Melbourne
19.4 Delivery to urban water system users

Supporting information

a. Delivery to urban water system users

The volume presented in the water accounting statements (381,256 ML) represents delivery of water from retail and rural water authorities to their end users for urban consumption in the Melbourne region during the 2012–13 year. This item represents the total delivery for the uses itemised in the following table.

Urban water use in the Melbourne region during the 2012–13 year
Purpose  Volume (ML)
Potable water
Non-potable water Recycled water
residential use             260,097                             65                      467
commercial, industrial, municipal use             100,834                           343                   3,874
agricultural / individual irrigation use  n/a   n/a                    4,103
other use—urban use  n/a   n/a                         67
recycled water on-site outdoor / irrigation use                       8,754
recycled water on-site within process use (no-recirculation)                       2,652

Subtotal
          360,931                         
408
                19,917
Total                                                                       381,256

Recycled water supplied by Melbourne Water to the Werribee Irrigation District and the Eastern Irrigation Scheme is reported at line item 19.6 Urban water discharge to irrigation schemes.

Recycled water supplied by Melbourne Water to the Lake Borrie Wetlands is reported as part of the line item 19.5 Discharge to surface water from urban water system.

b. Urban water supply system overview

The urban water supply system is one of three sub-components of Melbourne's urban water system. The three sub-components are the:

  • urban water supply system
  • wastewater system
  • recycled water system.

During the 2012–13 year Melbourne's urban water was sourced mostly from surface water (line item 11.12), with a very small proportion sourced from groundwater (line item 11.13). While a desalination plant has been built at Wonthaggi to supplement Melbourne's urban water supply, this was not required to supply any water during the 2012–13 year.

Urban water consumption (line item 19.4) of potable and non-potable water was 361,339 ML during the 2012–13 year, comprising of 360,931 ML of potable water and 408 ML of non-potable water, representing almost 90% of all urban water supply system outflows. A very small volume of water was transferred out of the region via normal operations in Western Water's service area (line item 19.11). Non-revenue water, including pipes bursting (line item 19.2), background leakage (line item 19.3) and other losses (line item 19.20), made up the remaining urban water supply system outflows.

The following figure shows all the inflows and outflows for the urban water supply system. For more detail on a particular flow associated with the urban water supply system, refer to the line item notes.

Schematic diagram of water inflows and outflows for Melbourne's urban water supply system during the 2012–13 year; line item numbers are provided in brackets
Schematic diagram of water inflows and outflows for Melbourne's urban water supply system during the 2012–13 year; line item numbers are provided in brackets

A small misbalance 127 ML from the previous figure can be attributed to possible differences in metering accuracies and unaccounted losses associated with water intake and supply.

c. Recycled water system overview


The recycled water system is one of three sub-components of Melbourne's urban water system. The three sub-components are the:

  • Urban water supply system
  • Wastewater system
  • Recycled water system.

Wastewater treatment plants located within the Melbourne region produce the majority of recycled water (see 'Wastewater System Overview' for further information). A very small volume of recycled water (161 ML: line item 11.21) is received from external organisations to supplement Melbourne's recycled water system.

During the 2012–13 year, approximately 45% of the recycled water produced (including the recycled water received from external organisations) was used on-site at wastewater treatment plants throughout the Melbourne region.  Of the recycled water used on-site, approximately half that volume (15,118 ML) was recirculated back into the wastewater system (and therefore not reported in the water accounting statements). The remaining recycled water used on-site, 11,406 ML, was for irrigation/outdoor purposes or in-process and reported at (line item 19.4).

The remaining recycled water produced in Melbourne was supplied for use; 8,511 ML was supplied to urban water system users (line item 19.4); and 8,076 ML was supplied to either the Eastern Irrigation Scheme or Werribee Irrigation District (line item 19.6). Recycled water was also supplied for environmental purposes to Lake Borrie Wetlands within the Melbourne Water Western Treatment Plant (line item 19.5).Overall, 19,917 ML of recycled water was supply for urban consumption (8,511 ML) and on-site use (11,406 ML). These volumes are reported as part of (line item 19.4).

The following figure presents the inflows and outflows associated with the recycled water system. A small misbalance (1.6%) is shown, due to the difference between the volume of recycled water available for supply and the volume of recycled water supplied for use. The misbalance can be attributed to metering inaccuracies, unaccounted losses and inaccuracies in the estimation of the recycled water on-site in process use.

For more detail on a particular flow associated with the recycled water system, refer to the line item notes. Note that volumes annotated with an asterick (*) indicate flows between urban subcomponents and are not reported in the 2013 Account.  As such, these flows do not have an associated line item number or note.

Schematic diagram of water inflows and outflows for Melbourne's recycled water system during the 2012-13 year; line item numbers are provided in brackets
Schematic diagram of water inflows and outflows for Melbourne's recycled water system during the 2012-13 year; line item numbers are provided in brackets

Quantification approach

City West Water

Data source

Gentrack billing system for potable water, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisistion (SCADA) system for recycled water.

Provided by

City West Water.

Method

The volume of water delivered to end users from City West Water was the sum of the following components.

City West Water urban water use in the Melbourne region during the 2012–13 year
Purpose

 Volume (ML)

Potable water

Recycled water

residential use

              53,023

 - 

Commercial, industrial, municipal use

              40,602

                       1,039

Recycled water on-site within process use (not recirculated)

 

                          100

Subtotal

              93,625

                       1,139

Total

                                                   94,764

Potable water

City West Water has over 320,000 meters. Residential meters are read on a quarterly basis. Generally, non-residential customers consuming greater than 10 ML per annum are read monthly and those that consume less than 10 ML are read quarterly.

Volumes are derived from monthly and quarterly meter readings, which are used to bill non-residential and residential customers. City West Water's Gentrack billing system collates all meter readings from residential and non-residential customers.

Recycled water

Commercial, industrial, and municipal uses

The volume of recycled water produced at City West Water's Altona wastewater treatment plant (WTP) and Sunshine sewer mining plant was derived from daily meter readings. Recycled water was used at the Sunshine for irrigation and remaining recycled water supplied for industrial and education (school) use.

On-site in-process use (not recirculated)

The volume of recycled water used on-site in-process at the Altona WTP is derived from daily meter readings.

Assumptions, limitations, caveats and approximations

Volumes are only applicable to water use within the City West Water service area inside the Melbourne region.

Uncertainty information

Potable water

The uncertainty is +/– 5% according to meter specifications.

Recycled water

Commercial, industrial and municipal uses

The uncertainty is +/– 5% according to meter specifications.

On-site in-process use (not-recirculated)

The uncertainty estimate was not quantified.

Melbourne Water

Data source

ASPEN and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) databases.

Provided by

Melbourne Water.

Method

The volume of water delivered to end users from Melbourne Water was the sum of the following components.

Melbourne Water urban water use in the Melbourne region during the 2012–13 year
Purpose
 Recycled water volume (ML)
other urban use
67
Recycled water on-site outdoor/irrigation use
8,437
Total 8,504

Notably, the volume reported for Melbourne Water excludes recycled water produced at Melbourne Water's eastern and western treatment plants and supplied to urban water authorities South East Water and City West Water. The subsequent supply of recycled water to customers by South East Water and City West Water is shown for each authority's respective quantification approaches.

Recycled water for other urban use

The recycled water volume of 67 ML was supplied from the Melbourne Water Western Treatment Plant to Southern Rural Water for the Werribee tourist precinct use. Recycled water supplied to Southern Rural Water (and other urban water authorities) is measured with magnetic flow meters at the interface of Melbourne Water and the receiving authority. The Melbourne Water Western Treatment Plant logs data daily and reports quarterly.  The Melbourne Water Eastern Treatment Plant logs data daily and reports quarterly.

Recycled water on-site outdoor/irrigation use

Recycled water was used on-site at the Melbourne Water Western Treatment Plant for on-site outdoor use or irrigation. Recycled water discharge to Lake Borrie Wetlands (Ramsar-listed)  is reported as conservation flow, which is part of line item 19.5 Discharge from urban water system to surface water. Ultrasonic level transmitters are used to measure on-site recycled water use at the Melbourne Water Western Treatment Plant, which logs data daily and reports quarterly.

Assumptions, limitations, caveats and approximations

The volume of recycled water used on-site for in-door purposes is included in the volume reported as on-site outdoor/irrigation usage as these volumes could not be separated.

Uncertainty information

Recycled water for other urban use

Magnetic flow meters are are assumed to have an accuracy of +/– 1 to +/– 2%.

Recycled water on-site outdoor/irrigation use

Ultrasonic level transmitters are assumed to have an accuracy of +/– 5 to +/– 10%.

South East Water

Data source

HiAffinity database.

Provided by

South East Water.

Method

The volume of water delivered to end users from South East Water was the sum of the following components.

South East Water urban water use in the Melbourne region during the 2012–13 year
Purpose

Volume (ML)

Potable water

Non-potable water

Recycled water

residential use

93,124

 

277

commercial, industrial, municipal use

31,337

70

1,916

agricultural/individual irrigation use

 

 

541

recycled water used on-site within process use (no-recirculation)

 

 

767

Subtotal

124,461

70

3,501

Total

128,032


Potable water

The volume of potable water supplied for use is derived from quarterly meter readings (some larger users have monthly meter readings). Most of the meters were located at property boundaries.

Non-potable water

The volume of non-potable water provided from Bunyip River supplied for use is derived from quarterly meter readings. The volume reported includes non-potable supply for residential, commercial, industrial and municipal uses as it was not possible to separate the uses. Most of the meters were located at property boundaries.

Recycled water

Residential, commercial, industrial, municipal, agricultural/individual irrigation use
The volume of recycled water supplied for use is derived from quarterly or monthly meter readings.

On-site in-process use
The volume of recycled water used for on-site in-process use at South East Water's sewage treatment plants is metered daily.

Assumptions, limitations, caveats and approximations

Potable water
  • Assumes meters and readings are accurate.
  • Data reported from 1 July 2012–30 June 2013 are based on the four quarterly readings on each property. The water year for properties read early in the cycle starts in April and are billed in July. Later readings in the cycle have a meter year that starts in June and is billed in September.
  • Some quarterly meter readings are estimated (due to issues such as meter inaccessibility) and will be adjusted in following periods.
Non-potable water and recycled water

Assumes meters and readings are accurate.

Uncertainty information

Potable water

Water Industry Regulatory Audits 2013, independent annual audit report indicated that reliability and accuracy for metered volume of potable water delivered is +/–5% (i.e. Grade 2).

Non-potable water and recycled water

Component (1): +/–5% in accordance with the Water Industry Regulatory Audits 2013 independent annual audit report.

Component (2): +/–2% (meter type is an Elster R2000 100mm).

Western Water

Data source

Information Technology database: water usage spreadsheet.

Provided by

Western Water.

Method

The volume of water delivered to end users from Western Water was the sum of the following components.

Western Water urban water use in the Melbourne region during the 2012–13 year
Purpose

Volume (ML)

Potable water

Non-potable water

Recycled water

residential use

9,190

 

173

commercial, industrial, municipal use

1,622

76

483

agricultural/individual irrigation use

 

 

3,113

recycled water used on-site outdoor/irrigation use

 

 

317

Subtotal

10,812

76

4,086

Total

14,974



Potable water

Residential use

The volume of potable water supplied for residential use (excluding Woodend supply) was derived from monthly and four-monthly meter readings of potable water use. It was calculated based on the assumption that 85% of the total potable water supplied was for residential purposes and subsequently deducting the water loss component associated with residential supply (12.67% of total supply). Meters are located on individuals' properties.

Commercial, industrial and municipal use

The volume of potable water supplied for commercial, industrial, and municipal use (excluding Woodend supply) was derived from four-monthly meter readings of potable water use. It was calculated based on the assumption that 15% of the total potable water supplied was for residential purposes. Total potable water supplied for commercial, industrial, and municipal use is then calculated by deducting the water loss component associated with non-residental supply of 12.67%. Meters' are located on individual's properties.

Non-potable water

The volume of non-potable water sourced from a bore or creek and supplied for commercial, industrial, or municipal uses. Volumes are determined by meters of individual customers by agreement. Users are in Lancefield (supplied from Garden Hut) and Melton (supplied from Djerriwarrh).

Recycled water

Residential use

The volume of recycled water supplied for residential use (excluding Woodend supply) was derived from monthly meter readings from a meter located at the outflow from the class tank. Non-residential recycled water use (see below) was subtracted from the total metered outflow to provide the volume of recycled water supplied for residential use. Meters are read monthly.

Commercial, industrial, municipal, agricultural/individual irrigation use

This item represents the total metered volume of recycled water supplied for commercial, industrial, and municipal uses. Meters are located at customer properties and are read monthly. This was taken from the urban and industrial figure provided to the Essential Services Commission and will include Class A residental use at Melton. It is important that the recycled water provided to residental customers is subtracted from the urban and industrial figure.

Assumptions, limitations, caveats and approximations

Potable water

Residential use

Total volume was approximated based on the meter readings and assuming 85% of potable water is supplied for residential use.

Commercial, industrial and municipal use

Total volume was approximated based on the meter readings and assuming 15% of potable water is supplied for non-residential use.

Uncertainty information

Potable water

The uncertainty estimate is +/– 5% in accordance with Summary Audit Report–October 2010 (Essential Services Commission 2010). 

Non-potable water

In accordance with the manufacturer's annual bulk meter test.

Recycled water
The uncertainty estimate is +/– 5% in accordance with Summary Audit Report–October 2010. (Essential Services Commission 2010).

Yarra Valley Water

Data source

Quarterly billing database for potable water, Treatment Plant & Trade Waste dashboard of Yarra Valley Water Oracle BI Reporting Tool.

Provided by

Yarra Valley Water.

Method

The volume of water delivered to end users from Yarra Valley Water was the sum of the following components.

Yarra Valley Water urban water use in the Melbourne region during the 2012–13 year
Purpose Volume (ML)
Potable Non-potable Recycled
residential use 104,760 65 17
commercial, industrial, municipal use 27,273 197 436
agricultural/individual irrigation use

449
recycled water on-site within process use


1,785
Subtotal 132,033 262 2,687
Total       134,982

Potable water

Customer usage is calculated as the difference between total water received and estimated non-revenue water volume, and is then divided into residential and non-residential components in the same ratio as the customer-billed volumes.

Non-potable water

The volume of non-potable water supplied for use was derived from meter readings for residential and non-residential customers who have unchlorinated water service agreements.

Recycled water

Residential use

The volume of recycled water supplied to the Range Estate from Brushy Creek local treatment plant was taken from the onsite bulk meter at the estate site.

Commercial, industrial, municipal use

The volume of recycled water supplied for commercial, industrial, and municipal uses is derived from meter readings. It is the balance of the recycled water supplied to urban/industrial customers.

Agricultural/individual irrigation use

This item represents the metered volume of recycled water supplied from the Wallan, Aurora and Whittlesea local treatment plant for agricultural use.

On-site in-process use (no-recirculation)

The volume of recycled water used on-site in-process is metered at all Yarra Valley Water's local treatment plant.

Assumptions, limitations, caveats and approximations

Potable water
  • Customer usage in the reporting period is the difference between the total water received and the estimated level of non-revenue water
  • Residential and non-residential usage volumes are in the same proportion as billed and metered volumes.
Non-potable water
  • Billed volumes over the four quarters provide an adequate estimate of water used in the reporting period.

Uncertainty information

Potable, non-potable and recycled water

The uncertainty was estimated to be –/+5%.