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Streamflow average

Source

Bureau of Meteorology. Streamflow data as provided by lead water organisations and agencies around the country. Material (pages, documents, online graphs) on this web site is subject to copyright. Please refer to the Copyright Notice and Disclaimer statements relating to use of the material.

Purpose

The 'streamflow average' layer provides the spatial distribution of streamflow measured in streams, rivers or creeks for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The 'streamflow average' map shows how much streamflow has occurred in the streams, rivers or creeks for the assessment time period and area chosen. The streamflow is expresssed as the daily streamflow averaged over a period of interest. Streamflow is the measured volume of water in streams, rivers, creeks or other channels in time and at a certain location. Streamflow time series data are collected from approximately 3500 measurement stations across Australia are included in this analysis. Depending on the data availability there may be only a subset of these gauging stations represented.

The monthly and annual 'streamflow total' maps are based on the daily streamflow data generated from streamflow observations provided to the Bureau of Meteorology. The maps show the streamflow quantities across Australia in the form of a point data set representing the values for gauging stations. Each point represents a gauging station value expressed as the average flow per day within a chosen period.

The colours are graded to represent different amounts of streamflow from light blue (small amounts of average streamflow) to dark blue (high streamflow amounts).

Reference:

Streamflow decile

Source

Bureau of Meteorology. Streamflow data as provided by lead water organisations and agencies around the country. Material (pages, documents, online graphs) on this web site is subject to copyright. Please refer to the Copyright Notice and Disclaimer statements relating to use of the material.

Purpose

The 'streamflow decile' layer provides the spatial distribution of the deciles of streamflow measured in streams, rivers or creeks for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The streamflow decile map shows whether streamflow is above average, average or below average for the time period and area chosen. Deciles give an element a ranking, compared with the average for streamflow gauging stations in an area. Streamflow is the measured volume of water in streams, rivers, creeks or other channels in time and at a certain location. Streamflow time series data are collected from approximately 3500 measurement stations across Australia are included in this analysis. However only a subset of these stations will be shown for the streamflow decile analysis, as there are less gauging stations available that contain long-term time series.

The monthly and annual 'streamflow decile' maps are based on the daily streamflow data generated as per streamflow data provided to the Bureau of Meteorology. The maps show the streamflow decile across Australia in the form of a point data set representing the values for gauging stations. Each point represents a gauging station value expressed as decile ranking value within a chosen period.

The decile analyses are computer generated using a standard climate data analysis technique to compare current with past conditions. Annual and monthly deciles maps (July–June) are based on the long-term reference period (since July 1975). The 1975 was chosen as a starting period given a good coverage of streamflow gauging stations across the country.

To calculate deciles actual evapotranspiration total data is ranked into ten equal parts (i.e. ten blocks of 10%). The first group (the lowest 10% of actual evapotranspiration totals on reference period) would be in decile 1, the second group in decile 2, up to the highest 10% of actual evapotranspiration totals being in decile 10.

A streamflow total in decile 10 would be in the top 10%, higher than (at least) 90% of previous monthly observations. The data shows also the lowest and highest value being recorded within the reference period.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of streamflow from blue (above average) to white (average) and red (below average).

Streamflow anomaly

Source

Bureau of Meteorology. Streamflow data as provided by lead water organisations and agencies around the country. Material (pages, documents, online graphs) on this web site is subject to copyright. Please refer to the Copyright Notice and Disclaimer statements relating to use of the material.

Purpose

The 'streamflow anomaly' layer provides the spatial distribution of abnormal streamflow, expressed as the variation from average, for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The 'streamflow anomaly' map shows the volume of streamflow that is above average or below average for the time period and area chosen. Streamflow is the measured volume of water in streams, rivers, creeks or other channels in time and at a certain location.

The monthly and annual ‘streamflow anomaly’ point data sets are based on the daily streamflow from data provided to the Bureau of Meteorology. The maps show the streamflow anomaly across Australia in the form of a point data set representing the values for gauging stations expressed as the average daily flow volume above or below the average within a chosen period. Streamflow time series data are collected from approximately 3500 measurement stations across Australia are included in this analysis. However only a subset of these stations will be shown for the streamflow anomaly analysis given there are less gauging stations available that contain long-term time series.

Annual and monthly 'streamflow anomaly' maps are based on the long-term reference period (since July 1975). The 1975 was chosen as a starting period due to a good coverage of streamflow gauging stations across the country.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of streamflow that are above, below or on average ranging from dark red (streamflow amounts that are below average) to white (average) and blue/purple (above average). To see how much the streamflow in the current period was abnormal, the streamflow percentage maps should be consulted.

Streamflow percentage difference from mean

Source

Bureau of Meteorology. Streamflow data as provided by lead water organisations and agencies around the country. Material (pages, documents, online graphs) on this web site is subject to copyright. Please refer to the Copyright Notice and Disclaimer statements relating to use of the material.

Purpose

The 'streamflow percentage' layer provides the spatial distribution of the relative streamflow amounts for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The streamflow percentage map shows the relative streamflow that is above average respectively below the average for the time period and area chosen. Streamflow is the measured volume of water in streams, rivers, creeks or other channels in time and at a certain location.

The monthly and annual 'streamflow anomaly' point data sets are based on the daily streamflow from data provided to the Bureau of Meteorology. The maps show the streamflow anomaly across Australia in the form of a point data set representing the values for gauging stations expressed as the average daily flow volume above or below the average within a chosen period. Streamflow time series data are collected from approximately 3500 measurement stations across Australia are included in this analysis. However only a subset of these stations will be shown for the streamflow decile analysis given there are less gauging stations available that contain long-term time series.

Annual and monthly 'streamflow percentage' maps are based on the long-term reference period (since July 1975). The 1975 was chosen as a starting period given a good coverage of streamflow gauging stations across the country.

Percentages between 0% and 100% indicate lower than average streamflow, while percentages greater than 100% indicate higher than average streamflow.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of streamflow that are above, below or on average ranging from dark orange (streamflow percentage that are below average) to light colours (streamflow percentage that are on average) and green/blue/purple (streamflow percentage that are above average). It is quite difficult to tell from a streamflow percentage map if the streamflow has been highest or lowest on record. To see how the streamflow in the current period compares with previous years, the streamflow decile maps should be consulted.

Streamflow long-term average

Source

Bureau of Meteorology. Streamflow data as provided by lead water organisations and agencies around the country. Material (pages, documents, on-line graphs) on this web site is subject to copyright. Please refer to the Copyright Notice and Disclaimer statements relating to use of the material.

Purpose

The 'streamflow average' layer provides the spatial distribution of streamflow measured in streams, rivers or creeks for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The 'streamflow average' map shows how much streamflow has occurred in the streams, rivers or creeks for the long-term period and area chosen. Streamflow is the measured volume of water in streams, rivers, creeks or other channels in time and at a certain location. Streamflow time series data are collected from approximately 3500 measurement stations across Australia are included in this analysis. However only a subset of these stations will be shown for the long-term streamflow analysis, as there are less gauging stations available that contain long-term time series.

The monthly and annual 'streamflow long-term average' maps are based on the daily streamflow data generated as per streamflow data provided to the Bureau of Meteorology. The maps show the streamflow quantities across Australia in the form of a point data set representing the values for gauging stations. Each point represents a gauging station value expressed as the average flow per day within a chosen period.

Annual and monthly long-term maps are based on the long-term reference period (since July 1975). The 1975 was chosen as a starting period given a good coverage of streamflow gauging stations across the country.

The colours are graded to represent different amounts of streamflow from light blue (small amounts of average streamflow) to dark blue (high streamflow amounts).

Streamflow trend

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'streamflow trend' layer provides the spatial distribution of the trends of streamflow regimes for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The 'streamflow trend' map shows the amount that streamflow has changed over a period of time. Streamflow is the measured volume of water in streams, rivers, creek or other channels in time and at a certain location.

The streamflow trend analysis was carried out to determine the direction of change in streamflow volume and whether these changes are statistically significant. The streamflow trend periods shown are from 1975 onwards. The year 1975 was chosen as a starting period given a good coverage of streamflow gauging stations across the country.

Trend calculations are applied to different flow regimes: low flows (10% lowest streamflow), medium flows (50% streamflow), high flows (90% streamflow) and maximum flow (maximum streamflow) per gauging station. Trend values have been determined from a linear, straight line fit to the data. The trend analysis was also carried out to determine whether these changes are statistically significant. The significance levels are based on a linear regression t-test to determine whether the slope of the regression line differs significantly from zero. Significance levels of five per cent and ten per cent were chosen for the presentation of results, which are commonly used in statistics.

The trend maps are a useful way to compare how the streamflow has changed in different regions of Australia over time. However, they need to be interpreted with caution, depending on when the trend started and whether it was a gradual or step change.

The triangle represents the direction of change—pointing upwards for an increasing trend, pointing downwards for a decreasing trend and a circle for no trend. The colours are graded to show the strength of trend ranging from dark and light green (strongly and weakly significant increasing trend) to dark and light orange (strongly and weakly significant decreasing trend) as well white representing no significant trend.

Urban storage volumes

Source

Bureau of Meteorology. Storage data as provided by water organisations and agencies around the country. Material (pages, documents, online graphs) on this web site is subject to copyright. Please refer to the Copyright Notice and Disclaimer statements relating to use of the material.

Purpose

The 'urban storage volume' layer provides the spatial distribution of storage volumes relative to the storage capacity for storages that are (mainly) used for urban water supply, for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The 'urban storage volume' map shows how full urban storages were at the end of the selected period. Storage volume time series data from close to 90 storages across Australia are included in this analysis. Depending on the data availability there may be storages missing for certain time periods.

The colours are graded to represent differences in the levels of filling of the storages from dark orange (empty or close to empty storages) to dark blue (almost full to full storages).

Reference:

Rural storage volumes

Source

Bureau of Meteorology. Storage data as provided by water organisations and agencies around the country. Material (pages, documents, online graphs) on this web site is subject to copyright. Please refer to the Copyright Notice and Disclaimer statements relating to use of the material.

Purpose

The 'rural storage volume' layer provides the spatial distribution of storage volumes relative to the storage capacity for storages that are (mainly) used for irrigation water supply, for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The 'rural storage volume' map shows how full rural storages were at the end of the selected period. Storage volume time series data from close to 80 storages across Australia are included in this analysis. Depending on the data availability there may be storages missing for certain time periods.

The colours are graded to represent differences in the levels of filling of the storages from dark orange (empty or close to empty storages) to dark blue (almost full to full storages).

Reference:

Total water extraction/use

Source

Data sources for the total water use originated from various sources: State and Territory Departments, Murray–Darling Basin Authority, urban water utilities, National Water Commission, Australian Bureau of Statistics, local reports.

Purpose

The 'total water extraction/use' layer provides the regional distribution of the estimated total water volumes sourced from surface water, groundwater, desalination and recycling sources for the financial year and displays this at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The total water extraction/use map shows the estimated total water use within the Water in Australia regions for the chosen financial year and within different ranges. The definition of the total water extraction applied since 2014-15 and total water use applied for 2013-14 is that the first is limited to bulk water extractions from surface water and high yielding aquifers only, whereas the use volumes estimated for 2013-14 include estimates of unmetered water extractions from more local resources.

The delineation of the 63 regions for the 2013-14 estimates is based on the Bureau’s National Water Account regions (www.bom.gov.au/water/nwa), complemented by grouping of existing surface water and groundwater planning areas, putting the emphasis of the delineation on data availability. From 2014-15 onwards, State and Territory aggregates have been used due to limitations is the data availability.

The total extractions/use value for each region is aggregated from estimates of irrigation water use, urban water use, mining water use and (non-hydro) electricity generation water use.

The sources of irrigation water use data are described in the metadata information for the irrigation water use map.

The sources of urban water use data is described in the metadata for the urban water use map.

Mining water use data is sourced from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Water Account (www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4610.0) as an average of the three financial years before the reporting year. The information for the reporting year is not available before publication of RWI updates.

Electricity generation water use data is sourced from the Australia Bureau of Statistics Water Account (www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4610.0) as an average of the three financial years before the reporting year. The information for the reporting year is not available before publication of RWI updates.

Agricultural water extractions/use

Source

Data sources for irrigation water use originated from various sources: State and Territory Departments, Murray–Darling Basin Authority, Australian Bureau of Statistics, local reports.

Purpose

The 'agricultural water extractions/use' layer provides the regional distribution of the estimated irrigation water volumes sourced from surface water and groundwater for the financial year and displays this at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The agricultural water extraction/use map shows the estimated agricultural water use within the Water in Australia regions for the chosen financial year and within different ranges. The definition of the total water extraction applied since 2014-15 and total water use applied for 2013-14 is that the first is limited to bulk water extractions from surface water and high yielding aquifers only, whereas the use volumes estimated for 2013-14 include estimates of unmetered water extractions from more local resources.

For the 2013-14 estimates, data for the Murray–Darling Basin regions as well as the Sydney, Melbourne, South East Queensland (including Brisbane and the Gold coast), Perth, Adelaide, Canberra, Burdekin, Ord and Daly regions are sourced from the Bureau’s National Water Account product (www.bom.gov.au/water/nwa). Data for most coastal regions in Queensland is sourced from SunWater’s 2013–14 annual report (www.sunwater.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/13975/SunWater_Annual-Report_2013-2014_web.pdf). Data for other regions originated from water department reports of the various States and Territories, local reports (particularly water management plans) and, where there was no other data available, from Australian Water Resources 2005 data (www.water.gov.au). Information for Tasmania was provided by the Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment.

Since 2014-15 data was provided by the State and Territory Departments in charge of water resources management.

Urban water extractions/use

Source

Data sources for urban water use originated from Water utilities, Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Purpose

The 'urban water use' layer provides the regional distribution of the estimated urban water volumes sourced from surface water, groundwater, marine desalination plants and recycling plants for the financial year and displays this at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The urban water extraction/use map shows the estimated urban water use within the Water in Australia regions for the chosen financial year and within different ranges. The definition of the total water extraction applied since 2014-15 and total water use applied for 2013-14 is that the first is limited to bulk water extractions from surface water and high yielding aquifers only, whereas the use volumes estimated for 2013-14 include estimates of unmetered water extractions from more local resources.

The main source for the 2013-14 estimates of urban water use data is the Bureau’s National Performance Report: Urban Water Utilities (www.bom.gov.au/water/npr). Total sourced volumes (including from recycling) provided by the majority of the urban water utilities has been redistributed over the 63 regions according to spatially distributed population data from the Australia Bureau of Statistics www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/1270.0.55.0072011?OpenDocument).

Self-extracted urban water use (towns) is added using the ratio between self-extracted and supplied residential and industrial water use data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ Water Account 2012–13 (www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4610.0) for each State and Territory.

The remainder of the ABS 2012–13 self-extracted use estimates at State/Territory level that had not been allocated to a region was distributed over the regions with no urban water utility present, according to population data of these regions. Information for Tasmania was provided by the Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment.

Since 2014-15, data used was limited to the Bureau’s National Performance Report: Urban Water Utilities only.

Groundwater Level Trend

Source

Trends derived by Bureau of Meteorology, original groundwater level data:

Department Natural Resources and Mine (QLD)

Department of Land Resource Management (NT)

Department of Water (WA)

Water Corporation (WA)

Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources (SA)

Department of Environment and Primary Industries (Vic)

Department of Primary Industries, Office of Water (NSW)

Department of Primary Industries (Tas)

Environment and Sustainable Development Directorate (ACT)

Purpose

Groundwater level trends represent the linear trend in groundwater levels over time for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal. Trends are only shown for select bores which meet minimum data requirements.

Abstract

Trends in groundwater level are estimated by fitting an ordinary least squares linear trend line to the data and assigning a trend based on the gradient on this line. The trends are calculated for a 5 year periods.

Trends are only shown for select bores that meet a minimum data requirement. The criteria for bore selection are:

For 5 years trend - 10 or more data points and at least one reading per year for 4 years out of the 5 will be required. The threshold for a stable trend is anything less than ±10cm/year, this has been chosen to reflect the typical accuracy of the data.

Multiple values within a month are averaged to a single monthly value. This avoids undue weighting from clusters of data.

Detailed discussion of the choice of methodology is found in the Bureau's groundwater trends discussion paper

Groundwater Level Status

Source

Trends derived by Bureau of Meteorology, original groundwater level data:

Department Natural Resources and Mine (QLD)

Department of Land Resource Management (NT)

Department of Water (WA)

Water Corporation (WA)

Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources (SA)

Department of Environment and Primary Industries (Vic)

Department of Primary Industries, Office of Water (NSW)

Department of Primary Industries (Tas)

Environment and Sustainable Development Directorate (ACT)

Purpose

Groundwater level status compares the recent groundwater level to the long term average level in a bore. Level status is only shown for select bores which meet minimum data requirements.

Abstract

Groundwater level status is calculated for bores with 20 years of data or more. The average level over the reference financial year is compared to levels over the past 20 years.

Level status is assigned on the following criteria:

If the recent level is above 70% of previous readings the status is "Above average"

If the recent level is below 30% of previous readings the status is "Below average"

Otherwise the status is "average"

Water quality - Streamflow salinity (median and variability)

Source

Bureau of Meteorology. Streamflow salinity data as provided by lead water organisations and agencies around the country. Material (pages, documents, online graphs) on this web site is subject to copyright. Please refer to the Copyright Notice and Disclaimer statements relating to use of the material.

Purpose

For each year and month the median value from the daily data is calculated and classified according to fresh, fresh to marginal, brackish and saline to give an indication of the usability of the water. The variability is given in the form of "Coefficient of Variation" to give an expression of how much the salinity in the water varies from the median.

Abstract

Streamflow salinity is expressed in Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, mg/L), which is derived from Electric Conductivity values (microSiemens/cm), using a 0.65 conversion factor.

The classes use for the median streamflow salinity map roughly coincide with usability levels for human drinking water, stock drinking water, irrigation water and beyond, although definitions for these class differ between jurisdictions.

Water quality - Groundwater salinity

Source

Average salinity derived by Bureau of Meteorology, original groundwater salinity data:

Department Natural Resources and Mine (QLD)

Department of Land Resource Management (NT)

Department of Water (WA)

Water Corporation (WA)

Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources (SA)

Department of Environment and Primary Industries (Vic)

Department of Primary Industries, Office of Water (NSW)

Department of Primary Industries (Tas)

Purpose

The 20-year average salinity map shows the average salinity in groundwater bores over a 20-year period. The data is classed into beneficial use categories.

Abstract

The 20-year average salinity map shows the average salinity in groundwater bores over a 20-year period. The period aligns with financial years and is specified in the name of each map. Bores with 2 or more salinity readings for the period are included in the data.

The bores are symbolised according to their beneficial use category, as described in the table below. Data in EC has been converted to TDS using a conversion factor of 0.67.

Beneficial
use
Fresh to marginal,
<1000 mg/L TDS
Brackish,
1000–3000 mg/L TDS
Saline,
3000–35 000 mg/L TDS
Hyper saline,
> 35 000 mg/L TDS
Potable Yes No No No
Irrigation Yes Yes No No
Industry Yes Yes Yes Yes
Rainfall total

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'rainfall total' layer provides the spatial distribution of rainfall amounts for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The monthly and annual 'rainfall total' grid are derived from the daily rainfall observations by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the rainfall values across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data. The analyses (grids) are computer generated using an optimised Barnes successive correction technique that applies a weighted averaging process to the station data. Topographical information is included by the use of rainfall ratio (actual rainfall divided by monthly average) in the analysis process.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometre (0.05 degrees).This grid-point analysis technique provides an objective average for each grid square and enables useful estimates in data-sparse areas such as central Australia. However, in data-rich areas such as southeastern Australia or in regions with strong gradients, "data smoothing" will occur resulting in grid-point values that may differ slightly from the exact rainfall amount measured at the contributing stations.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of rainfall from light orange (no or very small amounts of rainfall) to green (medium rainfall amounts) and blue/purple (high rainfall amounts).

Rainfall decile

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'Rainfall decile' layer provides the spatial distribution of rainfall deciles for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The rainfall decile map shows whether rainfall is above average, average or below average for the time period and area chosen. Deciles give an element a ranking, compared with the average for an area. The monthly and annual 'rainfall decile' grids are based on the daily rainfall data by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the rainfall decile across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data. The analyses (grids) are computer generated using a standard climate data analysis technique to compare current with past conditions. Annual and monthly rainfall deciles grids (July–June) are based on the long-term reference period (July 1911–June 2014).

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometre (0.05 degrees).

To calculate deciles rainfall total data is ranked into ten equal parts (i.e. ten blocks of 10%). The first group (the lowest 10% of rainfall totals on reference period) would be in decile 1, the second group in decile 2, up to the highest 10% of rainfall totals being in decile 10.

A rainfall total in decile 10 would be in the top 10%, higher than (at least) 90% of previous monthly observations. The highest total on reference period is at the very top of decile 10, while the lowest total is at the bottom of decile 1. The colours are graded to represent the amounts of rainfall from blue (above average) to white (average) and red (below average).

Rainfall anomaly

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'rainfall anomaly' layer provides the spatial distribution of rainfall amounts, expressed as the variation from average, for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The rainfall anomaly map shows by how much rainfall is above average or below average for the time period and area chosen. Anomalies denote the departure of an element from its long-period average value for the location concerned. The monthly and annual 'rainfall anomaly' grids are based on the daily rainfall observations by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the rainfall anomaly across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data. The analyses (grids) are computer generated using a standard climate data analysis technique to compare current with past conditions. Annual and monthly anomaly grids (July–June) are based on the long-term reference period (starting July 1911).

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometre (0.05 degrees). The colours are graded to represent the amounts of rainfall that are above, below or on average ranging from dark red (rainfall amounts that are below average) to white (average) and blue/purple (above average). To see how much the rainfall in the current period was abnormal, the rainfall percentage maps should be consulted.

Rainfall percentage difference from mean

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'Rainfall percentage' layer provides the spatial distribution of the relative, abnormal rainfall amounts for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The rainfall percentage map shows the relative amount of rainfall that is above average respectively below the average for the time period and area chosen. The monthly and annual 'Rainfall percentage' grids are based on the daily rainfall data by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the rainfall percentage across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data. The analyses (grids) are computer generated using a standard climate data analysis technique to compare current with past conditions. Annual and monthly percentage grids (July–June) are based on the long-term reference period (starting July 1911).

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometre (0.05 degrees). Percentages between 0% and 100% indicate lower than average rainfalls, while percentages greater than 100% indicate higher than average rainfalls. In some northern parts of the country, dry season rainfalls are often very low, and weeks or even months may go by without any rainfall being recorded. In these places and times of the year, the monthly rainfalls may be below average (that is, percentages less than 100%) in rather more than 50% of years.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of rainfall that are above, below or on average ranging from dark orange (rainfall percentage that are below average) to light colours (rainfall percentage that are on average) and green/blue/purple (rainfall percentage that are above average). It is quite difficult to tell from a rainfall percentages map if the rainfall has been highest or lowest on record. To see how the rainfall in the current period compares with previous years, the rainfall deciles maps should be consulted.

Rainfall long-term average

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'Rainfall long-term' layer provides the spatial distribution of the long-term rainfall amounts for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The rainfall long-term map shows the amount of rainfall averaged over a time period of more than 100 years and an area chosen. The monthly and annual 'Rainfall long-term' grids are based on the daily rainfall data by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the average rainfall amounts across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data. Annual and monthly rainfall grids (July–June) are based on the long-term reference period from July 1911 onwards.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometre (0.05 degrees). The colours are graded to represent the amounts of rainfall from light orange (no or very small amounts of rainfall) to green (medium rainfall amounts) and blue/purple (high rainfall amounts).

Rainfall trend

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'Rainfall trend' layer provides the spatial distribution of the trends of rainfall amounts for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The rainfall trend map shows the amount of rainfall that has been changed over a period of time. It shows whether there was an increasing or decreasing trend, respectively no trend for several starting time periods and area chosen. The monthly and annual 'Rainfall trend' grids are based on the daily rainfall data by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the rainfall change across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data. The analyses (grids) are computer generated using a standard climate data analysis technique to compare current with past conditions.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometre (0.05 degrees). The rainfall trend periods shown are since 1950, 1960 and 1970 and are expressed as mm change per decade. Trend values have been determined from a linear, straight line fit to the data, but the change may not have been gradual. The trend maps are a useful way to compare how the rainfall has changed in different regions of Australia over time. However, they need to be interpreted with caution, depending on when the trend started and whether it was a gradual or step change.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of rainfall trends that are above, below or on average ranging from brown (decreasing rainfall trends) to light colours (small amounts of rainfall trends) and green (increasing rainfall trends).

Rainfall minus evapotranspiration total

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'rainfall minus evapotranspiration total' layer provides the spatial distribution of the rainfall minus actual evapotranspiration amounts for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The rainfall minus evapotranspiration total map shows how much of the rainfall was left in the landscape after actual evapotranspiration processes return the water to the atmosphere for the time period and area chosen. Actual evapotranspiration is defined as the quantity of water that is actually removed by the processes of evaporation and transpiration.

The monthly and annual 'rainfall minus evapotranspiration total' grids are based on the daily rainfall data and actual evapotranspiration data from the AWRA model and generated by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the rainfall minus evapotranspiration across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

On the maps each grid-point represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometer (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of rainfall minus evapotranspiration from light orange (negative amounts of rainfall minus evapotranspiration) to green (medium rainfall minus evapotranspiration amounts) and blue/purple (high rainfall minus evapotranspiration amounts).

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Rainfall minus evapotranspiration decile

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'rainfall minus evapotranspiration decile' layer provides the spatial distribution of the rainfall minus evapotranspiration deciles for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The rainfall minus evapotranspiration decile map shows whether rainfall minus evapotranspiration is above average, average or below average for the time period and area chosen. Deciles give an element a ranking, compared with the average for an area. Evapotranspiration is the quantity of water that is actually removed by the processes of evaporation and transpiration.

The monthly and annual 'rainfall minus evapotranspiration decile' grids are based on the daily rainfall data and actual evapotranspiration data from the AWRA model and generated by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the rainfall minus evapotranspiration across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

On the maps each grid-point represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometer (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

To calculate deciles rainfall minus evapotranspiration total data is ranked into ten equal parts (i.e. ten blocks of 10%). The first group (the lowest 10% of rainfall minus evapotranspiration totals on reference period) would be in decile 1, the second group in decile 2, up to the highest 10% of rainfall minus evapotranspiration totals being in decile 10.

An rainfall minus evapotranspiration total in decile 10 would be in the top 10%, higher than (at least) 90% of previous monthly observations. The highest total within the reference period is at the top of decile 10, while the lowest total is at the bottom of decile 1.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of rainfall minus evapotranspiration from blue (above average) to white (average) and red (below average).

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Rainfall minus evapotranspiration anomaly

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'rainfall minus evapotranspiration anomaly' layer provides the spatial distribution of rainfall minus evapotranspiration, expressed as the variation from average, for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The rainfall minus evapotranspiration anomaly map shows by how much rainfall minus evapotranspiration is above average or below average for the time period and area chosen. Evapotranspiration is the quantity of water that is actually removed by the processes of evaporation and transpiration.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometer (0.05 degrees).

The monthly and annual 'rainfall minus evapotranspiration anomaly' grids are based on the daily rainfall data and actual evapotranspiration data from the AWRA model and generated by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the rainfall minus evapotranspiration across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

On the maps each grid-point represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometer (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of rainfall minus evapotranspiration that are above, below or on average ranging from dark red (rainfall minus evapotranspiration amounts that are below average) to white (average) and blue/purple (above average).

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Rainfall minus evapotranspiration long-term average

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'rainfall minus evapotranspiration long-term' layer provides the spatial distribution of the long-term rainfall minus evapotranspiration amounts for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The rainfall minus evapotranspiration long-term map shows the amount of rainfall minus evapotranspiration for a time period of more than 100 years and an area chosen. Evapotranspiration is the quantity of water that is actually removed by the processes of evaporation and transpiration.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometer (0.05 degrees).

The 'long-term rainfall minus evapotranspiration' grids are based on the daily rainfall data and actual evapotranspiration data from the AWRA model and generated by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the rainfall minus evapotranspiration across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

On the maps each grid-point represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometer (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of rainfall minus evapotranspiration from light orange (no or very small amounts of rainfall minus evapotranspiration) to green (medium rainfall minus evapotranspiration amounts) and blue/purple (high rainfall minus evapotranspiration amounts). To see how the rainfall minus evapotranspiration in the current period compares with previous years, the rainfall minus evapotranspiration deciles maps should be consulted.

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Rainfall minus evapotranspiration trend

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'rainfall minus evapotranspiration trend' layer provides the spatial distribution of the trends of rainfall minus evapotranspiration for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The rainfall minus evapotranspiration trend map shows the amount of rainfall minus evapotranspiration that has been changed over a period of time. It shows whether there was an increasing or decreasing trend, respectively no trend for several starting time periods and area chosen.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometer (0.05 degrees).

The monthly and annual 'rainfall minus evapotranspiration trend' grids are based on the daily rainfall data and actual evapotranspiration data from the AWRA model and generated by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the rainfall minus evapotranspiration across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

On the maps each grid-point represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometer (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

The rainfall minus evapotranspiration trend periods shown are since 1950, 1960 and 1970 and are expressed as mm change per decade. Trend values have been determined from a linear regression straight line fit to the data, however the change may not have been gradual. The trend maps are a useful way to compare how the rainfall minus evapotranspiration has changed in different regions of Australia over time. However, they need to be interpreted with caution, depending on when the trend started and whether it was a gradual or step change.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of rainfall minus evapotranspiration trends that are above, below or on average ranging from brown (decreasing rainfall minus evapotranspiration trends) to light colours (small amounts of rainfall minus evapotranspiration trends) and green (increasing rainfall minus evapotranspiration trends).

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Soil moisture average

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'soil moisture average' layer provides the spatial distribution of the water content in the top 100 cm of the unsaturated zone of a soil profile for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The soil moisture average map shows how much moisture on average has occurred in the soil profile for a time period and area chosen. Soil moisture is the water content in the unsaturated zone of a soil profile.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometre (0.05 degrees).

The monthly and annual 'soil moisture average' grids are based on the daily soil moisture data generated by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the soil moisture across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of soil moisture from light orange (small amounts of moisture) to green (medium soil moisture amounts) and blue/purple (high soil moisture amounts).

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Soil moisture decile

Creation date

15-10-2015

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'soil moisture decile' layer provides the spatial distribution of the soil moisture deciles for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The soil moisture decile map shows whether soil moisture is above average, average or below average for the time period and area chosen. Deciles give an element a ranking, compared with the average for an area. Soil moisture is the water content in the top 100 cm of the unsaturated zone of a soil profile.

The monthly and annual ‘soil moisture decile’ grids are based on the daily soil moisture data generated by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the soil moisture across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometre (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

The decile analyses (grids) are computer generated using a standard climate data analysis technique to compare current with past conditions. Annual and monthly potential deciles grids (July–June) are based on the long-term reference period (July 1911–June 2014).

To calculate deciles soil moisture total data is ranked into ten equal parts (i.e. ten blocks of 10%). The first group (the lowest 10% of soil moisture totals on reference period) would be in decile 1, the second group in decile 2, up to the highest 10% of soil moisture totals being in decile 10.

A soil moisture total in decile 10 would be in the top 10%, higher than (at least) 90% of previous monthly observations. The highest total on reference period is at the very top of decile 10, while the lowest total is at the bottom of decile 1.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of soil moisture from blue (above average) to white (average) and red (below average).

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Soil moisture anomaly

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'soil moisture anomaly' layer provides the spatial distribution of soil moisture expressed as the variation from average, for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The soil moisture anomaly map shows by how much moisture is above average or below average for the time period and area chosen. Soil moisture is the water content in the top 100 cm of the unsaturated zone of a soil profile.

The monthly and annual ‘soil moisture anomaly’ grids are based on the daily soil moisture data by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the soil moisture across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometre (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of soil moisture that are above, below or on average ranging from dark red (soil moisture amounts that are below average) to white (average) and blue/purple (above average). To see how much the soil moisture in the current period was abnormal, the soil moisture percentage maps should be consulted.

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Soil moisture percentage difference from mean

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'soil moisture percentage' layer provides the spatial distribution of the relative, soil moisture amounts for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The soil moisture percentage map shows the relative amount of soil moisture that is above average respectively below the average for the time period and area chosen. Soil moisture is the water content in the top 100 cm of the unsaturated zone of a soil profile.

The monthly and annual 'soil moisture percentage' grids are based on the daily soil moisture data by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the soil moisture across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometre (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

Percentages between 0% and 100% indicate lower than average soil moisture, while percentages greater than 100% indicate higher than average soil moisture.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of soil moisture that are above, below or on average ranging from dark orange (soil moisture percentages that are below average) to light colours (soil moisture percentages that are around average) and green/blue/purple (soil moisture percentages that are above average). It is quite difficult to tell from a soil moisture percentage map if the soil moisture has been highest or lowest on record. To see how the soil moisture in the current period compares with previous years, the soil moisture deciles maps should be consulted.

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Soil moisture long-term average

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'soil moisture long-term average' layer provides the spatial distribution of the long-term soil moisture amounts for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The soil moisture long-term average map shows the amount of soil moisture averaged over a time period of more than 100 years and an area chosen. Soil moisture is the water content in the top 100cm of the unsaturated zone of a soil profile.

The monthly and annual ‘soil moisture total’ grids are based on the daily soil moisture data generated by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the soil moisture across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometre (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of soil moisture from light orange (small amounts of potential soil moisture) to green (medium soil moisture amounts) and blue/purple (high soil moisture amounts).

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Soil moisture trend

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'soil moisture trend' layer provides the spatial distribution of the trends of soil moisture amounts for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The soil moisture trend map shows the amount of soil moisture that has been changed over a period of time. It shows whether there was an increasing or decreasing trend, respectively no trend for several starting time periods and area chosen.

The monthly and annual 'soil moisture trend' grids are based on the daily soil moisture data by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the soil moisture across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometre (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

The particular AWRA-L variable used for deriving this layer is soil moisture as a sum of top (S0), shallow (Ss) and deep (Sd) soil layers soil layers covering from 0-100cm.

The soil moisture trend periods shown are since 1950, 1960 and 1970 and are expressed as mm change per decade. Trend values have been determined from a linear, straight line, fit to the data, but the change may not have been gradual. The trend maps are a useful way to compare how the soil moisture has changed in different regions of Australia over time. However, they need to be interpreted with caution, depending on when the trend started and whether it was a gradual or step change.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of soil moisture trends that are above, below or on average ranging from brown (decreasing soil moisture trends) to light colours (small amounts of soil moisture trends) and green (increasing soil moisture trends).

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Runoff total

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'runoff total' layer provides the spatial distribution of the landscape ability to generate water for streamflow for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The 'runoff total' map shows how much runoff has occurred in the landscape for the time period and area chosen. Runoff is defined as base flow from groundwater, overland flow from the surface and water content in the unsaturated zone that is contributing to streamflow.

The monthly and annual 'runoff total' grids are based on the daily runoff data generated by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the runoff across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometer (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of runoff from light orange (small amounts of potential runoff) to green (medium runoff amounts) and blue/purple (high runoff amounts).

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Runoff decile

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'runoff decile' layer provides the spatial distribution of the deciles of the landscape’s ability to generate water for streamflow for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The runoff decile map shows whether runoff is above average, average or below average for the time period and area chosen. Runoff is the overland flow combined with water content in the unsaturated zone that is contributing to streamflow. Deciles give an element a ranking, compared with the average for an area. Runoff is defined as base flow from groundwater, overland flow from the surface and water content in the unsaturated zone that is contributing to streamflow.

The monthly and annual 'runoff decile' grids are based on the daily runoff data generated by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the runoff across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometer (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

The decile analyses (grids) are computer generated using a standard climate data analysis technique to compare current with past conditions. Annual and monthly potential deciles grids (July-June) are based on the long-term reference period (July 1911-June 2014). The analyses (grids) are computer generated using a standard climate data analysis technique to compare current with past conditions.

To calculate deciles runoff total data is ranked into ten equal parts (i.e. ten blocks of 10%). The first group (the lowest 10% of runoff totals on reference period) would be in decile range one, the second group in decile range two, up to the highest 10% of runoff totals being in decile range 10.

A runoff total decile range 10 would be in the top 10%, higher than (at least) 90% of previous monthly observations. The highest total on reference period is at the very top of decile range 10, while the lowest total is at the bottom of decile range 1.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of runoff from blue (above average) to white (average) and red (below average).

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Runoff anomaly

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'runoff anomaly' layer provides the spatial distribution of runoff amounts, expressed as the variation from average, for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The runoff anomaly map shows by how much runoff is above average or below average for the time period and area chosen. Runoff is defined as base flow from groundwater, overland flow from the surface and water content in the unsaturated zone that is contributing to streamflow.

The monthly and annual 'runoff anomaly' grids are based on the daily runoff data generated by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the runoff anomaly across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometer (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of runoff that are above, below or on average ranging from dark red (runoff amounts that are below average) to white (average) and blue/purple (above average). To see how much the runoff in the current period was abnormal, the runoff percentage maps should be consulted.

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Runoff percentage difference from mean

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'runoff percentage' layer provides the spatial distribution of the relative, runoff amounts for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The runoff percentage map shows the relative amount of runoff that is above average respectively below the average for the time period and area chosen. Runoff is defined as base flow from groundwater, overland flow from the surface and water content in the unsaturated zone that is contributing to streamflow.

The monthly and annual 'runoff percentage' grids are based on the daily runoff data generated by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the runoff across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometer (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

Percentages between 0% and 100% indicate lower than average runoff, while percentages greater than 100% indicate higher than average runoff.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of runoff that are above, below or on average ranging from dark orange (runoff percentage that are below average) to light colours (runoff percentage that are on average) and green/blue/purple (runoff percentage that are above average). It is quite difficult to tell from a runoff percentage map if the runoff has been highest or lowest on record. To see how the runoff in the current period compares with previous years, the runoff deciles maps should be consulted.

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Runoff long-term average

Creation date

15-10-2015

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'runoff long-term average' layer provides the spatial distribution of the long-term runoff amounts for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The runoff long-term average map shows the amount of runoff averaged over a time period of more than 100 years and an area chosen. Runoff is defined as base flow from groundwater, overland flow from the surface and water content in the unsaturated zone that is contributing to streamflow.

The 'long-term runoff total' grids are based on the daily runoff data generated by the Bureau of Meteorology. The grids show the runoff across Australia in the form of two-dimensional array data.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometer (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of runoff from light orange (small amounts of potential runoff) to green (medium runoff amounts) and blue/purple (high runoff amounts).

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.

Runoff trend

Source

Bureau of Meteorology

Purpose

The 'runoff trend' layer provides the spatial distribution of the trends of runoff amounts for display at a national scale in the Regional Water Information portal.

Abstract

The runoff trend map shows the amount of runoff that has been changed over a period of time. It shows whether there was an increasing or decreasing trend, respectively no trend for several starting time periods and area chosen. The monthly and annual ‘runoff trend’ grids are based on the daily runoff data by the Bureau of Meteorology.

Each grid-point on the map represents an approximately square area with sides of about 5 kilometer (0.05 degrees).

The analyses (grids) are computer generated using the results from the Australian Water Resource Assessment Landscape water balance model, AWRA-L (Viney et al., 2015). AWRA-L is a one-dimensional, grid based water balance model over the continent that has semi-distributed representation of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores. AWRA-L models hydrological processes for: (a) saturation excess overland flow depending on groundwater store saturation level, (b) infiltration versus Hortonian, hence infiltration excess overland flow, (c) saturation, interflow, drainage and evapotranspiration from soil layers, and (d) baseflow, evaporation and capillary rise from the groundwater store; with the soil layers modelled separately for shallow- and deep-rooted hydrological response units.

Soil moisture decile

AWRA-L is calibrated to streamflow for the period 1/1/1981-30/12/2011 from 295 calibration catchments from the set of 780 national unimpaired catchments collated by Zhang et al. (2013). AWRA-L performs better in some parts of Australia than others. Experiments to improve performance in future versions of AWRA-L according to streamflow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge are currently being undertaken.

The runoff trend periods shown are since 1950, 1960 and 1970 and are expressed as mm change per decade. Trend values have been determined from a linear regression straight line, fit to the data, but the change may not have been gradual. The trend maps are a useful way to compare how the runoff has changed in different regions of Australia over time. However, they need to be interpreted with caution, depending on the time started. Also changes may not have been occurred gradual rather than in step changes.

The colours are graded to represent the amounts of runoff trends that are above, below or on average ranging from brown (decreasing runoff trends) to light colours (small amounts of runoff trends) and green (increasing runoff trends

Reference:

Viney, N, Vaze J, Crosbie R, Wang B, Dawes W and Frost A (2015) AWRA-L v5.0: technical description of model algorithms and inputs. CSIRO, Australia.

Zhang, Y.Q., Viney, N., Frost, A., Oke, A., Brooks, M., Chen, Y. and Campbell, N., 2013. Collation of streamflow and catchment attribute dataset for 780 unregulated Australian catchments, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship.


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