Monday, 5 January 2009 - Annual Climate Summary for South Australia - Product code IDCKGC23R0
2008 began with below average rainfall in January and February, with South Australia missing out on the substantial rain events occurring in north-eastern Australia in response to La Niña conditions in the Pacific Ocean. Rainfall through autumn and into winter was, for the most part, near or above average across much of South Australia, raising hopes of good crop yields in agricultural areas. Spring rainfall was very much below average, in response to cool waters in the Indian Ocean to the northeast of Australia, reducing crop yields, with rainfall returning to average towards the end of the year.
Across the whole of South Australia, rainfall in 2008 was about 75% of the average, with agricultural areas generally seeing rainfall totals for the year in the driest 30% of years, and pastoral areas closer to average. Yankalilla and Yorketown had their driest year on record.
The growing season broke for most locations in the agricultural areas by mid May, with near average rainfall through until the end of winter. Very much below average rainfall to finish the season in September and October left growing season rainfall as a whole for many locations, in the driest 20 to 30% in the record.
Adelaide's annual rainfall was 402.4 mm in 135 days, 147.8mm below the normal of 550.2 mm. This is the 5th lowest annual rainfall recorded at Kent Town, and the 23rd driest for Adelaide when the earlier records from West Terrace are included. The record lowest rainfall of 257.8 mm was set in 1967. The combined Adelaide rainfall record dates back 169 years to 1839.
The wettest overall station across South Australia, was Piccadilly (Woodhouse) with 988.8mm, followed by 963.7mm at Uraidla, both in the Mount Lofty Ranges district, with the driest overall was 60.2mm at Curnamona, in the Northeast district, followed by 72.2mm at Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome), in the Northwest district.
The wettest single day 100.6mm at the Nangwarry Forestry SA Depot, in the Lower Southeast district, on 13th December, followed by 83.2mm at Piccadilly (Woodhouse), in the Mount Lofty Ranges district, on 17th May.
Some sites had their lowest total rainfall on record.
The mean temperature for South Australia for 2008 was 0.54°C above the 1961-1990 mean of 19.45°C. This makes 2008 the equal 13th warmest year for South Australia since state wide records began in 1910, and it is the 16th consecutive year that state-wide mean annual temperature have been above average.
While the year began in the middle of a heatwave event, the first half of March 2008 saw an exceptionally prolonged heatwave event across southern Australia, which broke many records in South Australia.
Adelaide experienced 15 consecutive days with maximum temperatures greater than 35°C, and 13 consecutive days of 37.8°C (100°F) or above, breaking the previous records of 8 and 7 days respectively. These are both records for any Australian capital city.
Other South Australian locations that saw record heatwave conditions were Ceduna, Kyancutta, Elliston, Snowtown, and Nuriootpa.
The Special Climate statement for the event can be viewed here:
Over the South Australian agricultural areas the mean annual maximum temperature was 0.37°C above the 1961-1990 average. The past 10 years have all been above the average.
Adelaide had an annual mean temperature of 17.6°C, 0.5°C above the normal of 17.1°C, and the coolest year since 2005. The hottest year on record was in 2007, which averaged 18.4°C.
The annual maximum temperature across the state for 2008 was 0.74°C above the average of 26.7°C. This is the 11th warmest since 1910. The last seven years contain the four highest annual maximum temperatures: 2002 was 27.9°C, 2005 was 28.1°C, 2006 was 27.8°C and 2007 at 28.0°C.
Over the agricultural areas the average maximum temperature was 0.53°C above average, while generally over the pastoral districts it was around 0.23°C above average.
Adelaide's annual maximum temperature for 2008 was 22.8°C, which is 0.5°C above the long-term average. The highest is 23.6°C in 1914.
Oodnadatta Airport recorded the warmest average annual maximum temperature in the state with 29.1°C. The coolest annual average maximum was 17.7°C at Parawa.
The hottest day was 45.4°C at the Port Augusta Aerodrome on 10th January followed by 44.5°C at Marree on the 2nd January and at Wudinna Aerodrome on the 10th January.
Across the state, the coldest day was on the 7th July when Mount Crawford reported 6.2°C, Parawa 8.3°C, on the same day, and Eudunda with 8.4°C on the 10th August.
The annual minimum temperature across the state for 2008 was 0.34°C above the average of 12.20°C. The highest annual minimum temperature was in 1973 when it was 0.92°C above average.
Over the agricultural areas the average minimum temperature was 0.21°C above average, while in the pastoral areas it was approximately 0.20°C above average.
Adelaide had an annual mean minimum temperature of 12.4°C, which is 0.2°C above the long-term average for Adelaide (Kent Town).
The coldest night was -5.8°C at Yunta on the 24th July, followed by -5.2°C at Ernabella on the 25th July and -4.5°C at the Nonning on the 25th July. Averaged over the year the coolest minimum temperature was 7.5°C at Keith (Munkora). The warmest minimum temperatures annually were 14.8°C at Oodnadatta Airport.
The warmest night was on the 11th January when the minimum was 31.0°C at Arkaroola, followed by 30.2°C at both Moomba, on the 11th January, and Adelaide (Kent Town) on the 14th March.See a map of mean maximum temperatures. See a map of maximum temperature anomalies.
Some sites had their warmest night (highest daily minimum temperature) on record.See a map of mean minimum temperatures. See a map of minimum temperature anomalies.
A tornado was observed and photographed near Spalding, about 180kms north of Adelaide, during the afternoon of 2nd November. No damage reported.
An intense low on April 2nd produced widespread gusts in excess of 100 km/h across the Mount Lofty Ranges, Kangaroo Island and the South East districts.
A small, but intense low pressure system tracked east from Bight waters, along the south coast of Kangaroo Island during the evening and night on 13th July. Severe north to northwest winds on the northeast flank of this low affected Kangaroo Island and southern Yorke Peninsula, with gusts of 90-93 km/h reported at Cape Borda and Edithburgh. However, the strongest observed winds occurred at Cape Willoughby at the eastern end of Kangaroo Island, where northerly winds were sustained at 90-95 km/h for about two hours, with gusts to 110-120 km/h. Remarkably, damage was minimal.
A low pressure system south of the Bight, deepened to below 980 hPa and tracked steadily eastwards along about 45°S during 15th September.
Numerous severe squalls accompanying showers and thunderstorms occurred over a large area, roughly southeast of Elliston to Cleve to Port Pirie to Yunta, from Sunday night, 14th September to late Monday afternoon, 15th September 2008. In the Adelaide region, the highest recorded wind gusts were 106 km/h at Mount Crawford and 98 km/h at Edinburgh Airport.
The SES received about 280 calls for assistance, most involving fallen trees or roof damage. More than 23,000 homes and businesses experienced power outages. A man suffered head injuries after a tree fell on his car at about 10:30am on 15th September, while he was driving between Blyth and Clare in the Mid North.
Squally northerly winds affected parts of the Northeast Pastoral district ahead of a strong spring-time front which traversed northern SA on 22nd September, with winds briefly gale force at Marree and gusts up to 100 km/h recorded at Moomba. A two to four hour burst of 60-70 km/h southwest winds and blowing dust followed the front, with sustained gale force winds recorded at Coober Pedy (Northwest Pastoral) and Marree (Northeast Pastoral).
Gale force north to northwest winds, with gusts to 100 km/h affected several locations on Eyre Peninsula, Yorke Peninsula and in the Mid North ahead of a strong spring-time cold front on 1st October.
Wind gusts in excess of 105 km/h were observed on the 18th and 27th of November in the Far North district which were associated with either thunderstorm activity or duststorms.
Many fire bans were issued throughout the state during the prolonged heat wave period during early March and on 3 occasions during January.
|45.4 °C at Port Augusta Aero on 10 Jan|
|Warmest days on average|
Highest mean daily maximum temperature
|29.1 °C at Oodnadatta Airport|
|Coolest days on average|
Lowest mean daily maximum temperature
|17.7 °C at Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS)|
Lowest daily maximum temperature
|6.2 °C at Mount Crawford Fire Tower on 7 Jul|
|-5.8 °C at Yunta Airstrip on 24 Jul|
|Coolest nights on average|
Lowest mean daily minimum temperature
|7.5 °C at Keith (Munkora)|
|Warmest nights on average|
Highest mean daily minimum temperature
|14.8 °C at Oodnadatta Airport|
Highest daily minimum temperature
|31.0 °C at Arkaroola on 11 Jan|
Highest total rainfall
|988.8 mm at Piccadilly (Woodhouse)|
|Highest wind gust||137 km/h at Cape Willoughby on 2 Apr|
|Record lowest total annual rainfall|
for 2008 (mm)
|Record highest annual daily minimum temperature|
Highest daily minimum
in 2008 (°C)
|Loxton Research Centre||28.2||on 11 Jan||26.3||on 7 Jan 1999||25||8.9|
In this table, key sites have been highlighted to make them easier to find. This table is very wide and may not fit if printed.
|Summary statistics for 2008|
|Northwest (district 16)|
|Andamooka||27.4||-0.1||43.5||10 Jan||13.5||-0.1||-0.7||25 Jul||94.3||193.1||very low||49%|
|Coober Pedy Airport||27.3||43.6||10 Jan||13.9||1.1||24 Jul||108.2|
|Nonning||25.1||+0.3||43.0||1 Jan||10.3||+0.2||-4.5||25 Jul||197.3||246.1||average||80%|
|Roxby Downs||27.1||43.5||10 Jan||12.4||-3.3||25 Jul||72.2|
|Tarcoola Aero||27.4||44.2||1 Jan||11.4||-3.1||7 Aug||102.0|
|Woomera Aerodrome||26.1||+0.4||43.3||10 Jan||12.9||+0.2||0.7||25 Jul||163.0||184.1||average||89%|
|Far North (district 17)|
|Leigh Creek Airport||26.6||+0.4||42.9||1 Jan||12.7||0.0||-1.2||8 Aug||138.8||211.5||low||66%|
|Marree Aero||28.5||44.5||2 Jan||13.7||0.5||8 Aug||135.4|
|Marree Comparison||29.0||+0.3||44.5||2 Jan||13.9||+0.7||0.6||25 Jul||155.8||161.2||average||97%|
|Oodnadatta Airport||29.1||+0.1||44.2||30 Jan||14.8||+0.2||-1.1||24 Jul||150.2||175.2||average||86%|
|Western Agricultural (district 18)|
|Ceduna AMO||24.4||+1.0||43.9||10 Jan||10.8||+0.4||-1.4||28 Jul||205.8||296.4||low||69%|
|Cleve||22.6||+0.6||42.5||10 Jan||11.8||+0.5||2.8||24 Jul||306.2||398.1||low||77%|
|Cleve Aerodrome||22.7||42.7||10 Jan||11.4||1.9||24 Aug||256.8||356.0||low||72%|
|Coulta||21.6||38.7||8 Mar||11.3||1.3||25 Jul||325.8|
|Cummins Aero||22.9||42.0||9 Mar||9.8||-1.0||28 Jul||339.2|
|Elliston||22.3||+1.0||39.7||19 Feb||12.0||+0.3||1.0||23 Jul||361.8||425.4||low||85%|
|Kimba||23.7||+0.2||42.2||10 Jan||10.5||+0.2||-0.8||25 Jul||255.0||344.2||low||74%|
|Kyancutta||25.5||+0.4||44.3||10 Jan||9.1||-0.1||-2.5||23 Aug||233.5||312.7||low||75%|
|Minnipa DPI||24.3||43.2||10 Jan||11.3||0.4||22 Aug||227.4|
|Neptune Island||18.8||+0.3||34.6||13 Mar||14.0||+0.4||7.1||21 Aug||389.4||446.5||average||87%|
|North Shields||21.3||42.4||9 Mar||11.3||3.1||30 Sep||379.6|
|Nullarbor||24.0||42.7||9 Mar||10.8||0.2||7 Aug||186.8||247.5||average||75%|
|Port Augusta Aero||26.1||45.4||10 Jan||12.3||-2.4||25 Jul||164.4|
|Streaky Bay||23.6||+0.6||42.0||10 Jan||12.7||+0.5||2.9||26 Aug||299.8||377.8||low||79%|
|Whyalla Aero||23.8||43.5||5 Jan||11.3||-1.8||24 Jul||186.6||265.5||low||70%|
|Wudinna Aero||25.1||44.5||10 Jan||10.2||-1.7||23 Aug||254.2|
|Upper North (district 19)|
|Hawker||24.9||-0.3||42.6||10 Jan||10.8||+0.2||-2.1||28 Jul||220.3||310.1||low||71%|
|Yongala||22.2||+0.4||41.0||10 Jan||7.7||+0.4||-4.0||25 Jul||261.0||364.8||low||72%|
|Northeast (district 20)|
|Gluepot Reserve||24.9||43.2||1 Jan||9.0||-5.0||22 Aug||186.6|
|Yunta Airstrip||24.2||41.3||1 Jan||8.8||-5.8||24 Jul||133.4|
|Lower North (district 21)|
|Clare High School||21.3||40.5||10 Jan||8.8||-2.2||28 Jul||468.8|
|Port Pirie Aerodrome||24.6||42.8||10 Jan||11.1||-2.7||28 Jul||321.9|
|Port Pirie Nyrstar Comparison||24.9||+0.4||43.0||10 Jan||13.4||+0.7||1.0||28 Jul||371.7||344.6||average||108%|
|Snowtown||24.0||42.6||10 Jan||8.7||-2.3||24 Jul||288.8|
|Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)|
|Edithburgh||20.5||41.1||13 Mar||11.6||0.4||24 Jul||255.0|
|Kadina AWS||23.6||42.3||10 Jan||9.3||-2.8||28 Jul||245.8|
|Maitland||22.1||+0.6||41.1||10 Jan||11.7||+0.6||2.1||28 Jul||386.1||500.8||low||77%|
|Minlaton Aero||22.4||41.2||10 Jan||10.8||-0.3||28 Jul||252.6|
|Stenhouse Bay||20.4||41.3||10 Jan||12.9||3.4||24 Jul||406.4|
|Warooka||21.4||+0.2||39.4||10 Jan||11.7||+0.3||2.8||24 Jul||303.5||446.4||very low||68%|
|Kangaroo Island (district 22B)|
|Cape Willoughby||18.2||+0.2||37.3||10 Jan||13.0||+0.2||6.0||9 Aug||420.0||539.9||low||78%|
|Kingscote Aero||21.3||41.1||10 Jan||8.8||-0.6||28 Aug||374.6|
|Adelaide Plains (district 23A)|
|Adelaide||22.8||+0.5||42.1||10 Jan||12.4||+0.2||0.7||28 Jul||402.4||550.2||low||73%|
|Adelaide Airport||22.0||+0.6||40.8||10 Jan||11.7||+0.4||-0.1||24 Jul||289.6||442.8||very low||65%|
|Edinburgh RAAF||23.0||+0.5||42.0||10 Jan||11.2||+0.1||-1.2||24 Jul||333.2||427.2||low||78%|
|Parafield Airport||23.3||+1.0||41.7||10 Jan||11.0||-0.2||-1.9||28 Jul||328.6||453.1||very low||73%|
|County Light (district 23B)|
|Rosedale||22.9||+0.4||43.3||10 Jan||9.8||-0.2||-2.5||28 Jul||421.7||468.0||average||90%|
|Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)|
|Kuitpo Forest Reserve||19.2||38.1||10 Jan||10.1||1.5||24 Jul||623.4|
|Mount Barker||21.2||+1.3||40.5||8 Mar||8.0||0.0||-1.9||24 Jul||584.4||763.3||low||77%|
|Mount Crawford Fire Tower||18.8||38.9||10 Jan||8.8||-3.5||8 Sep||557.0|
|Noarlunga||21.4||41.3||10 Jan||12.5||2.4||28 Jul||327.8|
|Parawa||17.7||37.6||10 Jan||10.2||2.6||24 Jul||795.0|
|Victor Harbor||20.3||41.2||10 Jan||10.1||-0.3||24 Jul||530.8|
|Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)|
|Loxton Research Centre||24.2||+0.4||42.8||1 Jan||8.8||0.0||-2.5||24 Jul||199.7||262.4||low||76%|
|Renmark Aero||24.6||44.1||10 Jan||9.4||-4.2||24 Jul||212.8|
|Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)|
|Eudunda||21.5||+0.5||41.5||1 Jan||9.4||+0.3||0.6||22 Aug||400.2||446.4||average||90%|
|Meningie||21.1||+0.4||41.1||10 Jan||10.4||+0.2||1.7||24 Jul||394.4||466.0||low||85%|
|Murray Bridge||23.1||44.1||10 Jan||8.9||-4.2||24 Jul||201.8|
|Murray Bridge Comparison||23.8||+1.0||44.0||10 Jan||9.7||-0.1||-1.6||24 Jul||269.8||347.0||low||78%|
|Strathalbyn Racecourse||21.5||41.7||10 Jan||9.9||0.7||24 Jul||372.8|
|Murray Mallee (district 25A)|
|Karoonda||23.3||42.8||10 Jan||9.0||-1.4||24 Jul||289.3||338.4||average||85%|
|Upper Southeast (district 25B)|
|Keith||22.3||+0.1||42.7||10 Jan||9.1||0.0||-1.2||28 Jul||339.3||461.8||very low||73%|
|Keith||22.6||43.1||10 Jan||7.5||-2.8||22 Oct||313.8|
|Lameroo||23.0||43.6||1 Jan||8.6||-1.1||22 Aug||244.8|
|Lameroo Comparison||23.3||+0.4||43.2||1 Jan||9.4||+0.7||-0.1||22 Aug||224.6||384.3||very low||58%|
|Lower Southeast (district 26)|
|Cape Jaffa||19.2||39.4||10 Jan||10.2||1.5||16 Jun||588.8|
|Coonawarra||20.6||+0.4||40.8||10 Jan||7.8||-0.1||-1.9||23 Jul||539.9||572.2||average||94%|
|Mount Gambier Aero||19.3||+0.4||41.3||17 Mar||8.6||+0.5||-0.4||28 Jul||626.0||706.4||low||89%|
|Naracoorte Aerodrome||21.5||43.0||10 Jan||7.8||-2.9||28 Jul||369.2|
|Padthaway South||21.4||41.4||10 Jan||8.3||-1.7||23 Jul||406.6|
|Robe Airfield||19.3||37.7||10 Jan||9.2||-1.4||9 Sep||574.2|
|Robe Comparison||18.3||+0.2||34.1||10 Jan||11.2||+0.3||2.0||6 Sep||559.8||631.9||low||89%|
This statement has been prepared based on information available at 12 pm on Monday 5 January 2009. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.
Averages are long-term means based on observations from
all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site.
They are not shown for sites with less than 20 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.
The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site,
based on the
(very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3,
average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9
and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.