Greater Melbourne in August 2019: some cold days and nights

August rainfall was near average at most locations across Greater Melbourne. Daytime temperatures were cooler than average at all reporting sites, while night-time temperatures were mostly close to average

Near average rainfall

  • August rainfall was near average at most location across Greater Melbourne
  • Cold frontal systems and southerly airstream delivered the most precipitation, with heaviest falls between the 8th and 12th, and between the 19th and 22nd
  • At Olympic Park, the count of 16 rain days for the month was close to the city's long-term average
  • With 162.6 mm, Toolangi (in the northeast of Greater Melbourne) was the wettest location this month
  • Year-to-date rainfall was generally below average

Some cold days and nights

  • For the month as a whole, days were colder than average at all reporting sites; nights were mixed with most sites around 0.5 °C warmer or cooler than average, with some sites close to the average
  • During first part of August daytime temperatures were generally cooler than average; second part of the month saw a mixture of warmer and cooler than average daytime temperatures
  • The coldest day of the month was the 9th, when most sites in Greater Melbourne reported daytime temperature below 10 °C
  • The coldest daytime temperature recorded this August was 4.3 °C at Ferny Creek on the 9th
  • The month started with warmer than average nights, and finished with cooler nights
  • The coldest nights were generally on the 10th, the 23rd and the 30th; the coldest night-time temperature recorded this month in the Melbourne metropolitan area was -1.1 °C at Coldstream on the 23rd
  • Year-to-date mean maximum temperatures was highest on record at most reporting sites

Strong winds and snow

  • The strongest wind gusts during August were recorded on the 9th, with gusts of 111 km/h reported at South Channel Island; gale force winds caused high waves in Port Phillip Bay, with reports that the end of Frankston Pier snapped off due to turbulent weather
  • Extensive snowfall was reported on Dandenong ranges on the 10th and 11th, with snow reported below 400 m
  • Melbourne (Olympic Park)

    • Total rainfall for Melbourne (Olympic Park) was 51.4 mm
    • The mean daily maximum temperature for Melbourne (Olympic Park) was 14.5 °C. The warmest day was 19.4 °C on the 18th, and the coolest day was on the 9th when the temperature reached 10.1 °C
    • The mean daily minimum temperature for Melbourne (Olympic Park) was 7.4 °C. The coldest morning was 2.3 °C on the 30th, and the warmest morning was on the 21st when the minimum temperature was 11.5 °C

Further information

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Extremes in August 2019
Hottest day 20.6 °C at Moorabbin Airport on the 18th
Warmest days on average 14.5 °C at Melbourne (Olympic Park)
Coolest days on average 9.9 °C at Ferny Creek
Coldest day 4.3 °C at Ferny Creek on the 9th
Coldest night -1.1 °C at Coldstream on the 23rd
Coolest nights on average 3.5 °C at Wallan (Kilmore Gap)
Warmest nights on average 7.4 °C at Melbourne (Olympic Park)
Warmest night 11.5 °C at Cerberus on the 16th and at Melbourne (Olympic Park) on the 21st
Warmest on average overall 10.9 °C at Melbourne (Olympic Park)
Coolest on average overall 6.7 °C at Wallan (Kilmore Gap)
Wettest overall 162.6 mm at Toolangi (Mount St Leonard DPI)
Wettest day 42.0 mm at Toolangi (Mount St Leonard DPI) on the 27th
Strongest wind gust 111 km/h at South Channel Island on the 9th


Summary statistics for August 2019

Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
August
2019
Diff
from
average
Highest for
August
2019
Mean for
August
2019
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
August
2019
Total for
August
2019
Average
for
August
Rank of
August
2019
Fraction of
August
average
Cerberus 13.9 -0.7 19.4 18th 7.1 +0.5 1.1 30th 111.4 76.4 high 146%
Coldstream 13.6 -1.1 19.1 18th 4.1 -0.2 -1.1 23rd 92.8 70.5 high 132%
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens 13.9 -0.7 19.5 18th 6.5 +0.1 2.7 11th 121.0 81.7 v high 148%
Essendon Airport 14.3 -0.1 18.0 24th 6.2 +0.5 1.6 30th 58.0 48.0 average 121%
Ferny Creek 9.9   15.6 18th 4.1   0.2 10th 138.6


Laverton RAAF 14.3 -0.6 19.6 24th 6.1 +0.5 0.3 30th 51.2 43.9 high 117%
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 14.5   19.4 18th 7.4   2.3 30th 51.4


Melbourne Airport 14.1 -0.3 18.0 18th 5.5 -0.4 0.2 30th 46.8 43.8 average 107%
Moorabbin Airport 14.2 -0.7 20.6 18th 7.1 +0.2 1.0 30th 69.8 65.0 average 107%
Scoresby Research Institute 13.9 -0.4 19.5 18th 6.0 -0.3 0.3 30th 86.8 79.9 average 109%
Viewbank 14.0 -1.1 19.4 18th 5.9 -0.4 -0.1 30th 79.6 56.1 high 142%
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 10.0 -0.6 14.0 30th 3.5 -0.7 0.2 11th 68.2 61.7 average 111%

Daily maximum temperatures for August 2019

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
Cerberus 13.9 12.7 13.8 14.1 15.1 13.3 12.6 12.4 9.6 12.3 13.3 11.8 12.6 13.2 16.2 15.3 16.2 19.4 11.5 13.5 14.6 13.1 15.2 17.8 12.5 13.6 15.3 12.5 12.5 13.5 17.6
Coldstream 11.3 12.3 12.6 10.7 14.1 12.6 14.5 12.9 9.3 11.6 10.5 12.0 10.8 12.9 15.6 15.3 15.7 19.1 11.4 13.5 15.8 12.5 14.5 17.7 13.0 14.6 15.3 13.0 13.1 16.0 17.2
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens 12.8 12.5 13.0 13.2 14.8 12.9 12.5 12.3 7.9 12.0
12.4 12.0 13.4 16.7 16.3 17.0 19.5 11.8 14.4 15.8 12.5 16.0 15.4 12.9 14.4 15.2 12.4 12.3 14.9 18.5
Essendon Airport 13.3 12.9 13.5 12.8 15.2 12.8 14.6 13.3 10.0 12.7 13.3 12.5 12.9 13.6 15.6 17.0 15.5 17.8 12.3 16.1 16.2 13.0 14.8 18.0 13.1 13.9 15.8 12.4 12.9 16.3 17.9
Ferny Creek 8.8 8.6 8.1 8.1 10.5 9.1 9.2 9.1 4.3 6.1 9.0 7.7 7.8 8.8 12.3 11.9 13.1 15.6 7.9 9.7 12.0 8.9 11.1 13.9 8.9 10.2 11.3 8.8 8.8 13.5 13.9
Laverton RAAF 13.5 12.8 13.5 13.2 15.3 13.8 13.5 13.1 9.6 12.8 12.7 12.6 13.4 13.6 16.5 16.3 15.1 17.6 11.8 15.9 16.2 13.2 16.2 19.6 13.5 14.7 16.1 12.6 12.1 13.3 18.0
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 13.8 12.7 13.9 13.1 15.8 13.5 14.1 13.9 10.1 12.5 12.9 12.0 13.1 13.8 16.2 16.9 16.5 19.4 12.3 17.0 16.6 13.0 15.1 18.0 12.9 14.4 15.3 13.4 13.0 15.3 18.2
Melbourne Airport 12.8 12.5 13.2 13.0 15.0 12.7 14.6 13.2 9.2 12.3 12.2 12.4 12.8 14.0 15.9 16.4 15.6 18.0 11.8 16.1 15.7 12.9 15.3 17.9 13.7 14.0 15.4 12.2 12.1 15.7 17.6
Moorabbin Airport 13.6 12.9 13.3 13.1 15.7 13.5 12.3 12.9 9.3 12.1 13.1 11.9 13.0 13.7 17.0 16.2 16.0 20.6 12.1 15.1 15.8 13.4 16.0 17.9 13.4 13.6 15.2 13.5 13.2 14.2 17.8
Scoresby Research Institute 13.3 12.6 13.0 12.1 14.4 12.4 13.6 13.0 8.6 11.4 12.8 11.9 12.6 13.5
16.1 15.7 19.5 11.8 14.9 15.7 13.6 15.2 18.1 12.7 14.1 15.5 12.6 12.8 15.8 17.4
Viewbank 12.7 12.0 13.4 12.1 14.7 12.7 14.6 13.1 9.3 12.2 12.9 11.7 12.5 13.1 15.5 15.6 15.6 19.4 12.2 15.6 16.5 12.3 15.3 17.5 13.0 14.3 16.1 12.8 12.8 16.4 17.6
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 7.9 8.5 9.5 8.4 10.3 9.7 9.9 9.3 7.3 8.6 8.7 9.5 9.1 8.7 10.3 10.2 11.9 12.6 7.9 10.3 12.2 8.7 9.4 13.9 9.4 10.7 11.9 8.6 8.7 14.0 13.2
Values are the maximum temperature, usually in the 24 hours from 9 am on the day indicated,
and typically occurred in the afternoon of that day.
Temperatures coloured according to their difference
from the long-term average for the period
-10.0 -9.0 -8.0 -7.0 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 +1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0 +6.0 +7.0 +8.0 +9.0 +10.0 °C Grey outline marks highest
and lowest for the period


Daily minimum temperatures for August 2019

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
Cerberus 5.2 8.7 9.6 7.7 8.3 9.9 9.1 6.8 6.9 5.7 4.8 8.3 8.6 8.8 6.5 11.5 8.1 6.3 5.7 6.5 10.4 9.6 3.1 9.0 6.7 5.2 5.9 6.8 7.7 1.1 2.9
Coldstream 4.6 5.9 8.2 6.9 7.0 2.4 8.3 5.4 6.8 -0.3 3.5 3.8 5.4 6.7 0.0 10.5 4.1 3.8 5.0 3.2 10.1 8.2 -1.1 5.1 3.7 1.5 -0.3 1.2 0.2 -0.6 -0.9
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens 6.0 7.8 8.5
8.2 8.8 8.9 5.9 6.4 5.5 2.7 6.4 7.9 8.0 5.8 11.1 6.2 8.0 5.4 5.6 10.4 7.9
7.6 5.8 4.6 4.0 6.6 3.7 2.9 3.2
Essendon Airport 7.2 8.5 9.8 8.0 8.6 8.0 8.2 5.4 7.0 2.9 3.9 5.7 7.6 8.3 6.7 8.9 4.6 7.8 4.5 7.1 10.8 8.3 2.2 7.1 4.1 2.7 2.1 6.5 4.5 1.6 3.6
Ferny Creek 4.4 5.3 5.4 5.0 5.2 6.2 6.3 2.8 3.3 0.2 0.4 1.5 4.3 5.9 4.8 8.0 4.0 7.2 1.5 2.3 6.4 4.8 2.3 5.5 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.9 2.6 1.3 5.4
Laverton RAAF 6.7 8.7 9.2 7.1 8.3 8.6 8.6 5.3 7.1 1.7 4.0 6.3 6.3 8.5 7.4 9.9 5.8 8.4 4.0 6.5 11.3 9.0 1.3 7.8 3.2 2.3 3.6 5.8 4.6 0.3 3.0
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 5.8 9.7 10.0 9.2 10.0 9.1 9.3 6.7 7.8 5.2 4.8 6.3 8.8 9.1 7.3 10.6 7.0 8.8 5.8 7.6 11.5 9.6 3.8 7.9 6.5 5.3 4.2 8.3 6.1 2.3 5.0
Melbourne Airport 7.5 7.5 9.2 6.4 6.7 6.9 7.3 5.0 6.4 1.7 3.4 5.2 6.8 8.2 6.4 8.0 4.1 7.4 4.2 5.9 10.6 7.9 1.7 6.5 3.0 2.6 2.7 4.9 3.3 0.2 4.0
Moorabbin Airport 5.9 9.7 9.1 8.5 9.3 9.5 9.5 6.5 7.5 5.5 4.8 6.4 8.9 9.1 5.7 11.0 7.8 8.5 5.7 7.1 11.3 9.8 3.5 8.0 7.2 4.8 4.3 7.5 4.7 1.0 2.8
Scoresby Research Institute 3.4 8.2 8.3 8.3 8.6 9.0 9.3 5.9 6.9 1.7 3.8 4.8 7.7 8.3 6.9 10.7 5.5 6.5 5.0 6.4 10.7 8.5 2.1 6.9 4.5 3.9 2.4 6.1 2.2 0.3 4.0
Viewbank 3.5 8.7 9.4 8.1 9.1 8.7 8.7 5.8 7.4 2.2 3.8 5.1 7.8 8.6 5.2 10.8 4.4 7.8 5.1 6.8 11.0 8.6 1.3 5.4 4.9 3.6 1.8 4.7 3.2 -0.1 1.6
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 3.7 4.8 5.7 5.5 4.5 2.9 4.5 2.5 3.4 0.4 0.2 1.4 4.4 5.7 2.5 4.1 2.9 5.3 1.6 3.7 4.5 5.6 2.4 3.2 2.4 3.2 4.5 4.7 2.0 2.0 3.6
Values are the minimum temperature, usually in the 24 hours to 9 am on the day indicated,
and typically occurred that morning.
Temperatures coloured according to their difference
from the long-term average for the period
-10.0 -9.0 -8.0 -7.0 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 +1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0 +6.0 +7.0 +8.0 +9.0 +10.0 °C Grey outline marks highest
and lowest for the period


Daily rainfall for August 2019

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
Bonbeach (Carrum) - - - - - - - 17.0 7.8 - - 27.0 - - - - - - 10.0 - 3.0 - - - - 4.0 - - 9.0 -
Bullengarook East 0.2 - - 1.8 0.6 - - 14.2 13.4 1.8 13.4 19.0 - - - - 2.0 - 9.6 ? 1.4 1.6 - 0.2 - 1.6 - - 6.8 -
Bundoora (Latrobe University) ? ? ? ? ? 2.0 ? ? 14.2 ? ? 29.6 0.2 - ? 0.4 ? ? 9.6 ? ? ? 2.6 ? ? ? 3.6



Burnside - - - 0.6 - 0.4 - 12.4 2.6 5.6 6.0 8.0 - 1.8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6.0 - -
Cape Schanck 0.8 1.0 0.4 4.4 - - 0.8 10.8 8.8 18.4 9.6 3.6 11.0 2.4 - - - - 12.2 7.8 4.6 1.8 - - 3.0 4.4
7.6


Cerberus - 1.4 0.2 2.0 - - 0.8 10.4 11.8 19.8 11.2 1.4 2.2 2.8 - 0.6 2.2 - 11.4 3.2 3.6 4.2 - - 4.8 7.6 0.4 - 9.4 - -
Cheltenham Kingston Centre - 1.0 0.2 1.4 - - - 8.6 2.0 4.2 12.0 2.8 0.4 0.2 - - 3.6 0.2 2.8 - 0.8 5.2 - - 2.2 0.2 - - 5.4 - -
Coldstream - 0.2 0.2 3.0 1.0 0.4 1.0 16.8 2.4 5.4 12.6 3.0 1.0 2.0 0.2 - 8.6 - 5.0 1.8 3.4 10.0 - 0.2 6.0 0.4 0.2 - 7.8 - 0.2
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens - 0.9 0.2 2.8 - - 0.8 ? 17.8 22.0 18.4 3.0 1.2 0.6 - - 5.6 - 8.6 1.4 2.8 8.2 - - 3.4 0.5 - - 9.8 - -
Essendon Airport - 0.2 - 1.0 - - - 12.4 3.2 4.4 5.6 13.0 - 0.2 - - 3.6 - 4.0 0.4 - 1.8 0.2 - 0.6 - - - 7.2 - 0.2
Ferny Creek - 1.2 1.6 6.8 0.4 - 0.2 18.8 7.6 10.6 17.0 15.8 7.4 3.6 - 0.6 8.8 0.2 6.2 0.2 5.4 9.6 0.4 - 4.8 0.4 - - 10.8 0.2 -
Greenvale Reservoir
0.4 - 0.6 0.2
0.4 11.6
2.8 5.6 10.8 - 0.2 - -
0.2 4.6
1.4 0.8 1.0

1.8


- -
Kinglake West - 1.6 0.6 3.8 - 0.6 - 16.2 12.0 8.4 ? 41.4 - - ? ? 12.8 - - 0.8 0.8 11.2 - - 3.6





Kinglake West (Wallaby Creek) - 2.0 0.2 2.4 0.6
0.4 18.6
4.6 9.8 32.4 1.6 2.6 0.2 - 6.2 0.2 11.2 0.2 2.2 4.2 0.2

-
- 11.8 - -
Lancefield - - - 0.8 - - - 12.2 16.0 1.6 5.4 7.0 - - - 1.0 3.6 - 8.4 - 2.2 1.8 - - - - - - 6.4 - -
Laverton RAAF - - - 0.6 - 0.2 - 12.0 4.0 6.2 4.0 9.6 - 2.0 - - 1.6 - 3.8 0.6 - 0.4 - - 1.0 - - 0.2 4.8 - 0.2
Main Ridge ? 2.6 - - - ? 5.2 13.2 19.0 23.0 12.2 - 23.2 2.4 ? 3.2 - - 13.0 7.0 - - ? 7.0 7.4 6.8 - - 8.4 -
Melbourne (Olympic Park) - 0.4 - 1.0 - 0.4 - 10.8 2.0 4.2 6.0 8.8 - 0.2 - - 3.8 - 4.0 0.4 0.2 1.6 - - 1.2 - - - 6.2 0.2 -
Melbourne Airport - 0.2 - 0.4 - - - 12.0 3.0 3.4 7.4 6.4 - 0.2 - - 2.4 0.2 3.6 0.2 - 0.6 - - 0.4 - - - 6.2 0.2 -
Melbourne Botanical Gardens - 0.6 0.2 1.2 0.2 - 0.6 12.6 2.2 4.8 6.8 14.4 - 0.4 - 0.4 4.0 0.1 4.4 0.4 0.2 1.6 - 0.6 1.2 - - - 7.4

Mitcham - 1.0 - 3.0 0.4
0.2 14.6
3.0 16.0 10.4 1.4 0.6 - 0.2 8.2 - 6.4 1.2 2.4 8.2 -

-
- 12.0 - -
Moorabbin Airport - 0.6 - 1.8 - - 0.2 13.0 5.0 5.4 13.6 2.0 0.2 - - 0.4 3.4 - 5.6 0.6 0.4 6.4 - 0.2 1.6 - - - 9.4 - -
Mount Waverley (Riversdale Golf Club) - - 1.2 1.7 0.4 - - 12.0 2.0 4.0 11.6 11.4 1.2 1.0 - - 5.4 - 5.0 1.4 1.5 3.5 1.3 - 2.0 - - - 8.6 - -
Newham (Cobaw) - - - - - - - 14.2 18.4 1.4 9.0 2.0 - - - 0.6 4.2 ? 10.0 - 3.6 3.0 - - - - - - 5.8 - -
Oakleigh (Metropolitan Golf Club) - - ? 4.2 - - - 12.8 3.4 ? 16.0 8.0 - - 1.0 - ? ? 12.3 - - 6.6 - - - - - - 10.8 -
Preston Reservoir - 1.0 - 0.8 -
0.4 13.4
3.0 8.8 16.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 - 6.4 - 4.4 0.4 - 0.2 0.2

-
- 9.2 - -
Rosebud (Country Club) ? 2.0 ? 1.8 - - ? 15.0 12.6 10.5 16.2 2.2 8.2 4.4 - - 1.8 - 11.6 4.0 5.6 - - ? ? 9.4 - - 7.6

Scoresby Research Institute - 0.6 0.4 2.0 - 0.2 - 13.0 4.6 8.6 9.6 5.2 2.0 1.4 - - 7.0 0.2 6.6 - 1.8 8.8 - - 4.8 0.6 - - 9.2 0.2 -
Springvale (Sandown) - 0.4 1.8 0.8 - 0.2 4.0 10.8 2.8 6.0 8.8 1.2 0.4 0.2 - 4.2 - 5.2 - - 0.8 6.6 - 2.4 0.2 - - - 10.0 - -
Springvale Necropolis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Toolangi (Mount St Leonard DPI) - - - - - - - 27.6 13.8 - - - 38.6 7.4 - - - - - - 22.0 - - - - - 42.0 - 11.2

Toorourrong Reservoir (Toorourrong) - 1.0 0.2 0.6 0.2
- 15.0
2.4 7.6 21.0 0.4 1.4 - - 5.4 - 9.2 - 1.2 1.2 0.2

-
- 7.6 - -
Upper Plenty - 1.2 - 0.8 0.2 0.6 - 13.2 9.6 2.2 7.2 19.8 0.4 0.8 - 0.2 5.2 0.4 5.2 0.4 1.6 2.8 - - - 0.2 - - 7.4 - -
Viewbank - 1.0 - 1.4 - - 0.4 14.2 3.0 6.2 7.4 13.0 0.2 0.2 - 0.4 6.2 - 5.8 1.8 0.8 3.0 - - 5.0 - - - 9.4 0.2 -
Wallan - 1.0 ? 0.6 - 0.2 - - 8.0 1.8 - 9.8 0.2 - - 3.6 7.4 - 4.4 0.4 - - - - - - 6.8



Wallan (Kilmore Gap) - 1.0 - 1.0 - 1.0 - 12.2 8.2 1.4 5.8 13.8 - 3.8 - 0.2 4.8 0.2 4.4 0.2 0.2 1.4 - - - 0.2 - - 8.0 0.2 0.2
Warburton (O'Shannassy Reservoir (Quarte - 0.2 -
0.2
1.4 22.0
14.0 33.0 4.2 1.8 1.2 - 0.8 20.6 - 20.4 1.0 4.4 11.2 0.4

2.4
- 11.2 - -
Willowmavin (Avalon Station) 0.2 0.2 - 0.2 - - 0.4 14.2 14.4 2.0 4.4 4.8 - 0.2 - 0.4 1.8 - 7.8 0.2 1.6 0.6 - - - 0.8 0.2 0.2 5.2 0.2 -
Woodend - 1.0 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.4 - 12.6 13.0 1.2 11.6 10.2 0.4 0.2 - 1.8 0.8 0.2 9.6 0.8 2.2 2.0 0.2 - 1.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 7.0 0.1
Yan Yean 0.2 1.2 - 1.0 -
0.6 11.4
3.6 10.2 21.4 0.2 1.2 - - 7.8 0.2 4.0 1.2 3.0 1.2 0.2

0.2
- 7.6 0.2 -
Yarra River @ Warrandyte
-
2.6
-
12.0 2.6 5.2 11.6 12.4 0.6 0.6 0.2 - 7.8 - 5.0 2.2 0.8 5.8

4.0


8.0

Most values are the precipitation in the 24 hours to 9 am on the day indicated. Days marked with ? are part of a longer accumulation, which is shown on the final day.
Values over 100 mm have been rounded to the nearest whole millimetre.
Days marked with - have a rainfall report of zero; days left blank have no rainfall report (which often indicates no rain fell).
Rainfalls coloured
according to the amount
0 1.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 25.0 50.0 100 150 200 300 400 600 millimetres

Notes

The Monthly climate summary, generally published on the first working day of each month, lists the main features of the weather in Greater Melbourne using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This summary includes data from observing sites in or near the Greater Melbourne “Greater Capital City Statistical Area” (GCCSA). The Australian Bureau of Statistics designed the GCCSAs to “include the population within the urban area of the city, as well as people who regularly socialise, shop or work within the city, and live in small towns and rural areas surrounding the city. It is important to note that GCCSAs do not define the built up edge of the city. They provide a stable definition for these cities and are designed for the output of a range of social and economic survey data.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 7 pm on Monday 2 September 2019. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the rainfall is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

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