay 21.7   29.9 12th 15.3   13.7 21st 31.8
Warooka 23.0 +1.0 30.8 6th 13.8 +1.3 11.4 17th 19.8 32.7 average 61%
Kangaroo Island (district 22B)
Cape Borda 20.9   26.3 10th 12.7   8.5 17th 53.0
Cape Willoughby 19.7 +0.6 26.4 12th 15.1 +0.9 11.5 22nd 37.2 39.5 average 94%
Kingscote Aero 22.4   29.1 6th 9.0   4.0 17th 38.0 26.9 high 141%
Parndana Cfs AWS 21.5   28.8 12th 10.4   5.5 17th 63.8
Adelaide Plains (district 23A)
Adelaide (Kent Town) 23.8 +1.1 32.1 12th 13.3 +0.9 9.1 20th 33.2 39.6 average 84%
Adelaide Airport 23.3 +1.1 31.3 12th 12.5 +0.7 7.5 20th 30.6 35.1 average 87%
Edinburgh RAAF 23.9 +0.9 32.0 12th 12.4 +0.7 6.9 20th 33.4 30.8 average 108%
Parafield Airport 24.3 +1.6 32.1 12th 12.5 +0.7 6.5 20th 36.4 39.1 average 93%
Roseworthy AWS 24.4   33.0 12th 10.7   3.8 16th 34.4
County Light (district 23B)
Nuriootpa Viticultural 22.6   30.9 12th 10.7   6.4 5th 36.0
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 24.1 +1.0 32.4 12th 11.3 +0.6 4.2 16th 40.9 36.5 average 112%
Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)
Hindmarsh Island AWS 21.6   31.4 12th 12.7   7.6 20th 26.6
Kuitpo Forest Reserve 20.1   28.5 12th 11.6   6.9 19th 31.4
Mount Barker 21.0 +0.5 30.0 12th 10.3 +2.0 5.6 17th 30.7 58.3 low 53%
Mount Crawford (Mt Crawford AWS) 20.2   28.6 12th 10.7   5.7 20th 54.4
Mount Lofty 18.0   25.8 12th 9.8   4.3 19th 67.4
Noarlunga 22.7   30.5 12th 14.1   10.0 16th 30.0
Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) 19.0   26.7 6th 11.8   7.8 20th 72.2
Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay) 21.5   31.1 12th 10.8   5.1 17th 43.2
Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)
Loxton Research Centre 24.6 +0.7 31.8 6th 9.3 +0.9 -0.5 20th 17.8 16.0 average 111%
Renmark Aero 25.0   32.6 12th 9.1   -1.2 20th 18.2
Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)
Eudunda 22.6 +1.2 30.0 12th 11.0 +1.2 5.4 20th 34.2 32.8 average 104%
Meningie 22.3 +0.6 30.7 12th 10.9 +0.1 5.3 20th 46.4 37.6 average 123%
Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) 23.9   32.9 12th 9.9   1.6 20th 15.6
Murray Bridge Comparison 24.7 +1.2 33.0 6th 11.0 +0.7 5.8 20th 23.0 28.7 average 80%
Strathalbyn Racecourse 22.5   31.9 12th 11.4   5.3 20th 23.8
Murray Mallee (district 25A)
Karoonda 24.1   32.0 7th 10.0   2.0 20th 18.6 24.3 average 77%
Upper Southeast (district 25B)
Keith 23.5 +1.0 31.9 6th 9.3 0.0 1.5 20th 12.0 32.7 low 37%
Keith (Munkora) 23.6   32.0 6th 7.8   -1.8 19th 10.0
Lameroo (Austin Plains) 23.6   31.3 6th 9.5   2.9 20th 12.0
Lameroo Comparison 24.2 +1.3 31.5 12th 10.5 +1.5 3.5 20th 15.2 27.0 average 56%
Lower Southeast (district 26)
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 20.6 +0.7 27.1 12th 11.4 +0.8 3.5 20th 37.0
Coonawarra 21.8 +0.8 30.4 6th 7.7 0.0 -1.1 20th 27.0 35.6 average 76%
Mount Gambier Aero 20.7 +1.2 29.5 6th 9.0 +0.3 1.8 20th 40.0 54.7 average 73%
Naracoorte Aerodrome 22.4   30.8 6th 7.7   -3.0 20th 15.0
Padthaway South 22.5   30.8 6th 7.9   -1.6 20th 16.4
Robe Airfield 20.7   26.6 12th 9.1   1.7 20th 31.6
Robe Comparison 19.8 +1.0 24.5 12th 11.9 +0.4 5.0 20th 25.9 46.1 low 56%

Notes

A Monthly Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 9 am on Wednesday 1 May 2013. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 20 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

The ACORN-SAT dataset is being used for temperature area averages from December 2012 onwards. The major change from earlier datasets is that the ACORN-SAT dataset commences in 1910, rather than 1950, and hence rankings are calculated using a larger set of years.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries