- Location: Alice Springs Airport (lat 23.82° S, long 133.90° E)
- Type: WF100 (C-Band).
- Availability (Typical): 2145—0215; 0345—0815; 0945—1415; 1545—2015 (CST).
The Alice Springs radar has a very good view to the south of the airport. The coverage is from 260 degrees (True) through the south to 075 degrees (True) - this area includes: Tempe Downs, Angus Downs, Kulgera, Finke and the western edge of the Simpson Desert. The effectiveness of the radar is reduced markedly to the north by the MacDonnell Ranges which lie between the Airport and Alice Springs Central Business District. In the north, the area of good coverage lies from Mt. Hay in the west to Mt. Yambah in the north to Harts Range in the northeast.
Due to the relative high cloud base normally associated with shower, storm and rain events, intensities in the low ranges must be considered suspect. In normal circumstances, there is a large amount of dry air beneath the clouds and this causes a certain amount of evaporation of the precipitation. In the 0.0 to 0.2 mm range, most of the precipitation does not reach the ground (virga); in the 0.2 to 2.0 mm range the actual rainfall is generally closer to 1.0 mm mark, however, in the higher ranges, rainfall rates are usually fairly accurate.
Being a C-Band radar, if there are large thunderstorms around, the radar may not be able to detect accurately the strength of other storms located behind the closest storms. This may also lead to the underestimation of the strength, at times, of very intense isolated storms. Heavy rain over the radar itself will reduce the reliability of the radar in all directions.
- Location: approximately 7 km southeast of Darwin Airport (lat 12.46° S, long 130.93° E)
- Type: WSR 74 (C-Band).
- Availability (Typical): 24 hours per day Intermittently used for research purposes so may be unavailable for some extended periods.
The Berrimah radar is located on a rise with the dish antenna tower mounted app roximately 50 metres above the surrounding topography. It has a good coverage in all directions up to a range of 250 km with the following two exceptions: (a) some local masking of echoes at low elevations to the east; (b) some signal blockage to the north-northeast due to several HF transmitter towers.
Heavy rain over the radar site will cause attenuation of all signals. Path atte nuation also occurs when the radar beam passes through an intense thunderstorm cell; the returned signal from cells further along that path will be reduced. Because the beam width of this particular radar is only 0.9 degrees, it may 'undershoot' high level storms and rain echoes may appear less intense than actual rainfall rate.
During the dry season from May to September, when low level atmospheric tempera ture inversions are more prevalent, images may display areas of relatively strong (Level 2 or 3) permanent echoes. These tend to be reflections from coastal features; commonly from Gunn Point and the Cobourg Peninsular northeast of the radar, and from the nearside coastline of the Tiwi Islands to the north. Also during this time of the year, a false image of the Timor coastline may sometimes be seen extending northwest from Bathurst Island. This phenomenon is due to second skip returns at multiples of the radar's maximum range.
- Location: Gove Airport (lat 12.28° S, long 136.82° E)
- Type: WF100 (C-Band).
- Availability: 2130—0815, 1030—1415, 1530—2115 (CST).
The Gove radar has a nearly unrestricted view in all directions. Local topography can produce a single weak false echo immediately adjacent the radar centre to the southeast.
During the wet season, thunderstorm tops will be visible out to the effective range of the radar at around 250km although smaller showers frequently associated with these storms will not be visible at that range. Tropical cyclones may be seen during the wet season months November to April, although lesser category 1 cyclones may not be sufficiently developed to be easily discernable. The higher category tropical cyclones will display rain echoes in spiral bands rotating about a central clear eye with the highest intensity rainfall about the eye. The structure of the cyclone in the arc facing the radar centre will be seen, although the far side will be less clear due to the weakening of the radar signal by heavy rain (attenuation). The closer the cyclone is to the radar centre the clearer the structure will be viewed.
Rain showers during the dry season are common; most frequently moving from east to west, often in organized lines (known as Gulf Lines) orientated approximately north-south. Cooling after midnight during the dry season frequently results in false echoes (Anomalous Propagation) appearing over the land as isolated weak areas with sometimes up to 80% coverage. These echoes are identified by their random appearance and disappearance between sequences with no general direction of movement and total dissipation after sunrise. They only appear over land and are displayed as the weakest level echoes.
- Location: RAAF Base Tindal, 20 km east-southeast of Katherine. (lat 14.51° S, long 132.45° E)
- Type: WSR81C-8 (C-Band).
- Availability (Typical): 24 hours per day
The Tindal radar is located on a small hill and offers a good view in all directions and no permanent echos are evident.
The appearance of "false echoes" or Anomalous Propagation (AP) is generally limited to occasions where there are significant temperature inversions (in normally stable conditions) in the lower atmosphere. AP can fluctuate rapidly from one image to the next as the inversion is forming or dissipating, however, it has a quite static appearance and can normally be distinguished from "real" echoes which exhibit some movement and a definite life cycle of development and decay.
RAAF aircraft operating in the area, particularly to the west and southwest, can drop "chaff" which will give a weak radar return. Such echoes normally dissipate quickly, seldom lasting longer than 15 to 20 minutes.
The radar can suffer some attenuation loss during heavy precipitation events. In these instances, the leading echoes are normally displayed at "true" intensity, while trailing echoes may be displayed at a lower intensity due to some loss in signal strength.
It is rare to observe echoes at a range greater than 300 km. The display of echoes at 300 km is indicative of the upper structure of a storm exceeding 12km in height, however, echoes from storms at that distance may not display accurate intensities since the radar beam is generally directed above the most intensive part of the storm.
- Location: Warruwi, 290km ENE of Darwin (lat 11.6494° S, long 133.38° E)
- Type: DWSR2502C C band radar (5.620GHz); 4.3m dish; Peak Power out 300kW; Sensitivity-114dBm;
- Availability (Typical): 24 hours per day
The Warruwi radar was built as part of the Strategic Radar Enhancement Project (SREP) which aimed to close significant gaps in the existing radar coverage for Australia by delivering four new radars across the country.
The radar location is on South Goulburn Island which is located in the Arafura Sea, off the West Arnhem Land coast and East of the Coburg Peninsula, 290km North East of Darwin and 380km West of Gove.
The Warruwi people are the traditional owners of the Goulburn Islands.
The radar provides more comprehensive coverage for tropical cyclone and monsoon monitoring. The location was chosen to improve coverage in the meteorologically active north coast area of the Northern Territory, linking up with the coverage currently afforded by the Gove and Darwin (Berrimah) radars. The radar gives much better coverage for West Arnhem communities including Minjilang, Murganella, Oenpelli, Warruwi, and Maningrida.
In most cases, processing of the radar signal removes permanent echoes caused by hills, building and other solid objects, but sometimes a few slip through. These usually show up as small, stationary or erratically moving specks, mostly over higher ground to the south.
Heavy rain over the radar site will cause attenuation of all signals. Path attenuation also occurs when the radar beam passes through an intense thunderstorm cell; the returned signal from cells further along that path will be reduced.
In strong winds and very rough seas, sea clutter may be visible off the coast out to a range of about 30km. This sea clutter tends to remain in the same area and can therefore be distinguished from rain echoes, which generally move with the wind.
In most cases, the processing system at the radar removes permanent echoes caused by mountains, hills, buildings and other solid objects. Occasionally, however, some may not be completely removed from the display. These usually show up as small, stationary, erratically visible specks, mostly over the higher ground of the Arnhem Land Plateau to the south. On cold clear dry season nights and mornings these echoes may become stronger or increase in number due to downward refraction of the radar beam.