Latest Weather Observations for Victoria

Latest Weather Observations for Victoria

IDV60800

Issued at 7:03 pm EST Tuesday 30 May 2017 (issued every 30 minutes, with the page automatically refreshed every 10 minutes)

Where no observation is available within the last 75 minutes, the latest observation is shown in italics and coloured and removed from the table after 30 hours.
Station names link to data for the previous 72 hours.

MALLEE

  Date/Time
EST
Temp
°C
App
Temp
°C
Dew
Point
°C
Rel
Hum
%
Delta-T
°C
Wind Press
hPa
Rain since
9am
mm
Low
Temp
°C

time
High
Temp
°C

time
Highest Wind Gust
Dir  Spd
km/h
Gust
km/h
Spd
kts
Gust
kts
 Dir  km/h
time
kts
time
Charlton 30/07:00pm 7.1 3.5 3.0 75 1.7 SW 11 19 6 10 1028.3 0.0 7.0
06:58pm
13.9
01:04pm
SSW 39
02:07pm
21
02:07pm
Hopetoun Airport 30/07:00pm 8.0 4.5 3.3 72 2.0 S 11 15 6 8 1029.3 0.0 7.9
06:43pm
14.4
02:09pm
SSW 43
12:02pm
23
12:02pm
Kerang 30/03:00pm 13.9 9.2 3.0 47 4.9 SW 17 - 9 - - 0.0 - - - - -
Mildura 30/07:00pm 9.3 6.5 3.1 65 2.6 SW 7 11 4 6 1028.9 0.0 9.2
07:00pm
15.6
02:46pm
SSW 39
02:01pm
21
02:01pm
Ouyen 30/09:00am 11.6 11.1 10.8 95 0.4 SW 4 - 2 - - 2.0 - - - - -
Swan Hill 30/07:00pm 8.8 4.6 3.6 70 2.2 SSW 15 20 8 11 1027.9 0.0 8.8
07:00pm
14.8
01:29pm
SSW 54
02:02pm
29
02:02pm
Walpeup 30/07:00pm 7.4 4.6 3.1 74 1.8 SW 7 9 4 5 - 0.0 7.2
06:45pm
14.7
01:40pm
SSW 39
03:22pm
21
03:22pm

WIMMERA

  Date/Time
EST
Temp
°C
App
Temp
°C
Dew
Point
°C
Rel
Hum
%
Delta-T
°C
Wind Press
hPa
Rain since
9am
mm
Low
Temp
°C

time
High
Temp
°C

time
Highest Wind Gust
Dir  Spd
km/h
Gust
km/h
Spd
kts
Gust
kts
 Dir  km/h
time
kts
time
Edenhope 30/07:00pm 7.0 4.4 3.1 76 1.7 SSW 6 7 3 4 - 0.2 6.7
06:35pm
13.1
02:06pm
SW 43
03:19am
23
03:19am
Horsham 30/07:00pm 5.4 2.3 3.4 87 0.8 S 9 11 5 6 1029.3 0.0 4.6
06:54pm
13.1
01:42pm
SSW 59
02:39pm
32
02:39pm
Kanagulk 30/07:00pm 4.8 3.4 3.5 91 0.5 CALM 0 0 0 0 1029.6 0.2 4.8
07:00pm
12.0
02:16pm
SSW 46
01:23pm
25
01:23pm
Longerenong 30/07:00pm 6.8 3.3 3.6 80 1.4 S 11 13 6 7 - 0.0 6.0
06:52pm
12.8
01:31pm
W 57
05:06am
31
05:06am
Nhill Aerodrome 30/07:00pm 6.6 3.9 3.9 83 1.1 S 7 9 4 5 1029.6 0.0 6.6
07:00pm
13.2
02:44pm
SSW 43
12:56pm
23
12:56pm
Stawell 30/07:00pm 6.6 3.5 3.4 80 1.4 SSW 9 13 5 7 1028.6 0.2 5.9
06:33pm
11.5
12:51pm
SSW 48
03:29pm
26
03:29pm
Warracknabeal 30/09:00am 10.0 7.3 7.5 84 1.2 WSW 11 - 6 - - 2.0 - - - - -
Warracknabeal Airport 30/07:00pm 7.5 2.6 4.1 79 1.5 SW 19 26 10 14 1029.0 0.0 7.4
06:57pm
13.7
02:11pm
SSW 50
03:37pm
27
03:37pm

SOUTH WEST

  Date/Time
EST
Temp
°C
App
Temp
°C
Dew
Point
°C
Rel
Hum
%
Delta-T
°C
Wind Press
hPa
Rain since
9am
mm
Low
Temp
°C

time
High
Temp
°C

time
Highest Wind Gust
Dir  Spd
km/h
Gust
km/h
Spd
kts
Gust
kts
 Dir  km/h
time
kts
time
Ararat 30/03:00pm 10.0 4.4 3.2 62 3.0 NE 22 - 12 - 1025.3 3.0 - - - - -
Ben Nevis 30/07:00pm 1.7 -3.8 1.6 99 0.0 SSW 20 30 11 16 - 0.2 1.4
06:25pm
7.0
02:01pm
SSW 57
08:04am
31
08:04am
Cape Nelson 30/07:00pm 10.2 5.3 5.2 71 2.3 S 20 39 11 21 1029.5 0.8 9.0
06:30pm
12.5
12:40pm
S 76
07:32am
41
07:32am
Cape Otway 30/07:00pm 11.0 4.0 4.0 62 3.1 SSW 30 46 16 25 1027.4 0.6 10.4
06:26pm
11.7
01:07pm
SW 74
08:27am
40
08:27am
Casterton 30/07:00pm 6.5 3.7 5.0 90 0.7 SSW 9 13 5 7 1029.5 1.0 5.2
06:36pm
11.7
11:51am
SSW 50
12:53pm
27
12:53pm
Dartmoor 30/07:00pm 7.8 3.6 5.9 88 0.9 SSW 17 26 9 14 1030.2 1.6 5.2
06:49pm
11.9
02:45pm
SSW 52
12:53pm
28
12:53pm
Hamilton 30/07:00pm 5.7 1.0 2.9 82 1.2 SSW 17 20 9 11 1029.2 0.0 5.4
06:23pm
11.1
01:29pm
S 48
03:44pm
26
03:44pm
Mortlake 30/07:00pm 5.4 3.1 4.8 96 0.3 SW 6 11 3 6 1028.5 2.0 3.2
06:33pm
12.1
12:25pm
SW 57
02:01pm
31
02:01pm
Mount Gellibrand 30/07:00pm 5.5 -1.4 2.3 80 1.3 SW 28 32 15 17 1027.3 0.8 5.2
06:34pm
10.6
01:55pm
WSW 59
11:09am
32
11:09am
Mount William 30/07:00pm 0.3 -7.4 0.2 99 0.0 SW 30 48 16 26 - 1.8 0.2
06:34pm
2.8
06:14am
WSW 67
08:53am
36
08:53am
Port Fairy 30/07:00pm 10.4 2.6 5.0 69 2.4 S 35 52 19 28 1028.9 0.4 10.2
06:59pm
12.6
02:02pm
SW 59
06:51am
32
06:51am
Portland Airport 30/07:00pm 9.1 4.4 3.3 67 2.5 S 17 28 9 15 1029.7 0.0 9.1
07:00pm
12.5
12:38pm
SW 61
06:28am
33
06:28am
Portland Harbour 30/07:00pm 9.9 - - - - SSE 22 35 12 19 1029.4 - - - - - -
Warrnambool 30/07:00pm 8.9 1.5 4.1 72 2.1 S 32 43 17 23 1028.8 0.4 6.4
06:18pm
12.2
11:39am
SSW 56
12:22pm
30
12:22pm
Westmere 30/07:00pm 5.2 2.7 3.7 90 0.6 SW 6 6 3 3 1028.7 0.6 5.1
07:00pm
11.2
01:54pm
SSW 48
01:56pm
26
01:56pm

CENTRAL

  Date/Time
EST
Temp
°C
App
Temp
°C
Dew
Point
°C
Rel
Hum
%
Delta-T
°C
Wind Press
hPa
Rain since
9am
mm
Low
Temp
°C

time
High
Temp
°C

time
Highest Wind Gust
Dir  Spd
km/h
Gust
km/h
Spd
kts
Gust
kts
 Dir  km/h
time
kts
time
Aireys Inlet 30/07:00pm 7.6 3.5 4.6 81 1.3 WSW 15 24 8 13 - 0.4 7.4
06:56pm
12.1
01:43pm
SW 78
04:00pm
42
04:00pm
Avalon 30/07:00pm 7.6 3.6 4.7 82 1.3 WSW 15 20 8 11 1027.4 0.0 7.2
06:55pm
12.9
12:36pm
W 56
05:42am
30
05:42am
Ballarat 30/07:00pm 3.5 0.0 3.4 99 0.0 SSW 11 15 6 8 1027.7 1.8 3.5
07:00pm
8.9
11:36am
SSW 50
12:26pm
27
12:26pm
Bundoora 30/09:00am 10.0 8.7 9.2 95 0.4 - 6 - 3 - - 3.0 - - - - -
Cerberus 30/07:00pm 9.1 5.2 3.3 67 2.5 WSW 13 20 7 11 1026.0 2.8 8.9
06:43pm
12.4
12:22pm
SW 56
12:33pm
30
12:33pm
Coldstream 30/07:00pm 6.5 3.1 5.9 96 0.3 WSW 13 19 7 10 1026.5 5.2 4.9
06:00pm
12.7
02:10pm
SSW 50
03:01pm
27
03:01pm
Cranbourne 30/09:00am 10.0 8.2 9.6 97 0.2 W 9 - 5 - - 3.0 - - - - -
Essendon Airport 30/07:00pm 6.7 2.9 3.7 81 1.3 WSW 13 17 7 9 1027.0 0.0 6.7
07:00pm
13.1
01:36pm
SSW 54
01:48pm
29
01:48pm
Fawkner Beacon 30/07:00pm - - - - - SSW 30 46 16 25 - - - - SW 69
04:43pm
37
04:43pm
Ferny Creek 30/07:00pm 4.0 1.2 2.2 88 0.7 SW 6 13 3 7 1025.7 5.0 3.9
06:57pm
8.3
09:18am
WSW 33
12:14pm
18
12:14pm
Frankston 30/07:00pm 9.0 6.5 4.8 75 1.9 SSW 7 13 4 7 - - 8.9
07:00pm
12.3
07:02am
SW 56
12:39pm
30
12:39pm
Geelong Racecourse 30/07:00pm 7.8 4.6 5.1 83 1.2 W 11 15 6 8 1027.2 0.6 7.8
07:00pm
13.7
12:10pm
SW 46
12:19pm
25
12:19pm
Laverton 30/07:00pm 7.8 4.4 3.8 76 1.7 W 11 17 6 9 1027.3 0.0 7.6
06:58pm
13.3
01:14pm
SW 46
01:17pm
25
01:17pm
Melbourne Airport 30/07:00pm 6.3 1.6 3.2 80 1.3 W 17 19 9 10 1027.1 0.0 6.1
06:05pm
13.4
01:26pm
N 52
01:19am
28
01:19am
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 30/07:00pm 9.7 6.8 4.5 70 2.3 W 9 17 5 9 1026.9 1.2 8.6
06:26pm
13.1
01:04pm
S 50
03:16pm
27
03:16pm
Moorabbin Airport 30/07:00pm 8.6 5.3 6.2 85 1.1 WNW 13 30 7 16 1026.5 4.2 7.3
06:38pm
13.3
01:15pm
SSW 61
03:42pm
33
03:42pm
Phillip Island 30/09:00am 11.0 7.8 8.6 85 1.2 SW 15 - 8 - - 6.0 - - - - -
Point Wilson 30/07:00pm - - - - - WSW 22 26 12 14 - - - - SSW 61
02:48pm
33
02:48pm
Pound Creek 30/07:00pm 7.3 4.5 5.1 86 1.0 S 9 19 5 10 1025.7 9.0 6.1
06:13pm
13.3
11:23am
SSW 67
06:11pm
36
06:11pm
Rhyll 30/07:00pm 11.0 5.7 2.1 54 3.8 SW 19 30 10 16 1025.9 3.4 9.6
06:02pm
12.6
10:38am
NNW 65
03:06am
35
03:06am
Scoresby 30/07:00pm 6.3 5.1 4.5 88 0.8 CALM 0 0 0 0 - 5.6 6.2
07:00pm
12.9
01:33pm
N 37
12:42am
20
12:42am
Sheoaks 30/07:00pm 5.4 1.5 3.3 86 0.9 W 13 19 7 10 1027.6 0.2 5.2
06:53pm
10.7
01:13pm
SW 46
05:21am
25
05:21am
South Channel Island 30/07:00pm - - - - - SW 24 35 13 19 - - - - SW 78
02:55pm
42
02:55pm
St Kilda Harbour RMYS 30/07:00pm - - - - - SW 30 35 16 19 - - - - SW 50
11:47am
27
11:47am
Viewbank 30/07:00pm 7.3 5.8 7.0 98 0.1 WSW 4 7 2 4 1026.9 1.0 7.3
07:00pm
12.6
01:51pm
N 48
03:32am
26
03:32am
Wonthaggi 30/09:00am 10.2 5.0 8.8 91 0.7 W 26 - 14 - 1019.0 7.0 - - - - -

NORTHERN COUNTRY

  Date/Time
EST
Temp
°C
App
Temp
°C
Dew
Point
°C
Rel
Hum
%
Delta-T
°C
Wind Press
hPa
Rain since
9am
mm
Low
Temp
°C

time
High
Temp
°C

time
Highest Wind Gust
Dir  Spd
km/h
Gust
km/h
Spd
kts
Gust
kts
 Dir  km/h
time
kts
time
Bendigo 30/07:00pm 7.5 4.2 2.4 70 2.1 SSW 9 15 5 8 1026.9 0.2 7.3
06:59pm
12.1
01:07pm
SW 41
02:25pm
22
02:25pm
Echuca 30/09:00am 10.1 8.0 9.9 99 0.1 NNW 11 - 6 - 1022.1 1.0 - - - - -
Kyabram 30/07:00pm 7.9 3.2 3.2 72 2.0 SSW 17 24 9 13 - 0.2 7.7
06:54pm
13.9
03:08pm
SW 52
03:35pm
28
03:35pm
Mangalore 30/07:00pm 7.4 3.4 2.9 73 1.9 SW 13 20 7 11 1026.8 3.6 7.3
06:58pm
13.2
01:35pm
S 41
01:55pm
22
01:55pm
Redesdale 30/07:00pm 4.7 1.8 1.7 81 1.2 SSW 6 11 3 6 - 0.0 4.6
07:00pm
13.4
12:56pm
SSW 41
03:33pm
22
03:33pm
Shepparton 30/07:00pm 8.0 3.3 3.1 71 2.1 SSW 17 20 9 11 1026.3 0.2 7.9
06:56pm
12.5
03:15pm
S 39
03:22pm
21
03:22pm
Strathbogie 30/09:00am 6.8 5.2 6.4 97 0.2 N 4 - 2 - - 5.0 - - - - -
Tatura 30/07:00pm 7.6 4.3 2.7 71 2.1 SSW 9 13 5 7 - 2.4 7.6
07:00pm
11.8
03:19pm
S 39
10:58am
21
10:58am
Yarrawonga 30/07:00pm 6.3 3.0 4.6 89 0.7 SW 11 13 6 7 1025.4 0.6 6.2
07:00pm
13.0
02:06pm
SSW 37
01:23pm
20
01:23pm

NORTH EAST

  Date/Time
EST
Temp
°C
App
Temp
°C
Dew
Point
°C
Rel
Hum
%
Delta-T
°C
Wind Press
hPa
Rain since
9am
mm
Low
Temp
°C

time
High
Temp
°C

time
Highest Wind Gust
Dir  Spd
km/h
Gust
km/h
Spd
kts
Gust
kts
 Dir  km/h
time
kts
time
Albury 30/07:00pm 6.9 5.0 6.9 100 0.0 ESE 6 9 3 5 1024.3 5.0 6.7
06:57pm
9.4
03:21pm
SSW 24
03:44pm
13
03:44pm
Benalla 30/09:00am 8.1 6.9 7.9 99 0.1 NNE 4 - 2 - 1022.4 2.0 - - - - -
Edi Upper 30/09:00am 6.6 4.0 6.2 97 0.2 ESE 9 - 5 - - 7.0 - - - - -
Falls Creek 30/07:00pm -2.9 -12.7 -3.2 98 0.0 SSW 39 52 21 28 1019.7 1.0 -2.9
07:00pm
-0.3
02:26pm
NW 56
04:09am
30
04:09am
Hunters Hill 30/07:00pm 3.5 1.0 3.5 100 0.0 WSW 6 11 3 6 - 8.8 3.5
07:00pm
4.4
12:26pm
N 15
01:26pm
8
01:26pm
Lake Dartmouth 30/09:00am 8.0 7.0 5.6 85 1.1 CALM 0 - 0 - - 0.0 - - - - -
Mount Buller 30/07:00pm -3.4 -11.9 -3.5 99 -0.1 S 32 39 17 21 - 15.0 -3.4
07:00pm
0.0
10:32am
NNW 63
07:09am
34
07:09am
Mount Hotham Airport 30/07:00pm 0.2 -3.9 0.1 99 0.0 S 11 20 6 11 1022.3 1.2 0.2
07:00pm
7.0
12:51pm
NW 56
07:36am
30
07:36am
Mount Hotham 30/07:00pm -3.5 - - - - CALM 0 0 0 0 - 0.0 -3.5
07:00pm
-0.8
03:25pm
- 0
07:00pm
0
07:00pm
Rutherglen 30/07:00pm 7.1 4.2 6.7 97 0.2 SW 11 17 6 9 - 4.2 6.7
06:34pm
10.1
02:35pm
WSW 26
05:37pm
14
05:37pm
Wangaratta 30/07:00pm 7.8 3.3 4.2 78 1.6 SW 17 20 9 11 1025.1 6.0 7.5
06:51pm
11.7
03:46pm
SSW 39
04:34pm
21
04:34pm

NORTH CENTRAL

  Date/Time
EST
Temp
°C
App
Temp
°C
Dew
Point
°C
Rel
Hum
%
Delta-T
°C
Wind Press
hPa
Rain since
9am
mm
Low
Temp
°C

time
High
Temp
°C

time
Highest Wind Gust
Dir  Spd
km/h
Gust
km/h
Spd
kts
Gust
kts
 Dir  km/h
time
kts
time
Castlemaine 30/09:00am 8.0 6.8 8.0 100 0.0 SW 4 - 2 - - 5.0 - - - - -
Eildon Fire Tower 30/07:00pm 3.0 -0.4 2.0 93 0.4 W 9 13 5 7 - 4.6 3.0
07:00pm
7.8
01:47pm
SW 52
02:27pm
28
02:27pm
Kilmore Gap 30/07:00pm 4.3 -1.0 3.1 92 0.5 SSW 20 28 11 15 1026.0 1.2 4.2
06:57pm
8.6
01:45pm
N 52
04:19am
28
04:19am
Lake Eildon 30/09:00am 8.6 8.2 8.4 99 0.1 CALM 0 - 0 - - 3.0 - - - - -
Maryborough 30/09:00am 8.3 7.4 7.7 96 0.3 NW 2 - 1 - - 2.0 - - - - -

WEST AND SOUTH GIPPSLAND

  Date/Time
EST
Temp
°C
App
Temp
°C
Dew
Point
°C
Rel
Hum
%
Delta-T
°C
Wind Press
hPa
Rain since
9am
mm
Low
Temp
°C

time
High
Temp
°C

time
Highest Wind Gust
Dir  Spd
km/h
Gust
km/h
Spd
kts
Gust
kts
 Dir  km/h
time
kts
time
East Sale 30/07:00pm 7.1 3.2 5.3 88 0.8 WNW 15 20 8 11 1025.4 3.6 7.0
07:00pm
12.6
08:57am
W 46
04:06pm
25
04:06pm
Hogan Island 30/07:00pm 10.4 - 10.7 - - WSW 54 67 29 36 1022.6 2.6 10.4
07:00pm
12.3
06:40am
WNW 100
06:04am
54
06:04am
Latrobe Valley 30/07:00pm 6.5 1.6 4.0 84 1.1 W 19 24 10 13 1025.5 6.0 6.1
06:09pm
11.6
07:58am
SW 61
03:02pm
33
03:02pm
Mount Baw Baw 30/07:00pm -2.1 -8.9 -2.2 99 -0.1 W 24 39 - 21 - 13.6 -2.2
06:40pm
0.5
07:49am
W 43
02:59pm
23
02:59pm
Mount Moornapa 30/07:00pm 5.3 1.4 3.2 86 0.9 W 13 20 7 11 - 2.2 5.0
06:17pm
10.1
09:50am
WSW 33
02:46pm
18
02:46pm
Warragul (Nilma North) 30/07:00pm 6.3 4.3 4.5 88 0.8 WNW 4 6 2 3 1026.2 11.8 6.3
07:00pm
11.4
07:33am
WNW 50
12:17pm
27
12:17pm
Wilsons Promontory 30/07:00pm 10.6 -2.9 4.9 68 2.6 WSW 65 87 35 47 1022.6 1.4 10.0
06:11pm
12.2
09:59am
WSW 100
04:03pm
54
04:03pm
Yanakie 30/07:00pm 10.1 4.0 4.7 69 2.4 SW 26 37 14 20 1024.9 3.4 8.9
06:01pm
13.1
11:58am
SW 67
03:47pm
36
03:47pm
Yarram Airport 30/07:00pm 6.5 2.8 4.7 88 0.8 WSW 13 19 7 10 1024.9 4.0 6.5
07:00pm
12.3
12:58pm
SW 61
01:33pm
33
01:33pm

EAST GIPPSLAND

  Date/Time
EST
Temp
°C
App
Temp
°C
Dew
Point
°C
Rel
Hum
%
Delta-T
°C
Wind Press
hPa
Rain since
9am
mm
Low
Temp
°C

time
High
Temp
°C

time
Highest Wind Gust
Dir  Spd
km/h
Gust
km/h
Spd
kts
Gust
kts
 Dir  km/h
time
kts
time
Bairnsdale 30/07:00pm 7.0 1.8 3.6 79 1.4 W 20 26 11 14 1025.0 0.2 6.9
06:31pm
13.2
11:39am
WSW 54
04:32pm
29
04:32pm
Combienbar 30/07:00pm 4.6 2.4 3.6 93 0.4 SSW 4 13 2 7 1022.7 0.2 4.5
07:00pm
13.1
10:13am
W 32
11:23am
17
11:23am
Gabo Island 30/07:00pm 11.2 3.9 7.0 75 2.0 W 35 46 19 25 1022.3 0.0 10.5
06:42pm
16.6
12:44pm
WSW 61
03:10pm
33
03:10pm
Gelantipy 30/07:00pm 3.7 -1.4 3.1 96 0.3 SW 19 28 10 15 1023.0 6.2 3.7
07:00pm
9.1
01:14pm
SW 37
04:56pm
20
04:56pm
Kingfish B 30/05:50pm 13.9 4.5 5.2 55 4.1 SSW 44 56 24 30 1021.8 - - - - - -
Lakes Entrance 30/09:00am 12.7 7.6 6.0 63 3.2 NW 22 - 12 - - 0.0 - - - - -
Mallacoota 30/07:00pm 9.5 5.2 6.8 83 1.3 W 19 30 10 16 1022.2 0.0 9.5
07:00pm
17.3
12:42pm
WSW 39
02:55pm
21
02:55pm
Mount Nowa Nowa 30/07:00pm 5.6 1.3 3.4 86 0.9 W 15 33 8 18 - 0.4 5.4
06:46pm
10.7
10:59am
W 39
05:30pm
21
05:30pm
Omeo 30/07:00pm 3.1 -0.4 1.5 89 0.6 SSE 9 15 5 8 1024.0 2.2 3.1
07:00pm
9.5
11:49am
- 39
10:00am
21
10:00am
Orbost 30/07:00pm 8.7 5.0 4.5 75 1.8 WNW 13 28 7 15 1024.3 0.6 8.7
07:00pm
14.6
10:57am
W 30
04:34pm
16
04:34pm
Point Hicks 30/09:00am 10.9 6.7 3.7 61 3.2 NNW 15 - 8 - - 0.0 - - - - -

MOBILE

  Date/Time
EST
Temp
°C
App
Temp
°C
Dew
Point
°C
Rel
Hum
%
Delta-T
°C
Wind Press
hPa
Rain since
9am
mm
Low
Temp
°C

time
High
Temp
°C

time
Highest Wind Gust
Dir  Spd
km/h
Gust
km/h
Spd
kts
Gust
kts
 Dir  km/h
time
kts
time

Weather station information

  • Kingfish B weather observations are provided by ExxonMobil.
  • ** Mobile - Stations labelled "Mobile" are mobile AWS sited at a location for short periods.