Victoria in October 2021: wetter than average in the south

October was wetter than average in much of southern Victoria. Daytime temperatures were close to average across most of the state, while night-time temperatures were warmer than average in the state's south-east and below average in much of the west.

Wetter than average in the south

  • It was wetter than average month in much of southern Victoria.
  • Averaged across the state, October rainfall total was about 10% above the mean of 64.6 mm.
  • A complex low pressure system and an associated low pressure trough that crossed the state at the end of September, resulted in widespread rainfall across Victoria on 1st October, with daily totals at many sites exceeding 30 mm.
  • The highest daily rainfall total recorded in Victoria this October was 105.8 mm at Haines Junction (Mount Sabine) on the 1st.
  • Some sites had their highest October daily rainfall on record on the 1st.
  • Mid-month, a complex low pressure system and a low-pressure trough brought severe thunderstorms, strong winds, and widespread, locally heavy rainfall.
  • A cold front that crossed Victoria on the 22nd resulted in light to moderate falls over the central and southern parts of the state, while a cold front and the associated low pressure system which developed over western Victoria on the 28th brought damaging winds, severe thunderstorms, hail and showers.
  • With 288.9 mm, the wettest place in Victoria this October was Haines Junction (Mount Sabine).
  • Some sites had their highest total October rainfall on record, or their highest total October rainfall for at least 20 years.
  • Victoria's cool season (April to October) rainfall total was around 2% below average.

Close to average temperatures overall

  • Daytime temperatures were close to average across most of the state away from Victoria's south-west and parts of the Gippsland and North-east districts.
  • Averaged across the state, the mean maximum temperature was 0.43 °C below the October average, the lowest since 2016.
  • There were several warm days, notably on the 9th, 21st, 22nd, 27th and 28th due to a northerly airflow ahead of the approaching cold fronts.
  • The highest daily maximum temperature recorded in Victoria this month was 33.9 °C at Ouyen PO and Walpeup Research on the 28th.
  • Night-time temperatures were warmer than average in the state's south-east and below average in much of the west.
  • Victoria's mean minimum temperature was 0.10 °C below average, the lowest since 2016.
  • There were some cool nights scattered throughout the month; the lowest daily minimum temperature in the state this October was −6.0 °C, recorded at Falls Creek on the 25th.

Thunderstorms, hail and strong winds

  • Large accumulations of small hail were observed on the 14th across north-west Victoria as a cold front and associated thunderstorms crossed the state.
  • Traralgon received 40.6 mm of rain on the 14th, with 20 mm falling in a 30-minute period; a minor flood warning was issued for Traralgon Creek.
  • Damaging winds affected Victoria on the 28th and 29th due to a low pressure system and the associated cold front; the strongest wind gust of 146 km/h was recorded at Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse on the 29th; Victoria's State Emergency Service received more than 2000 calls for help, mostly for fallen trees and building damage, and parts of Victoria were left without power.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057

Extremes in October 2021
Hottest day 33.9 °C at Ouyen (Post Office) on the 28th
33.9 °C at Walpeup Research on the 28th
Warmest days on average 24.5 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest days on average 6.0 °C at Mount Hotham
Coldest day -0.1 °C at Mount Hotham on the 5th
Coldest night -6.0 °C at Falls Creek on the 25th
Coolest nights on average -0.1 °C at Mount Hotham
Warmest nights on average 11.6 °C at Gabo Island Lighthouse
Warmest night 18.7 °C at Mildura Airport on the 28th
18.7 °C at Mount Nowa Nowa on the 29th
Warmest on average overall 16.9 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest on average overall 2.8 °C at Mount Hotham
Wettest overall 288.9 mm at Haines Junction (Mount Sabine)
Wettest day 105.8 mm at Haines Junction (Mount Sabine) on the 1st
Strongest wind gust 146 km/h at Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse on the 29th

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record highest October daily rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Coleraine Hospital 62.0 on the 29th 46.6 on the 23rd in 1985 123
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) 42.2 on the 1st 33.6 on the 20th in 1989 38
Balook 55.4 on the 1st 32.6 on the 28th in 2020 23
Boonah 43.0 on the 1st 35.6 on the 7th in 2010 21
Traralgon EPA 40.6 on the 15th 24.0 on the 16th in 2010 21
Benwerrin 85.0 on the 1st 29.4 on the 9th in 2020 20
Haines Junction (Mount Sabine) 105.8 on the 1st 60.8 on the 27th in 2004 20
Lorne (Mount Cowley) 100.6 on the 1st 40.8 on the 27th in 2004 20



Record highest October total rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
October
Portland (Cashmore Airport) 131.6 126.4 in 2020 40 63.4
Coldstream 161.6 135.6 in 2010 28 69.3
Rhyll 104.8 103.8 in 2010 28 61.0
Traralgon EPA 116.6 94.0 in 2001 21 58.0
Barwon Heads Golf Club 118.6 116.4 in 2010 20 50.1
Benwerrin 225.6 201.4 in 2016 20 77.7
Boonah 165.6 162.2 in 2001 20 75.8
Haines Junction (Mount Sabine) 288.9 230.6 in 2001 20 113.4
Lorne (Mount Cowley) 275.0 214.4 in 2016 20 109.6
Mount Baw Baw 275.2 242.2 in 2016 20 147.5

Highest October total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
higher
Average for
October
Bairnsdale Airport 99.0 123.0 in 1995 60.8
Dargo 131.3 133.2 in 1993* 77.5
Wycheproof 64.6 125.0 in 1992* 37.4
Buln Buln 164.4 168.9 in 1998* 105.2
Coleraine Hospital 94.5 102.8 in 2000 58.0
Maffra 98.8 175.6 in 1995* 48.5
Rosebud (Country Club) 120.4 127.6 in 2000 69.5
Great Western (Seppelt) 79.0 82.4 in 1998* 51.1
Warrambine Ck at Warrambine 125.6 130.6 in 1975* 47.5
Wickliffe 95.4 103.6 in 2001 54.7

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported




Record lowest October daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
October
Mount Nowa Nowa 9.0 on the 10th 9.4 on the 11th in 2012 26 19.2
Orbost 11.6 on the 10th = 11.6 on the 10th in 2003 21 20.0



Summary statistics for October 2021
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
October
2021
Diff
from
average
Highest for
October
2021
Mean for
October
2021
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
October
2021
Total for
October
2021
Average
for
October
Rank of
October
2021
Fraction of
October
average
North Mallee (district 76)
Mildura Airport 24.5 +0.3 33.0 28th 9.2 -0.7 3.9 12th 15.2 28.5 average 53%
Ouyen (Post Office) 23.8 -0.1 33.9 28th 8.4 -0.5 3.5 11th 31.5 34.0 average 93%
Walpeup Research 24.0 +0.6 33.9 28th 7.9 -1.0 1.1 11th 28.6 32.5 average 88%
South Mallee (district 77)
Hopetoun Airport 22.9 -1.9 33.6 28th 6.4 -1.1 0.3 30th 31.2 24.1 average 129%
Swan Hill Aerodrome 22.8 -1.6 33.6 28th 7.8 -0.3 3.2 11th 26.2 22.4 average 117%
North Wimmera (district 78)
Kellalac (Warracknabeal Airport) 21.6   31.6 28th 5.6   1.0 11th 33.6
Nhill Aerodrome 20.4 -2.2 29.5 27th 6.6 -0.8 1.0 11th 57.0 31.5 high 181%
South Wimmera (district 79)
Edenhope Airport 18.5 -2.2 28.4 27th 6.9 -0.8 1.0 11th 53.0 37.3 average 142%
Grampians (Mount William) 10.6 -2.3 19.4 27th 2.8 -1.2 -1.4 11th 156.8 84.6 high 185%
Horsham Aerodrome 20.3 -1.6 29.7 27th 4.5 -1.2 -0.2 30th 28.8 32.0 average 90%
Kanagulk 18.2 -2.3 28.3 27th 5.9 -0.8 0.7 26th 55.8 34.7 high 161%
Longerenong 20.1 -0.9 29.5 21st     -1.4 30th 38.4 41.0 average 94%
Pyrenees (Ben Nevis) 14.1 -2.0 23.7 28th 4.6 -1.5 0.6 11th 69.8 52.5 average 133%
Stawell Aerodrome 18.4 -1.8 27.5 27th 6.9 -0.6 1.6 26th 63.6 36.4 high 175%
Lower North (district 80)
Charlton 21.5 -2.4 32.1 28th 6.2 -1.4 1.1 30th 37.8 24.6 high 154%
Echuca Aerodrome 21.4 -0.8 30.3 28th 7.1 -1.5 2.2 30th 57.9 41.6 high 139%
Kerang 22.7 -0.2 33.0 28th 8.1 -0.7 3.4 12th 22.4 36.5 average 61%
Kyabram 20.7 -0.9 28.5 27th 7.2 -0.4 1.9 30th 38.4 38.6 average 99%
Upper North (district 81)
Bendigo Airport 19.6 -1.4 27.7 27th 6.6 -0.2 1.4 11th 70.6 40.5 high 174%
Shepparton Airport 20.6 -1.7 27.9 27th 6.4 -1.2 1.2 26th 41.8 30.9 high 135%
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 19.8 -1.4 27.4 27th 6.9 -0.7 1.3 31st 53.0 46.0 average 115%
Yarrawonga 21.0 -1.9 27.9 27th 6.6 -0.8 1.4 30th 55.8 37.0 high 151%
Lower Northeast (district 82)
Benalla Airport 19.7 -2.9 25.4 22nd 7.1 +0.1 1.5 30th 55.1 37.6 average 147%
Corryong Airport 20.2 -2.0 26.0 28th 6.8 +2.1 0.8 31st 54.4 48.2 average 113%
Dartmouth Reservoir 18.9 -1.6 25.5 22nd 7.2 +0.3 1.0 30th 114.6 96.3 high 119%
Hunters Hill 14.8 -1.5 21.4 28th 6.0 -1.2 0.7 30th 99.2 87.0 average 114%
Rutherglen Research 20.1 -1.0 26.9 27th 5.1 -1.1 -1.1 31st 37.8 56.9 average 66%
Strathbogie 16.7 -1.3 22.5 22nd 4.4 -0.9 -0.6 7th 71.2 83.8 average 85%
Wangaratta Aero 19.9 -1.7 26.1 22nd 6.5 +0.1 1.5 31st 41.2 47.7 average 86%
Upper Northeast (district 83)
Falls Creek 7.4 -2.2 15.1 28th 0.3 -1.7 -6.0 25th 160.8 127.4 average 126%
Mount Buller 7.5 -1.3 15.0 22nd 0.4 -1.1 -5.1 30th 92.0 136.4 average 67%
Mount Hotham 6.0 -1.7 13.8 22nd -0.1 -1.0 -5.5 11th 128.8 129.2 average 100%
Omeo 17.2 -1.9 22.8 27th 5.0 -0.1 -1.6 30th 87.4 60.5 high 144%
East Gippsland (district 84)
Combienbar AWS 16.6 -2.0 25.9 28th 7.8 -0.3 3.2 11th 112.8 93.2 average 121%
Gabo Island Lighthouse 17.3 +0.1 27.5 29th 11.6 +0.4 7.9 30th 55.4 74.0 average 75%
Gelantipy 15.2 -1.5 23.3 28th 5.5 -0.6 0.6 26th 80.0 71.1 average 113%
Lakes Entrance (Eastern Beach Road) 18.3 -1.3 26.2 9th 9.7 +0.2 2.9 12th 77.9 60.8 average 128%
Mallacoota 18.4 -0.8 27.3 29th 10.6 +0.6 5.4 12th 64.2 78.4 average 82%
Mount Nowa Nowa 17.6 -1.6 24.7 22nd 9.0 -0.1 4.6 11th 96.4 71.7 high 134%
Orbost 19.1 -0.9 27.1 28th 9.3 +0.1 3.2 12th 100.0 63.0 high 159%
West Gippsland (district 85)
Bairnsdale Airport 18.8 -1.2 25.9 9th 8.4 +0.9 2.3 12th 99.0 60.8 high 163%
Corner Inlet (Yanakie) 17.1   24.8 22nd 9.3   3.2 12th 91.0
East Sale 18.6 -0.8 25.7 9th 8.6 +1.0 2.6 12th 78.6 56.9 high 138%
East Sale Airport 18.7   25.9 9th 8.4   2.4 12th 73.8
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) 18.9 -0.7 26.5 22nd 8.0 +0.5 3.1 11th 103.0 70.2 high 147%
Mount Baw Baw 7.6 -1.4 17.0 22nd 0.9 -0.8 -3.3 30th 275.2 147.5 highest 187%
Mount Moornapa 17.5 -1.4 25.0 9th 8.1 -0.2 4.2 11th 135.8 84.2 high 161%
Nilma North (Warragul) 18.4   26.2 27th 8.3   3.0 8th 141.6
Pound Creek 18.1 -0.7 25.6 27th 9.1 +0.7 1.8 12th 84.8 71.9 average 118%
Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse 15.2 -0.7 21.3 27th 11.0 +1.0 8.2 30th 118.8 91.4 high 130%
Yarram Airport 18.5 -1.3 25.1 9th 8.3 +0.7 1.2 12th 60.4 48.0 average 126%
East Central (district 86)
Cerberus 18.6 -0.1 26.6 27th 9.4 +0.6 4.3 26th 83.4 65.9 average 127%
Coldstream 19.4 -0.4 27.8 28th 7.3 +0.6 1.2 12th 161.6 69.3 highest 233%
Essendon Airport 19.3 -0.2 27.7 28th 9.0 +0.6 4.7 11th 108.8 59.3 high 183%
Ferny Creek 16.0 -1.0 23.7 28th 7.3 -0.9 2.5 30th 208.0 120.8 v high 172%
Frankston (Ballam Park) 18.5   26.0 27th 9.3   4.2 30th 132.2
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 19.4   28.3 28th 10.2   5.5 12th 110.4
Melbourne Airport 19.2 -0.3 27.3 28th 8.1 -0.4 2.6 12th 130.2 54.3 v high 240%
Moorabbin Airport 19.0 -0.4 28.0 28th 9.7 +0.4 4.4 12th 117.8 68.8 v high 171%
Rhyll 18.2 +0.1 24.4 27th 10.7 +0.1 7.9 30th 104.8 61.0 highest 172%
Scoresby Research Institute 19.1 -0.1 27.4 28th 8.7 -0.1 2.3 26th 123.0 83.0 high 148%
Viewbank 19.4 -1.2 27.3 22nd 8.6 -0.4 2.3 12th 142.6 65.1 v high 219%
West Central (district 87)
Avalon Airport 19.1 -1.2 28.5 27th 8.1 0.0 1.8 12th 87.8 48.1 high 183%
Breakwater (Geelong Racecourse) 18.7 -1.8 27.8 27th 8.6 -0.7 3.5 12th 113.6 43.8 v high 259%
Laverton RAAF 19.2 -0.2 28.3 28th 8.5 +0.2 2.7 12th 76.0 54.7 high 139%
Sheoaks 17.3 -1.1 25.6 27th 6.9 -0.4 0.0 12th 113.6 54.1 v high 210%
North Central (district 88)
Eildon Fire Tower 15.5 -1.6 23.2 22nd 6.7 -0.8 2.4 30th 77.2 49.5 high 156%
Lake Eildon 19.1 -1.0 26.6 28th 7.2 -0.1 1.4 11th 98.2 77.5 high 127%
Mangalore Airport 19.5 -1.2 26.2 28th 6.5 -0.8 0.3 30th 46.8 45.3 average 103%
Maryborough 19.1 -1.1 28.1 28th 7.0 -0.2 2.2 11th 60.4 48.5 high 125%
Puckapunyal Lyon Hill (Defence) 19.2   26.0 28th 8.2   3.8 30th 72.6
Puckapunyal West (Defence) 18.2   25.1 27th 7.4   2.3 30th 69.2
Redesdale 19.2 -0.8 26.7 28th 5.4 -0.3 0.4 30th 49.2 51.1 average 96%
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 15.4 -0.9 22.7 28th 6.6 -0.3 2.4 11th 84.6 52.5 high 161%
Western Plains (district 89)
Ballarat Aerodrome 16.3 -0.4 24.6 27th 6.0 -0.2 0.0 30th 75.8 65.9 average 115%
Westmere 17.3 -2.1 25.8 27th 5.2 -0.2 -0.7 26th 74.8 43.9 average 170%
West Coast (district 90)
Aireys Inlet 16.8 -1.5 27.0 27th 9.3 -0.1 5.5 30th 103.0 60.7 high 170%
Cape Nelson Lighthouse 16.0 -1.4 28.1 27th 10.1 -0.4 7.3 6th 103.4 51.6 high 200%
Cape Otway Lighthouse 15.6 -1.4 26.7 27th 10.0 +0.4 7.3 11th 134.4 80.4 v high 167%
Casterton 17.4 -1.9 27.1 27th 6.0 -1.1 -0.4 11th 94.4 50.2 high 188%
Colac (Mount Gellibrand) 16.6 -0.7 22.2 21st 7.4 -0.2 3.6 11th 58.8 53.2 average 111%
Dartmoor 17.4 -2.0 28.0 27th 6.7 -1.1 0.7 11th 89.4 55.8 high 160%
Hamilton Airport 17.1 -0.9 26.1 27th 5.5 -1.1 1.2 12th 64.6 55.5 average 116%
Mortlake Racecourse 17.6 -0.6 26.9 27th 6.4 0.0 -0.3 12th 95.8 53.3 v high 180%
Port Fairy AWS 17.3 -1.0 27.9 27th 9.3 -0.1 4.0 12th 103.8 55.2 v high 188%
Portland (Cashmore Airport) 16.2 -0.8 27.3 27th 7.9 -0.5 1.1 26th 131.6 63.4 highest 208%
Warrnambool Airport NDB 16.8 -1.3 25.9 27th 7.7 +0.3 0.5 12th 115.2 67.2 high 171%

Notes

The Monthly climate summary, generally published on the first working day of each month, lists the main features of the weather in Victoria using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 10 am on Wednesday 3 November 2021. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the rainfall is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057

Climate