Southeastern Aust Seasonal Temperature Outlook: probabilities for July to September 2008, issued 26th June 2008

Warmer season for southeastern Australia

The seasonal climate outlook for average maximum temperatures for southeastern Australia for the September quarter shows a moderate to strong shift in the odds favouring warmer days over South Australia and the western parts of both New South Wales and Victoria.

The pattern of seasonal maximum temperature odds across southeastern Australia is a result of the combined effects of above average temperatures in the Indian Ocean surrounding the west coast of WA, and a warming trend in the Pacific. The Indian Ocean signal dominates the outlook.

Averaged over July to September, the chances are between 60 and 70% for above normal maximum temperatures over South Australia, Victoria and in New South Wales west of a line from the ACT to near Bourke (see map). So for every ten years with ocean patterns like the current, about six or seven July to September periods are expected to be warmer than average over these parts of southeastern Australia, with about three or four being cooler.

Over the rest of the region, in New South Wales east of a line joining the ACT and Bourke, and the whole of Tasmania, the outlook for seasonal maximum temperatures is close to neutral (55-60%). So in the years when ocean temperature patterns were similar to those currently observed, warmer-than-normal daytime July to September temperatures occured about as often as colder-than-average temperatures.

Outlook confidence is related to how consistently the Pacific and Indian Oceans affect Australian temperatures. During July to September, history shows this effect on maximum temperatures to be moderately consistent over northern SA, northern and eastern NSW and northern Tasmania. However, elsewhere it is only weakly consistent (see background information).

The outlook for seasonal minimum temperatures indicates close to neutral conditions with odds in the 40 to 55% range throughout the southeast region (see map). So the chances of being warmer than average are similar to the chances of being cooler. This means for every ten years with ocean patterns like the current, night-time temperatures in about five July to September periods are expected to be warmer than average and about five are expected to be cooler than average.

History shows the oceans' effect on minimum temperatures in the July to September period to be moderately consistent over parts of northern and eastern New South Wales. However, over western NSW, most of South Australia, Victoria and Tasmania, the influence is only weakly or very weakly consistent, so this outlook needs to be used with caution in these areas.

probability of exceeding median maximum temperature - click on the image for a larger version of the map
probability of exceeding median minimum temperature - click on the image for a larger version of the map

Click on the maps above for larger versions of the maps. Use the reload/refresh button to ensure the latest forecast maps are displayed.


More information on this outlook is available Monday to Friday from 9.00am to 5.00pm local time by contacting the Bureau's Climate Services sections in Queensland, NSW, SA, Victoria and Tasmania at the following numbers:

Sydney -(02) 9296 1555
Adelaide -(08) 8366 2664
Melbourne -(03) 9669 4949
Hobart -(03) 6221 2043


Corresponding rainfall outlook

Maximum temperature departures from average for March to May 2008 - base period 1961-1990

Minimum temperature departures from average for March to May 2008 - base period 1961-1990


Background Information

  • The Bureau's seasonal outlooks are general statements about the probability or risk of wetter or drier than average weather over a three-month period. The outlooks are based on the statistics of chance (the odds) taken from Australian rainfall/temperatures and sea surface temperature records for the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. They are not, however, categorical predictions about future rainfall, and they are not about rainfall within individual months of the three-month outlook period. The temperature outlooks are for the average maximum and minimum temperatures for the entire three-month outlook period. Information about whether individual days or weeks may be unusually hot or cold, is unavailable.

  • This outlook is a summary. More detail is available from the contact people or from SILO (

  • Probability outlooks should not be used as if they were categorical forecasts. More on probabilities is contained in the booklet The Seasonal Climate Outlook - What it is and how to use it, available from the National Climate Centre. These outlooks should be used as a tool in risk management and decision making. The benefits accrue from long-term use, say over 10 years. At any given time, the probabilities may seem inaccurate, but taken over several years, the advantages of taking account of the risks should outweigh the disadvantages. For more information on the use of probabilities, farmers could contact their local departments of agriculture or primary industry.

  • Model Consistency and Outlook Confidence: Strong consistency means that tests of the model on historical data show a high correlation between the most likely outlook category (above/below median) and the verifying observation (above/below median). In this situation relatively high confidence can be placed in the outlook probabilities. Low consistency means the historical relationship, and therefore outlook confidence, is weak. In the places and seasons where the outlooks are most skilful, the category of the eventual outcome (above or below median) is consistent with the category favoured in the outlook about 75% of the time. In the least skilful areas, the outlooks perform no better than random chance or guessing. The rainfall outlooks perform best in eastern and northern Australia between July and January, but are less useful in autumn and in the west of the continent. The skill at predicting seasonal maximum temperature peaks in early winter and drops off marginally during the second half of the year. The lowest point in skill occurs in early autumn. The skill at predicting seasonal minimum temperature peaks in late autumn and again in mid-spring. There are also two distinct periods when the skill is lowest - namely late summer and mid-winter. However, it must always be remembered that the outlooks are statements of chance or risk. For example, if you were told there was a 50:50 chance of a horse winning a race but it ran second, the original assessment of a 50:50 chance could still have been correct.

  • The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is calculated using the barometric pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin. The SOI is one indicator of the stage of El Niño or La Niña events in the tropical Pacific Ocean. It is best considered in conjunction with sea-surface temperatures, which form the basis of the outlooks. A moderate to strongly negative SOI (persistently below –10) is usually characteristic of El Niño, which is often associated with below average rainfall over eastern Australia, and a weaker than normal monsoon in the north. A moderate to strongly positive SOI (persistently above +10) is usually characteristic of La Niña, which is often associated with above average rainfall over parts of tropical and eastern Australia, and an earlier than normal start to the northern monsoon season. The Australian impacts of 23 El Niño events since 1900 are summarized on the Bureau's web site (