The data is a schematic world map (filled regions and lines) with some (schematic) Satellite data just north of Australia (texture) and 2 wind barbs (Polar Flow and Cartesian Flow). Also the grid lines are labelled (text). There is also an legend bar in the bottom left hand corner. This is an example of data which stays fixed on panning and zooming.
Selecting a different map projection from the menu should trigger the application to change to the new map projection and display the "same" region in the new projection. In this case "same" means all the locations visible initially will be visible after the change. This usually means including some extra points. You may want to zoom in after making a change.
Adjustment for map edges is handled internally. For example if a Mercator projection with centre longitude of -30 is chosen then the right hand map edge is at 150. This passes through Australia and also the Satellite image. This means the Eastern part of Australia will appear at the left of the map together with the Eastern part of the Satellite image.
The menu contains some predefined projections. You can also change the parameters for the projections to be suitable for viewing any part of the globe. Try some.