When the Indian and Pacific oceans work together

The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the major climate driver in the Pacific Ocean and can have a strong impact on Australia's climate. El Niño years are typically warmer and drier over eastern Australia and La Niña years tend to be cooler and wetter over much of the country.

When El Niño coincides with a positive IOD, the two phenomena can reinforce their dry impacts. Likewise, when La Niña coincides with a negative IOD, the chance of above-average winter–spring rainfall typically increases.

Negative IOD years

  1. 1960
  2. 1964
  3. 1974
  4. 1981
  5. 1989
  6. 1992
  7. 1996
  8. 1998
  9. 2010
  10. 2014
  11. 2016

Positive IOD years

  1. 1961
  2. 1963
  3. 1972
  4. 1982
  5. 1983
  6. 1994
  7. 1997
  8. 2006
  9. 2012
  10. 2015
Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) years highlighting La Niña and El Niño status.