Wednesday, 3 January 2007 - Annual Climate Summary for South Australia - Product code IDCKGC33R0

 

Extremely Dry in South Australia for 2006

Summary

2006 over South Australia was one of the driest years since records began. Maximum temperatures were above average and while minimim temperatures were on average or close to the long term mean, there were above an average number of frosts at many locations during the second half of the year.

Rainfall

2006 over South Australia was one of the driest since records began with many stations recording only about 50% of their annual totals. In all but the far west below average annual totals were recorded.

The first four months of the year over the agricultural districts were near to or slightly above average, but thereafter conditions became unusually drier and rainfall for the remainder of the year was at record low levels. The pastoral regions also recorded very much below average rainfalls.

The spatially averaged annual rainfall over the agricultural areas of South Australia for 2006 was 253.5 mm which is the eighth driest since 1900. The driest was in 1967 when 202.5 mm was recorded. During winter 71.6 mm was recorded across the area, which is the sixth driest total. The record low winter rainfall was in 1914 with 43.2 mm. During spring 29.2 mm was recorded which is the record driest spring. For the winter-spring period the total rainfall was 100.8 mm which is the driest winter-spring on record, averaged over the agriccultural region.

Adelaide’s annual rainfall was 287.8 mm, 270.4 mm below the normal of 558.2 mm. This is the lowest annual rainfall at Kent Town and the second driest for Adelaide since the record of 257 mm was set in 1967. Adelaide’s records date back 167 years to 1839.

The wettest overall station was 781 mm at Mount Lofty, followed by 753 mm at Uraidla.

The driest overall was 43 mm at Oodnadatta, followed by 46 mm at Coober Pedy.

The wettest single day 102.0 mm at the Bundaleer Reservoir on 28 March, followed by 94.2 mm at Spalding on the same day.

The average annual rainfall over the pastoral districts of South Australia for 2006 was 129.4 mm, which is the 18th driest since 1900. The record driest was 81 mm in 1929.

Some sites had their lowest total 1 January to 31 December rainfall on record.

Temperature

The mean temperature for 2006 over South Australia was 20.3°C and 0.8°C above the 1961−90 mean making 2006the third warmest year since 1910. The record of 20.5°C was set in 2005. It is the 14th consecutive year that the State wide mean annual temperature has been above average.

Over the agricultural areas the average temp was 0.5°C above average.

Adelaide had an annual mean temperature of 17.6°C, 0.5°C above the normal of 17.1°C and the 10th warmest  year on record. The warmest annual mean temperature of 18.1°C occurred in 1914 and 1921.

Maximum temperature

The annual maximum temperature across the state of 27.8°C was 1.1°C above normal. This is the third warmest. The record set in 2005 when the annual average maxima was 28.1°C. The highest three years have been in the last 5 years – 2002 was 27.9°C, 2005 was 27.0°C and 2006 was 27.8°C

Over the agricultural areas the average maximum temperature was 1.1°C above average, over the pastoral districts it was around 1°C above average.

Adelaide mean annual maximum temperature for 2006 was 23.1° and is the third highest since records began in 1879.

Marree recorded the warmest average annual temperature in the state with 30.1°C followed by 29.5°C at Moomba.

The hottest day was 47.4°C at Ceduna on 21 January followed by 47.3°C at Oodnadatta Airport on the 29 November.

The coolest annual average maxima were 17.7°C at Parawa, followed by 18.1°C at Cape Willoughby.

Across the state, the coldest day was 14 July when Yongala reported 6.2°C , Yunta 7.3°C and Parawa 8.2°C.

During 2006

Some sites had their highest 1 January to 31 December temperature on record.

Some sites had their coldest 1 January to 31 December day (lowest maximum temperature) on record.

Some sites had their highest 1 January to 31 December mean daily maximum temperature on record.

Some sites had their highest 1 January to 31 December mean daily maximum temperature for at least 20 years.

Minimum temperature

The state wide annual minimum temperature for South Australia was 12.7°C which was 0.5°C above the normal and the tenth warmest on record.

Over the agricultural areas the annual average overnight temperatures were unremarkable (30th coldest on record), but the annual record conceals some extremely cold overnight temperatures during winter and spring when many stations recorded an above average number of frosts.

Over the agricultural areas the average minimum temperature was 0.5°C above average, while in the pastoral areas it was 0.7°C above average.

Adelaide had an annual mean minimum temperature of 12.1°, close to the long term average of 12.1°C.

The coldest night was −7.3°C at Yongala on the 15 June, followed by −7.2°C at Yongala on the 14 June and −7.0°C at Yunta on the 14 June.

Averaged over the year the coolest overnight temperatures were 6.9°C at Coonawarra, followed by 7.1°C at Keith and Naracoorte Airport.

The warmest night temperatures annually were 15.3°C at Moomba, followed by 14.2°C at Coober Pedy and Marree Airports.

The warmest night was 33.5°C at Adelaide Airport on 22 January, followed by 33.4°C at Wudinna on 22 January and by 33.3°C at Cleve on 22 January.

Some sites had their lowest 1 January to 31 December temperature on record.

Some sites had their warmest 1 January to 31 December night (highest daily minimum temperature) on record.

Some sites had their lowest 1 January to 31 December mean daily minimum temperature on record.

Some sites had their lowest 1 January to 31 December mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years.

Wind

The strongest wind gust was 113 km/h at Neptune Island on the 6 May, followed by 111 km/h at Neptune Island on the 24th September and 111 km/h at Oodnadatta Airport on 1 December.

0n the 21 September, the waverider buoy off Cape de Couedic registered a huge wave with a peak height of around 13 metres, associated with strong to gale force winds and swell from a low pressure system travelling in latitudes south of Tasmania.

Humidity and Annual Evaporation

A distinctive feature of the September to December was the anomously low humidity and high evaporation over most of the state.

At Kent Town the average 3pm humidity was a record low 42% compared to a long term average of 48%.

Records were set for spring evaporation amounts at Kent Town with 454.8 mm, Ceduna with 804.8 mm and Woomera with 1074 mm. The spring evaporation at Mount Gambier of 377.1 mm was the highest since 1982.

Further information

South Australian Climate Services Centre
Bureau of Meteorology
Phone (08) 8266 2698
Email climate.sa@bom.gov.au


Extremes

Hottest day
Highest temperature

47.4°C at Ceduna AMO on 21 Jan

Warmest annual average
Highest mean daily maximum temperature

30.3°C at Marree

Coolest days on average
Lowest mean daily maximum temperature

17.7°C at Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS)

Coldest day
Lowest daily maximum temperature

6.2°C at Yongala on 12 July

Coldest night
Lowest temperature

−7.3°C at Yongala on 15 Jun

Coolest nights on average
Lowest mean daily minimum temperature

6.9°C at Coonawarra

Warmest nights on average
Highest mean daily minimum temperature

15.4°C at Moomba

Warmest night
Highest daily minimum temperature

33.5°C at Adelaide Airport on 22 Jan

Wettest overall
Highest total rainfall

781 mm at Mount Lofty

Driest overall
Lowest total rainfall

43 mm at Oodnadatta

Wettest day
Highest daily rainfall

102.0 mm at Spalding (Bundaleer Reservoir) on 28 Mar

Highest wind gust

113 km/h at Neptune Island on 6 May
111 km/h at Neptune Island on 24 Sep
111 km/h at Oodnadatta Airport on 1 Dec


Records

Record lowest total annual rainfall

 

Total rainfall
for 1 January to 31 December 2006 (mm)

Previous annual
lowest

Normal
annual

Years of
record

Cape Borda Comparison

402.0

421.6

1914

617.3

127

North Adelaide

255.0

261.4

1959

539.2

116

Maitland (Weetulta)

203.4

216.7

1959

389.1

115

Carrieton

29.6

83.6

1982

293.7

113

Booleroo (Wimont)

144.6

153.6

1940

320.1

111

Adelaide (Salisbury Bowling Club)

202.8

247.4

1994

454.2

109

Wirrabara Forest

334.9

356.2

1914

666.9

106

Kingston SE

327.0

333.7

1967

586.0

104

Lake Leake (Kooeeyong)

345.2

461.5

1967

829.2

97

Keith

227.6

234.6

1959

454.3

96

Whyalla (Nonowie)

65.6

96.4

1940

245.4

96

Mount Wudinna

101.8

157.4

1994

328.6

92

Geranium

202.1

197.8

1967

390.2

89

Netherton (The Glen)

186.9

203.4

1967

395.9

89

Adelaide (Seaton)

221.6

251.9

1959

432.6

88

Parilla

170.4

167.6

1982

335.0

87

Tintinara

201.5

246.5

1967

453.7

85

Kingston SE (Keilira Station)

130.2

302.2

1982

569.1

79

Biscuit Flat (Woolmit)

224.7

341.0

1967

625.5

73

Ceduna (Maltee)

141.7

145.7

1959

293.6

73

Bordertown (Karrawirra)

159.4

245.6

1982

472.9

71

Tantanoola

287.4

471.6

1967

777.6

55

Adelaide Airport

233.6

245.2

1967

440.3

51

Adelaide (Clapham)

261.9

283.6

1967

598.1

48

Coonalpyn (Alpyn Downs)

238.6

242.4

1967

435.4

47

Bordertown (Yacca Vale)

279.6

299.0

1967

504.8

46

Meningie (Mill Park)

249.1

274.6

1967

472.3

45

Hilltown

173.3

220.9

1967

452.6

44

Oodnadatta Airport

43.2

54.0

1972

172.6

43

Adelaide (Dry Creek Saltworks)

213.2

241.6

1967

418.2

42

Parafield Airport

258.8

308.6

1982

452.6

42

Mundoora (Barunga North)

148.0

194.0

1982

395.8

40

Petersville

272.0

293.5

1967

433.1

40

Flinders Chase (Rocky River)

519.2

557.6

1967

745.5

39

Arthurton (Lowandale)

274.8

318.0

1976

489.0

38

Aldgate

684.2

723.0

1982

1080.6

36

Boowillia

183.2

203.2

1982

358.3

36

Lucindale (Greenvale)

264.0

352.1

1982

517.7

36

Maitland (Kilkerran)

232.0

282.4

1976

432.1

36

Mount Schank (Jethia)

433.4

543.0

1982

741.9

36

Naracoorte (Bettws-Y-Coed)

273.9

405.4

1982

548.7

36

Burra (Leighton)

162.0

236.6

1994

446.5

35

Keith (Mandurama)

211.4

273.4

1982

429.9

35

Lonsdale

60.4

307.6

1994

490.8

35

Meningie (Green Plains)

199.6

309.4

1994

456.7

35

Minlaton (Eversley)

282.7

292.7

1982

440.2

35

Tintinara (Richards)

266.4

311.0

1982

480.4

35

Kapunda (Bagot Well)

277.8

336.6

1972

478.7

34

Mount Ive

94.1

114.2

1988

244.0

32

Neptune Island

294.8

323.4

1959

461.5

32

Coonalpyn (Twinville)

226.4

276.4

1982

424.8

31

Port Parham

143.6

215.9

2002

353.8

31

Avenue (Downer)

368.2

415.6

1982

590.5

30

Plumbago

61.2

90.5

2002

243.6

30

Wudinna (Lookout)

127.8

148.6

1994

310.0

30

Adelaide (Kent Town)

286.8

356.6

1982

552.3

29

Adelaide (Magill Secure Care Centre)

268.5

419.5

2002

642.4

29

Cleve (Ningana)

241.5

285.5

1982

429.0

29

Furner (Kennion Section 235)

419.6

488.9

1982

639.2

29

Mount Lofty (Cleland Conservation Park)

571.4

631.8

1982

984.6

29

Policemans Point

336.3

368.8

1972

508.2

29

Salt Creek (Pitlochry Homestead)

300.3

400.2

1994

531.5

28

Ki Ki (Moorilla)

92.2

228.8

1994

374.8

27

Port Clinton (Kaddyinna)

217.1

238.0

1982

369.0

26

Adelaide (Hope Valley Reservoir)

337.8

415.4

1982

598.2

25

Bolivar Treatment Works

241.6

263.1

1982

422.1

25

Salt Creek (Pitlochry Outstation 1)

270.0

346.4

1994

505.3

25

Parndana

435.1

457.0

1982

681.2

24

Blackwood (Wittunga)

460.0

469.8

1994

717.9

23

Kensington Upper (Burnside)

336.2

318.0

1914

614.7

23

Laura (Beetaloo Reservoir)

348.6

403.0

1982

580.8

22

Willalooka (Yardookra)

203.4

323.7

1982

493.9

21

Mount Gambier (Blue Lake Holiday Park)

421.3

516.9

1982

736.4

20

Pelican Lagoon

377.5

393.5

1994

527.7

20

 


 

Record highest annual mean daily maximum temperature

 

Mean daily maximum
temperature
for 1 January to 31 December 2006 (°C)

Previous annual
highest

Normal
annual

Years of
record

Marree Comparison

30.3

30.2

in 2005

28.4

65

Parafield Airport

23.7

23.5

in 2002

21.9

48

Eudunda

22.0

22.0

in 1982

20.7

41

Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre)

23.4

23.3

in 2002

22.2

40

Murray Bridge Comparison

23.8

23.7

in 2005

22.6

36

Adelaide (Kent Town)

23.1

23.0

in 1988

22.0

29

Edinburgh RAAF

23.4

23.2

in 1982

22.3

29

Loxton Research Centre

24.5

24.4

in 2002

23.4

21

 

Highest annual mean daily maximum temperature for at least 20 years

 

Mean daily maximum
temperature
for 1 January to 31 December 2006 (°C)

Most recent higher
annual

Normal
annual

Years of
record

Edinburgh RAAF

23.4

23.2

in 1982

22.3

33

 


 

Record highest daily temperature

 

Highest temperature
in 1 January to 31 December 2006 (°C)

Previous
highest

Normal
annual

Years of
record

Elliston

43.3

on 29 Nov

43.2

on 19 Feb 1980

21.2

44

 


 

Record lowest daily maximum temperature

 

Lowest daily maximum
temperature
in 1 January to 31 December 2006 (°C)

Previous annual
lowest

Normal
annual

Years of
record

Ceduna AMO

8.1

on 13 Jul

8.3

on 15 Jul 1956

23.2

64

Elliston

9.8

on 13 Jul

9.9

on 22 Jun 1966

21.2

44

 


 

Record lowest annual mean daily minimum temperature

 

Mean daily minimum
temperature
for 1 January to 31 December 2006 (°C)

Previous annual
lowest

Normal
annual

Years of
record

Murray Bridge Comparison

9.2

9.3

in 2002

9.7

38

Coonawarra

7.0

7.2

in 1998

7.9

20

 

Lowest annual mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years

 

Mean daily minimum
temperature
for 1 January to 31 December 2006 (°C)

Most recent lower
annual

Normal
annual

Years of
record

Mount Gambier Aero

8.0

7.8

in 1977

8.0

29

Lameroo Comparison

8.9

8.7

in 1986

8.8

20

 


 

Record highest daily minimum temperature

 

Highest daily minimum
temperature
in 1 January to 31 December 2006 (°C)

Previous annual
highest

Normal
annual

Years of
record

Adelaide Airport

33.5

on 22 Jan

31.4

on 24 Jan 1982

11.2

51

Meningie

29.0

on 22 Jan

28.5

on 12 Feb 1977

10.1

39

Warooka

28.4

on 22 Jan

28.4

on 20 Jan 1973

11.5

38

Kimba

30.6

on 22 Jan

30.2

on 24 Jan 1982

10.3

37

Cleve

33.3

on 22 Jan

30.8

on 20 Jan 1973

11.4

30

 


 

Record lowest temperature

 

Lowest temperature
in 1 January to 31 December 2006 (°C)

Previous annual
lowest

Normal
annual

Years of
record

Parafield Airport

−2.3

on 15 Jun

−2.2

8 Jun 1982

11.0

50

Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre)

−3.3

on 15 Jun

−3.3

22 Jun 1972

9.8

43

Edinburgh RAAF

−2.0

on 15 Jun

−1.8

7 Jun 1982

10.9

29

 


 

Increased frost frequency in 2006
Station Name No of occurr-
ences in 2006
Average number
of occurrences
Parafield 19 8
Adelaide Airport 11 5
Edinburgh 19 8
Kent Town 5 3
Roseworthy 41 15
Turretfield 36 15
Parafield 19 8
Nuriootpa 42 21
Mt Barker 38 25
Loxton 39 29
Renmark Airport 50 28
Eudunda 17 10
Meningie 13 6
Murray Bridge PO 29 13
Keith PO 32 14
Lameroo PO 25 17
Keith AWS 62 31
Mt Gambier Airport 26 17
Coonawarra 48 21
Naracoorte Airport 53 29

"Frost occurrence" from daily screen minimum temperatures less than 2°C.

 


Notes

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 11 am on Wednesday 3 January 2007. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Normals are long-term averages based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.

The Rank indicates about where rainfall this time ranks in the climate record for the site.

Further information

South Australian Climate Services Centre
Bureau of Meteorology
Phone (08) 8266 2698
Email climate.sa@bom.gov.au