Hydrologic Reference Stations
The Bureau held a streamflow trend analysis workshop in December 2011 attended by hydrologists and water information experts from the Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, The University of Melbourne and Sinclair Knight Merz. The workshop:
- Explored the merits of the available fit-for-purpose scientific methods for trend analysis on long-term streamflow datasets.
- Developed the trend analysis methodology and identified the time frame for the delivery of products.
Outcomes of the trend analysis workshop identified the key streamflow variables and trend tests (as described in Chiew et al., 2005) that have been applied in the time-series analysis of streamflow data at each station. The key streamflow variables and statistical tests for the detection and identification of change are given in the table below.
|Analysis Component or Purpose||Variable|
|Test for independence (randomness)||
|Test for step change in mean||
|Test for difference in median in data periods||
|Test for variability in daily flow duration between different decades||
Missing streamflow data was filled using the GR4J model (Perrin et al, 2003) which is a daily, lumped, four parameter rainfall-runoff model that accounts for soil moisture. Baseflow was separated from daily total streamflow using a digital filter based on theory developed by Lyne and Hollick (1979) and applied by Nathan and McMahon (1990).
It is important to note that the scope of the Hydrologic Reference Stations (HRS) project includes only the identification and attribution of decadal variability and change in long-term streamflow. Other variables such as rainfall, temperature and radiation are not included. Please see the Bureau of Meteorology web portal for high quality climate reference stations for further information on the long term trends in climate variables.
The Hydrological Reference Stations are now included in the Australian Hydrological Geospatial Fabric (Geofabric V2.1) within the Surface Network product. The catchment areas of Hydrologic Reference Stations were derived from the Geofabric, and were used for land use/forest cover change analysis and modelling. The station facts were also derived from Geofabric data.