South Australia in spring 2013: A hot and dry season with a cool finish

  • An exceptionally warm start to the season results third warmest spring
  • Day and night temperatures above average across most of the state
  • Dry across most of the state, with locations in the north having their driest spring on record

Rainfall

Spring 2013 rainfall was generally well below average across much of the state, apart from southern coastal areas where rainfall tended average to above average. Dry conditions persisted throughout the season where some sites had their lowest total spring rainfall on record and other sites had their lowest total spring rainfall for at least 20 years.

Pastoral Districts
Rainfall totals for spring as a whole were generally well below average, though extremely variable at a time of year when rainfall can be low in northern South Australia. Rainfall totals were generally below 10mm for most locations. Gluepot was the wettest location across the pastoral districts, with a total of 30.7 mm.

Agricultural Districts
Rainfall totals in the agricultural districts were widely below average at most locations, with totals generally between 40 and 80 mm, though higher totals of between 100 and 150 mm were observed for some elevated and coastal locations. The wettest location overall in the agricultural districts was Mount Schank, in the lower southeast of the state, with a spring total of 238.4 mm.

Temperature

The mean temperature (the average of the maximum and minimum temperatures) for South Australia as a whole in spring 2013 was 1.8 C warmer than average, the third warmest spring in 104 years of observations. The warm spring resulted in some sites having their highest spring mean temperature on record.

Maximum temperature

Spring started with exceptionally warm daytime maximum temperatures, withrecord high temperatures at many locations across the state. Despite a relatively cool finish to the season, spring maximum temperatures were third-highest on record for the state as a whole and somesites had their highest spring mean daily maximum temperature on record.

Average maximum temperatures ranged from 17.1C at Mount Lofty to 33.0C at Oodnadatta Airport in the Far North. The hottest spring day was on 28 November with 43.9 C at Moomba Airport. The coldest day was 9.2C recorded at Mount Lofty on 20 September.

Minimum temperature

Minimum temperatures through the season were the warmest since 2011, and equal-tenth warmest in 104 years of record. Some sites had their highest spring mean daily minimum temperature on record. November was the only month in the season to observe cooler-than-average nights.

Spring average minimum temperatures ranged from 5.9 C at Yongala to 16.1C at Oodnadatta Airport. The lowest recorded minimum temperature through winter was 2.4 C at Keith in the Upper southeast on 10 November; with the warmest night being 26.3 C at Oodnadatta on 28 November.

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Extremes in spring 2013
Hottest day 43.9 C at Moomba Airport on 28 Nov
Warmest days on average 33.0 C at Oodnadatta Airport
Coolest days on average 17.1 C at Mount Lofty
Coldest day 9.2 C at Mount Lofty on 10 Sep
Coldest night -2.4 C at Keith (Munkora) on 10 Nov
Coolest nights on average 5.9 C at Yongala
Warmest nights on average 16.1 C at Oodnadatta Airport
Warmest night 26.3 C at Oodnadatta Airport on 28 Nov
Warmest on average overall 24.6 C at Oodnadatta Airport
Coolest on average overall 12.7 C at Mount Lofty
Wettest overall 238.4 mm at Mount Schank (Jethia)
Driest overall 0 mm at Moomba Airport
Wettest day 51.2 mm at Penola Post Office on 17 Sep
Highest wind gust 111 km/h at Neptune Island on 2 Oct

Maps

Observed Anomaly Decile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record lowest total spring rainfall

Total rainfall
for spring 2013 (mm)
Previous driest
for spring
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Whyalla Aero 12.2 18.7 in 2008 32 71.3
Marla Police Station 1.0 6.4 in 1990 26 53.5

Lowest total spring rainfall for at least 20 years

Total rainfall
for spring 2013 (mm)
Most recent spring
at least this dry
Years since
drier
Average for
spring
Erudina 6.8 5.1 in 1957 56 45.9
Gawler Council Depot 45.6 45.0 in 1914* 48 119.2

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported.




Record highest spring mean daily maximum temperature

Mean daily maximum
temperature
for spring 2013 (C)
Previous warmest
for spring
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Marree Comparison 32.6 32.5 in 2006 73 29.5
Oodnadatta Airport 33.0 = 33.0 in 2006 63 30.2
Arkaroola 29.0 = 29.0 in 2012 35 26.7
Whyalla Aero 25.9 25.7 in 2007 28 24.0



Record highest spring mean daily minimum temperature

Mean daily minimum
temperature
for spring 2013 (C)
Previous warmest
for spring
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Nullarbor 11.5 11.4 in 2011 25 10.2



Record highest spring mean temperature

Mean daily
temperature
for spring 2013 (C)
Previous warmest
for spring
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Ceduna AMO 18.8 = 18.8 in 1965 72 16.9
Whyalla Aero 18.8 18.7 in 2009 28 17.4
Nullarbor 18.4 18.2 in 2006 24 17.2



Summary statistics for spring 2013

Maximum temperatures
for spring
(C)
Minimum temperatures
for spring
(C)
Rainfall
for spring
(millimetres)
Mean for
spring
2013
Diff
from
average
Highest for
spring
2013
Mean for
spring
2013
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
spring
2013
Total for
spring
2013
Average
for
spring
Rank of
spring
2013
Fraction of
spring
average
Northwest (district 16)
Andamooka 30.1 +1.9 40.0 27 Nov 14.1 +0.4 8.4 19 Sep 5.1 45.8 v low 11%
Coober Pedy Airport 30.9 41.5 20 Oct 14.8 7.8 17 Sep 4.4


Ernabella (Pukatja) 31.2 39.4 7 Nov 14.1 3.2 19 Sep 9.6


Marla Police Station 32.5 +2.6 42.2 9 Oct 14.8 +0.6 4.5 19 Sep 1.0 53.5 lowest 2%
Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome) 30.4 41.2 20 Oct 12.1 1.8 19 Sep 3.8


Tarcoola Aero 30.3 42.0 9 Oct 12.7 3.6 14 Oct 7.2


Woomera Aerodrome 28.9 +2.7 40.8 27 Nov 13.4 +1.0 6.6 19 Sep 12.2 47.0 low 26%
Far North (district 17)
Arkaroola 29.0 +2.3 40.0 21 Oct 4.0 19 Sep 7.1 51.8 low 14%
Leigh Creek Airport 29.5 +2.6 40.1 21 Oct 12.9 +0.3 5.2 18 Oct 6.8 54.2 low 13%
Marree Aero 31.8 42.8 28 Nov 13.6 6.4 19 Sep 2.6


Marree Comparison 32.6 +3.1 43.3 21 Oct 13.4 +0.1 6.0 20 Sep 3.0 35.6 v low 8%
Oodnadatta Airport 33.0 +2.8 42.0 7 Nov 16.1 +1.0 7.1 15 Oct 2.4 36.3 v low 7%
Western Agricultural (district 18)
Ceduna AMO 26.3 +2.6 42.0 9 Oct 11.2 +1.2 2.0 15 Oct 51.2 72.1 average 71%
Cleve 23.7 +1.5 37.0 27 Nov 11.9 +1.6 4.5 25 Oct 76.4 105.9 average 72%
Cleve Aerodrome 24.0 37.6 27 Nov 11.0 3.2 25 Oct 70.0 86.5 average 81%
Cummins Aero 23.4 39.4 6 Nov 8.6 0.3 25 Oct 93.8


Elliston 22.9 +1.5 37.5 6 Nov 12.0 +0.8 4.1 18 Oct 52.0 89.3 low 58%
Kimba 25.2 +1.5 38.4 27 Nov 9.9 +0.5 3.3 19 Sep 43.6 90.8 low 48%
Kyancutta 27.5 +2.3 40.6 20 Oct 9.3 +0.9 1.0 25 Oct 38.0 78.8 low 48%
Minnipa Pirsa 26.6 39.8 9 Oct 10.8 4.7 18 Oct 41.0


Neptune Island 18.4 +0.8 25.3 9 Oct 13.5 +1.0 9.4 17 Oct 107.6 92.0 average 117%
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 21.6 +0.9 38.6 6 Nov 10.5 +0.6 3.8 18 Oct 123.6 85.7 high 144%
Nullarbor 25.4 +1.2 40.4 8 Oct 11.5 +1.3 2.5 11 Oct 66.2 53.0 high 125%
Port Augusta Aero 28.6 42.6 27 Nov 11.1 1.4 19 Sep 18.4


Streaky Bay 25.0 +2.1 35.9 6 Nov 12.7 +1.2 6.0 25 Oct 39.5 80.4 low 49%
Whyalla Aero 25.9 +1.9 41.5 27 Nov 11.6 +0.7 3.3 19 Sep 12.2 71.3 lowest 17%
Wudinna Aero 27.3 40.9 20 Oct 9.4 1.0 25 Oct 41.0


Upper North (district 19)
Hawker 27.6 +2.0 39.0 27 Nov 9.8 -0.2 0.0 19 Sep 34.2 75.2 low 45%
Yongala 23.7 +1.9 37.3 27 Nov 5.9 -0.5 -1.8 18 Oct 31.0 99.5 v low 31%
Northeast (district 20)
Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) 26.7 40.7 27 Nov 8.9 0.0 27 Sep 30.7


Yunta Airstrip 26.7 38.8 27 Nov 9.4 0.2 18 Oct 14.0


Lower North (district 21)
Clare High School 22.1 36.6 27 Nov 8.1 0.6 25 Oct 83.2 144.5 low 58%
Port Pirie Aerodrome 26.4 39.9 27 Nov 10.0 2.4 25 Oct 28.0


Snowtown (Rayville Park) 24.7 40.4 27 Nov 7.4 -0.1 25 Oct 59.4


Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)
Edithburgh 20.7 +0.6 34.9 9 Oct 10.8 -0.1 2.0 18 Oct 99.6 90.0 average 111%
Kadina AWS 24.2 37.8 20 Oct 8.3 0.2 18 Oct 53.8


Maitland 22.6 +1.2 35.5 26 Nov 11.3 +1.1 6.8 10 Nov 88.0 119.2 low 74%
Minlaton Aero 22.7 35.8 6 Nov 10.0 2.7 25 Oct 44.4


Stenhouse Bay 20.1 35.1 6 Nov 12.2 5.5 18 Oct 88.0


Warooka 21.3 +0.7 34.6 27 Nov 11.1 +0.8 5.8 24 Oct 85.6 104.1 average 82%
Kangaroo Island (district 22B)
Cape Borda 18.5 28.7 26 Nov 11.0 6.2 4 Nov 144.9


Cape Willoughby 18.3 +0.8 28.2 6 Nov 12.4 +0.8 7.7 17 Oct 135.0 125.9 average 107%
Kingscote Aero 20.5 33.7 27 Nov 9.0 2.5 18 Oct 130.6 99.8 high 131%
Parndana Cfs AWS 18.6 30.9 27 Nov 9.0 3.8 26 Oct 189.6


Adelaide Plains (district 23A)
Adelaide (Kent Town) 23.3 +1.3 37.0 27 Nov 12.4 +0.7 5.4 15 Oct 80.2 133.2 low 60%
Adelaide Airport 22.4 +1.4 34.9 27 Nov 11.6 +0.8 5.0 15 Oct 57.4 107.4 low 53%
Edinburgh RAAF 23.7 +1.5 38.5 27 Nov 10.9 +0.6 3.7 15 Oct 65.2 110.3 low 59%
Parafield Airport 24.0 +2.0 38.0 27 Nov 10.9 +0.5 3.4 15 Oct 64.6 111.8 low 58%
Roseworthy AWS 24.6 40.3 27 Nov 8.6 1.6 25 Oct 46.6


County Light (district 23B)
Nuriootpa Viticultural 22.2 37.8 27 Nov 8.5 0.1 15 Oct 83.3


Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 23.6 +1.6 39.8 27 Nov 8.8 +0.1 1.1 15 Oct 75.2 125.6 low 60%
Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)
Hindmarsh Island AWS 21.5 36.0 27 Nov 11.4 5.9 4 Oct 85.6


Kuitpo Forest Reserve 19.3 32.4 27 Nov 9.9 4.8 4 Oct 126.6


Mount Barker 20.4 +0.9 35.0 27 Nov 8.7 +1.4 2.2 25 Oct 147.8 191.5 low 77%
Mount Crawford (Mt Crawford AWS) 19.4 34.4 27 Nov 9.1 3.9 24 Oct 122.8 154.1 average 80%
Mount Lofty 17.1 30.4 27 Nov 8.2 3.3 24 Oct 191.4


Noarlunga 22.0 34.8 26 Nov 12.4 6.9 25 Oct 73.4


Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) 17.3 30.3 26 Nov 9.9 5.7 4 Oct 179.6 191.5 average 94%
Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay) 21.0 34.9 27 Nov 10.0 2.1 18 Oct 124.8


Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)
Loxton Research Centre 25.4 +1.3 39.1 27 Nov 8.8 +0.2 1.3 18 Oct 66.2 72.0 average 92%
Renmark Aero 26.5 41.3 27 Nov 9.2 0.1 15 Oct 40.8


Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)
Eudunda 22.5 +1.8 37.2 27 Nov 8.9 +0.7 2.6 15 Oct 88.6 118.9 average 75%
Meningie 21.7 +1.2 36.0 27 Nov 10.3 +0.6 5.0 18 Oct 95.8 114.6 average 84%
Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) 23.8 39.5 27 Nov 7.8 -1.1 4 Oct 47.6


Murray Bridge Comparison 24.4 +1.6 39.4 27 Nov 9.7 +0.5 2.8 4 Oct 53.8 95.7 low 56%
Strathalbyn Racecourse 21.7 36.5 27 Nov 9.8 4.0 4 Oct 96.2


Murray Mallee (district 25A)
Karoonda 24.5 40.9 27 Nov 8.8 1.9 15 Oct 49.4 91.4 low 54%
Upper Southeast (district 25B)
Keith 22.4 +0.7 38.2 27 Nov 8.8 +0.4 3.0 4 Oct 73.2 123.8 low 59%
Keith (Munkora) 22.4 40.5 27 Nov 6.9 -2.4 10 Nov 82.4


Lameroo (Austin Plains) 23.9 39.7 27 Nov 7.3 0.2 18 Oct 66.2


Lameroo Comparison 23.8 +1.1 38.6 27 Nov 8.9 +0.9 2.7 18 Oct 57.1 105.2 low 54%
Lower Southeast (district 26)
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 18.5 -0.2 32.5 27 Nov 10.0 +0.5 3.7 25 Nov 139.2 108.4 high 128%
Coonawarra 19.3 -0.3 34.7 27 Nov 8.2 +0.8 2.5 5 Nov 168.9 143.4 high 118%
Mount Gambier Aero 18.4 +0.3 33.5 27 Nov 8.3 +1.0 3.3 10 Nov 221.2 181.1 high 122%
Naracoorte Aerodrome 20.2 36.7 27 Nov 7.9 1.0 25 Nov 115.2


Padthaway South 20.4 36.4 27 Nov 8.2 0.5 10 Nov 124.2


Robe Airfield 18.5 33.4 27 Nov 9.6 3.1 25 Nov 142.6


Robe Comparison 31.5 6 Nov 11.0 +0.7 6.2 25 Nov 155.6 133.7 high 116%

Notes

A Seasonal Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 10 am on Sunday 1 December 2013. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 20 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

The ACORN-SAT dataset is being used for temperature area averages from December 2012 onwards. The major change from earlier datasets is that the ACORN-SAT dataset commences in 1910, rather than 1950, and hence rankings are calculated using a larger set of years.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries