El Niño - Detailed Australian Analysis


This page describes a case by case analysis of El Niño events since 1900. Click on the tabs to read about particular years.

El Niño events are often associated with drier than normal conditions across eastern and northern Australia, while La Niña events are associated with wetter than normal conditions across eastern and northern Australia.

See also: La Niña - Detailed Australian Analysis


El Niño: 2009 - 10


SOI: Weak to Moderate
SST: Moderate

The overall effect of this El Niño was weak, with the 11 months from May 2009 to March 2010 (Figure 1) resulting in widespread areas of below average rainfall across WA alone. In fact, the Australian rainfall anomaly pattern was close to a complete reversal of that usually observed.

The initial phase of the El Niño had the largest negative impact, when the SOI signal was rather weak. Consistent with the typical El Niño impact on Australia, May to October 2009 (Figure 2) was rather dry over much of the country, with Queensland and the NT having large areas with rainfall in the driest 10% of the historical record. Further south in areas that expect winter and spring rains, the impact was not quite so marked. Eastern Victoria and most of NSW, except the northeast and north central areas had below average rainfall for the period, while western Victoria, southern SA, Tasmania and northeast and north central NSW had average to above average rainfall.

By November, the SOI signal strengthened and finally came into line with other major ENSO indicators, most notably the SST. Paradoxically this ushered in a wet period over the eastern half of the country. For the 5 months from November 2009 to March 2010 (Figure 3), the NT, SA, Queensland, NSW and Victoria all had areas of rainfall in the top 10% (decile 10). Being generally located inland of the Great Dividing Range, these decile 10 regions included some small parts of record high falls. Particularly active monsoon conditions occurred in February and March when a southward surge of tropical air brought heavy to flood rains across central and southern parts of the NT, southern Queensland and northeast NSW. Remnant moisture also produced heavy rains across southern NSW and Victoria. This period included the Melbourne Hailstorm on the 6th of March 2010.

So Australia's rainfall patterns had switched from being typical of El Niño well before the main ENSO indicators had shown strong signs of retreating to neutral values, although SSTs had been in slow decline since the end of December. A more emphatic sign was the 25.8 rise in the SOI from March to April 2010 which heralded the end of the event as far as broadscale indicators were concerned.


Figure 1. May 2009 - Mar 2010 Figure 2. May 2009 - Oct 2009 Figure 3. Nov 2009 - Mar 2010





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop: Monthly SST Loop:
March 09 - April 10 Autumn 09 to Autumn 10 March 09 - May 10


El Niño: 2006 - 07


SOI: Weak
SST: Weak

During May 2006 to December 2006 (Figure 1), most of Australia was strongly affected by this weak El Niño, with large regions in the southern and coastal areas being in the lowest 10% of rainfall. Particularly, southern Victoria and northern Tasmania were very dry, receiving lowest on record falls.

These 8 dry months had a very strong impact when factoring in the lack of relief from the 2002/03 El Niño. This was especially obvious in the 2006/07 fire season, with the Great Divide Fires being the longest running bushfires in Victoria's fire history. They began by lightning strikes in December 2006, and ended in February 2007. These fires caused the worst bushfire smoke since records began, affecting those with respiratory conditions such as asthma. Furthermore there were widespread fires in New South Wales during this time.

A change in conditions occurred around January 2007, with January to May 2007 (Figure 2) having a return to average to above average rainfall for most areas. However the Melbourne region and southeast Queensland were exceptions, being plagued by ongoing dry conditions.


Figure 1. May 2006 - Dec 2006 Figure 2. Jan 2007 - May 2007





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop: Monthly SST Loop:
March 06 - April 07 Autumn 06 to Autumn 07 April 06 - June 07


El Niño: 2002 - 03


SOI: Weak
SST: Weak to Moderate

This weak to moderate El Niño event had a very strong impact in Australia. The major 2002-03 drought had rainfall deficiencies over the period March 2002 to January 2003 (Figure 1) that ranked in severity and areal extent with the extreme droughts of 1902 and 1982-83. Practically all parts of the country were affected, and in southern areas this exacerbated the effects of several preceding years of dry conditions. The extreme dryness coincided with exceptionally warm conditions: maximum temperatures averaged Australia established new records in each of the seasons autumn, winter and spring by a wide margin for the post-1950 era. Severe bushfires in eastern NSW, Canberra, and the mountains of southeast NSW and eastern Victoria, and widespread water shortages, were some of the main effects. Widespread above to very much above average falls occurred in February 2003 raising hopes of a consistent period of wet weather to erase the effects of severe drought. However, this was not to be. Totals for the remainder of 2003 were insufficient in many areas to overcome existing rainfall deficiencies - especially in parts of Queensland and southeast Victoria where 2003 was another rather dry year (Figure 2).


Figure 1. Mar 2002 - Jan 2003 Figure 2. 2003


Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop: Monthly SST Loop:
March 02 - April 03 Autumn 02 to Autumn 03 March 02 - May 03


El Niño: 1997 - 98


SOI: Strong
SST: Very Strong

Over the 12 months from April 1997 to March 1998 (Figure 1), below average totals occurred across Victoria, east and north Tasmania, central & east NSW, eastern sub-tropical Queensland & southwest WA. Overall the impact would be classed as weak with crops benefiting from widespread falls in both May and September. Southern and eastern Victoria were the worst affected with much of the region having falls among the driest 10% on record for the 12 months. Rainfall was consistently above average in eastern Australia from April 1998 onwards.


Figure 1. Apr 1997 - Mar 1998





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop: Monthly SST Loop:
March 97 - April 98 Autumn 97 to Autumn 98 March 97 - June 98


El Niño: 1994 - 95


SOI: Strong
SST: Weak to moderate

Over the 10 months from March to December 1994 (Figure 1), rainfall was in the lowest 10% of totals across most of Queensland, NSW, Victoria, SA, NE Tasmania and southern WA. Falls were also below average over the southern half of the NT and much of WA. So the impact would be described as strong. Average to above average falls fell in parts of eastern Australia (especially NSW) in November and December, and then very heavy rain and flooding occurred over inland NSW, SW Queensland and northern Victoria in January effectively ending the event. However, there was another period of below average rain from February-April 1995 (Figure 2) before higher falls became re-established.


Figure 1. Mar 1994 - Dec 1994 Figure 2. Feb 1995 - Apr 1995





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop: Monthly SST Loop:
March 94 - April 95 Autumn 94 to Autumn 95 August 94 to March 95


El Niño: 1993 - 94


SOI: Moderate
SST: Weak

Not a "classic" event by any stretch of the imagination. Despite the SOI staying in moderate negative values until October, the ocean signal was weak except for April and May 1993. The effect was very weak with above average falls occurring over eastern Australia in July, October, November, and December 1993, and then again in February 1994. In fact, it was so wet that large parts of NSW and Victoria recorded totals in the highest 10% of records for the 6 months from July-December 1993 (Figure 1). Against this though, it was a poor wet season in eastern and northern Queensland, particularly the 3 months from December-February (Figure 2).


Figure 1. Jul 1993 - Dec 1993 Figure 2. Dec 1993 - Feb 1994





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop: Monthly SST Loop:
March 93 - April 94 Autumn 93 to Autumn 94 February 93 - August 93


El Niño: 1991 - 92


SOI: Moderate to strong
SST: Moderate to strong

A strong effect over Queensland with about three-quarters of the state recording decile 1 rainfall totals for the 9 months from March to November 1991 (Figure 1). It was the driest such period on record in parts of the Darling Downs. The northern half of NSW was also seriously affected with about half this region in decile 1 for the nine months. Further south totals were average to above, although the seasonal distribution was very uneven. In Victoria, southern NSW, and much of Tasmania, a very dry autumn was followed by a wet June-September period and then more below average falls in October-November. Above to very much above average rain fell in December over SE Queensland and the eastern half of NSW marking the beginning of the end of this event in these regions. Although falls were patchy in January 1992, heavy rain fell again in February, particularly in the southeast of Queensland and NSW. In the tropics though, totals were consistently below average from November through to April (Figure 2) with many areas of WA, the NT, and north Queensland recording decile 1 falls for the 6 months.


Figure 1. Mar 1991 - Nov 1991 Figure 2. Nov 1991 - Apr 1992


Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop: Monthly SST Loop:
March 91 - April 92 Autumn 91 to Autumn 92 March 91 - June 92


El Niño: 1987 - 88


SOI: Moderate to strong
SST: Moderate to strong

Generally weak with mainly average to above average falls in Victoria, NSW and Queensland during the 9 months from May 1987 to January 1988 (Figure 1). Northern and eastern Tasmania, pockets of Gippsland and the southwest corner of WA fared rather worse with totals in the lowest 10% for the 7 months from April-October 1987 (Figure 2). It was also a poor wet season over Cape York and northwest Queensland with decile 1 totals for the 6 months from October 1987 to March 1988 (Figure 3).


Figure 1. May 1987 - Jan 1988 Figure 2. Apr 1987 - Oct 1987 Figure 3. Oct 1987 - Mar 1988





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop: Monthly SST Loop:
March 87 - April 88 Autumn 87 to Summer 88 September 86 - February 88


El Niño: 1982 - 83


SOI: Very strong
SST: Very strong

A very strong impact on Australia with drought conditions widepsread across eastern and southern Australia. Below average rainfall patterns were established in April 1982 and continued almost unabated up to and including February 1983 when southern Australia experienced heat-wave conditions and bushfires that culminated in the Ash Wednesday disaster. For the 11 months from April 82 to February 83 (Figure 1) virtually all of the eastern two-thirds of the country recorded rainfall totals within the driest 10%. In fact, the vast bulk of Victoria, the southern halves of both NSW and South Australia, together with large tracts of central and western Queensland recorded record low falls for this particular 11-month period.

The pattern changed abruptly in March 1983 when flood rains in central and southern Australia heralded several months of above average rainfall across much of the country.


Figure 1. Apr 1982 - Feb 1983





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop: Monthly SST Loop:
March 82 - April 83 Autumn 82 to Autumn 83 March 82 - October 83


El Niño: 1977 - 78


SOI: Moderate
SST: Weak

A moderate to strong impact, but of fairly short duration. For the six months from June to November (Figure 1), most of NSW, the southern half of Queensland, patches in northern Victoria and northern Tasmania, and scattered regions in both WA and SA recorded rainfall totals in the driest 10% for that 6-month period. Most remaining areas in these states, with the exception of SA, registered below average falls. Above average rain in January eased the situation in eastern Australia, but for the nine months from June 77 to February 78 (Figure 2), decile 1 totals were registered in northern Victoria, southern and far western NSW together with the northeast corner of that state, and SE Queensland.


Figure 1. Jun 1977 - Nov 1977 Figure 2. Jun 1977 - Feb 1978





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 77 - April 78 Autumn 77 to Autumn 78


El Niño: 1972 - 73


SOI: Moderate
SST: Moderate to strong

Drier than average weather became established in the southern areas in March 1972, and apart from a brief respite in August, continued to the end of the year. Overall the impact would be classed as strong. For the ten months from March to December 1972 (Figure 1), rainfall totals were in the driest 10% of records (decile 1) over the majority of Victoria, SA, southern WA, north and east Tasmania, western and southern NSW, and far southwest and central Queensland.

Above average falls occurred in January, followed by widepsread above average to record falls in February, thereby ending the drought and heralding the wettest two-year period in Australia's history.


Figure 1. Mar 1972 - Dec 1972





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 72 - April 73 Autumn 72 to Autumn 73


El Niño: 1969 - 70


SOI: Weak
SST: Weak

In this case, weak indicators lead to a weak effect through the region of eastern Australia most commonly affected. There were some dry months between June 1969 and February 1970, Figure 1, (notably June and October in Victoria), but for this 9-month period decile 1 totals were mainly confined to some of the border regions between SA and each of Victoria, NSW and Queensland. Parts of the Eyre Peninsula and southwest WA also had totals in the driest 10% of falls.

However there was a strong impact across most remaining parts of WA together with some adjacent regions in eastern NT. These areas recorded decile 1 or record low falls for the nine months from June '69 to Feb '70, but it is more than likely that an additional influence unrelated to El Niño was crucial to the development of this rainfall anomaly.


Figure 1. Jun 1969 - Feb 1970


Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 69 - April 70 Autumn 69 to Autumn 70


El Niño: 1965 - 66


SOI: Moderate to strong
SST: Moderate

The overall impact was moderate. Over the 9-month period from March to November 1965 (Figure 1), rainfall was below average across most of NSW and SA, the southern half of Queensland, southern NT and patches in both Victoria and Tasmania. The most seriously affected region was a large area straddling the NSW/Queensland border stretching from near Longreach in the north to Dubbo in the south. Totals here were in decile 1 for the nine months with a few patches of lowest on record.

Above average totals occurred in August over SA and southern NSW, but it wasn't until December 1965 that some relief came for the worst affected area with above to very much above average falls. However, the relief was short-lived as conditions were generally drier than average right up until July 1966 causing a large part of NSW and southern Queensland to be in decile 1 for the 17 months (March 1965 to July 1966), Figure 2. This was depsite a rise in the SOI and a return to neutral Pacific sea-surface temperatures, thus suggesting a mechanism apart from El Niño.


Figure 1. Mar 1965 - Nov 1965 Figure 2. Mar 1965 - Jul 1966


Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 65 - April 66 Autumn 65 to Autumn 66


El Niño: 1963 - 64


SOI: Weak
SST: Weak

This event seemed to develop a little later than is typical, with the main period of dryness being over the relatively short period from September 1963 to March 1964 (Figure 1). During this 7-month period the impact was weak across the Murray-Darling Basin, the most commonly affected area, but strong over regions further west. However, because this affected region was unusual, there is a strong probability that other influences helped to cause the anomalously low rainfall.

These seven months were exceptionally dry across SA, the southern half of the NT, eastern WA and the western fringes of Victoria and NSW. Large parts of western SA and southeast WA had record low falls for the period.


Figure 1. Sep 1963 - Mar 1964





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 63 - April 64 Autumn 63 to Autumn 64


El Niño: 1957 - 58


SOI: Weak
SST: Weak to moderate

The overall impact was moderate to strong with most of the southern half of the continent being drier than average, including extensive parts of NSW, SA and WA that were in decile 1 for the nine months from March to November 1957 (Figure 1). Parts of central NSW and WA registered their lowest rainfall on record for this 9-month period.

May and the spring months were particularly dry, but falls were more patchy in winter with some above average regions in NSW and Victoria. Tasmania and western Victoria though, were drier than average in winter with record low falls in the Apple-Isle.


Figure 1. Mar 1957 - Nov 1957


Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 57 - April 58 Autumn 57 to Autumn 58


El Niño: 1951 - 52


SOI: Weak
SST: Weak

The overall impact was strong with most of the northern two-thirds of the country recording below to very much below average rainfall. For the 12 months from March 1951 to February 1952 (Figure 1), rainfall totals were in decile 1 over nearly all of Queensland, the northern half of the NT, as well as scattered parts of northern NSW, SA and WA. Large areas in northern Queensland and the NT had record low falls for this particular 12-month period.

Rainfall was average to above average in Victoria and southern SA, particularly between April and August (Figure 2) when 5-month totals were in decile 10 or the highest on record.


Figure 1. Mar 1951 - Feb 1952 Figure 2. Apr 1951 - Aug 1951





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 51 - April 52 Autumn 51 to Autumn 52


El Niño: 1946 - 47


SOI: Weak to Moderate
SST: N/A

A strong impact over eastern and northern Australia with most of NSW, Queensland, and the north of the NT registering decile 1 falls for the 10 months from April 1946 to January 1947 (Figure 1). A large region in the central-west of Queensland experienced record low totals for this particular 10-month period. Large parts of SA, Victoria, and WA were also drier than average.

Areas of below average rainfall first became evident over Queensland in autumn and gradually spread southwards. However, there were some months when the dry spell was eased by useful rains - most notably across Victoria in July and the NSW/Queensland border areas in September. Average to above average falls were also prominent in November and December.

The pattern was broken in February 1947 when widespread heavy rain fell in the worst affected areas. Good follow-up falls also occurred in March.


Figure 1. Apr 1946 - Jan 1947





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 46 - April 47 Autumn 46 to Autumn 47


El Niño: 1941 - 42


SOI: Strong
SST: N/A

The overall impact was moderate to strong, particularly in NSW which was mainly in decile 1 for the 10 months from April 1941 to January 1942 (Figure 1). The southern tier of Queensland was similarly affected, as was Cape York in the far north of the State. The east and north of both Victoria and Tasmania were drier than average during this 10-month period with decile 1 falls in some areas.

The pattern began to change in February 1942 with a return to average falls or higher for the period up to mid-winter, although April 1942 was a dry month across the eastern half of NSW.


Figure 1. Apr 1941 - Jan 1942





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 41 - April 42 Autumn 41 to Autumn 42


El Niño: 1940 - 41


SOI: Strong
SST: N/A

The overall impact was strong, although the period that was characterised by anomalously low rainfall was a little shorter than that which occurred with many other events. For the nine months from March to November 1940 (Figure 1) inclusive, most of the country recorded below average rainfall, the main exceptions being parts of eastern and northern Queensland and some areas in the NT. There were vast areas where falls were in decile 1, and this includes the above average rainfall that fell in April in NSW, Victoria and central Australia. For the shorter 7-month period beginning in May (Figure 2), one-half to two-thirds of the country recorded decile 1 rainfall totals.

Above average rainfall in eastern NSW and southeast Queensland in December heralded a change in the pattern. January 1941 was an excpetionally wet month over eastern Australia with decile 10 falls covering nearly all of Victoria and NSW, much of the southern half of Queensland and the eastern half of SA. Highest on record totals occurred in each state. March 1941 was another wet month and above average falls continued in the tropics until June.


Figure 1. Mar 1940 - Nov 1940 Figure 2. May 1940 - Nov 1940





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 40 - April 41 Autumn 40 to Autumn 41


El Niño: 1925 - 26


SOI: Moderate
SST: N/A

The impact would be classed as strong, but the main area affected was somewhat to the west of that most commonly influenced. For the 12 months from March 1925 to February 1926 (Figure 1), most of eastern and central Australia had below average falls with decile 1 to lowest on record values across most of Tasmania, Victoria, northern SA, southern NT and far western Queensland.

There was quite a deal of month to month variation in the rainfall patterns with May and June 1925 being wet or very wet over parts of eastern and central NSW. Other useful falls to occur during the period occurred as follows: July 1925 in East Gippsland, August 1925 in southeast Queensland, September 1925 in southeast SA and November 1925 across northern NSW. October, December and February were particularly dry over large areas.

With the exception of Tasmania and western Victoria, the dry weather pattern was broken by widespread and heavy rain in March and April 1926.


Figure 1. Mar 1925 - Feb 1926





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 25 - April 26 Autumn 25 to Autumn 26


El Niño: 1919 - 20


SOI: Weak to moderate
SST: N/A

A classic event in terms of impact with strong rainfall deficits over the Murray-Darling Basin, Tasmania, western Victoria and the southeast of SA for the 15 months from March 1919 to May 1920 (Figure 1). Most of these areas recorded falls in decile 1 with areas of lowest on record featuring in central NSW. Although there were pockets that received decent falls from time to time during this period, the only widespread falls occurred in May and December. The driest months were June, July, October, November and February.

The SOI had been negative since late 1918 rising to around zero during the early part of 1920. However, it wasn't until the SOI rose to around +10 in June and July that the drought was eased or broken with widepsread above average falls.


Figure 1. Mar 1919 - May 1920





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 19 - April 20 Autumn 19 to Autumn 20


El Niño: 1914 - 15


SOI: Strong
SST: N/A

This was the second year of a double El Niño event and the effect was strong. The SOI was generally in the -15 to -20 range from April 1914 to May 1915, and apart from coastal NSW virtually all of eastern Australia, together with the east of SA and southwest WA recorded below average rainfall. For the 12 months from May 1914 to April 1915 (Figure 1) decile 1 or lowest on record totals were particularly prominent in Tasmania, Victoria, southeast SA and southern NSW.

Dry weather set in with a vengeance in southeastern Australia in June and continued almost unabated until the end of October. The pattern spread northward into Queensland in August, although much of Victoria, NSW and Queensland had some relief in November and December with average to above average rains. The central and north coasts of NSW were very wet in September and October during which time record dry conditions occurred over Victoria and Tasmania.

The pattern of below average rainfall returned in January 1915 and continued to affect most of eastern Australia until the end of April. From May onwards the pattern reverted to one of average to above average falls that eventually led into the double La Niña event of 1916/1917.


Figure 1. May 1914 - Apr 1915





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 14 - April 15 Autumn 14 to Autumn 15


El Niño: 1913 - 14


SOI: Weak
SST: N/A

A weak to moderate effect with most of southeastern Australia and parts of southern Queensland recording below average rainfall for the June 1913 to February 1914 period (Figure 1). Areas of decile 1 totals tended to be rather patchy, the largest covering parts of Gippsland, northeast Victoria and adjacent areas of the southern inland of NSW. The below average rainfall pattern took a while to become established with wet conditions prevailing over much of NSW between March and June 1913. However, June 1913 was very dry in far western NSW, SA and western Victoria and this pattern spread eastward in July. There were average to above average falls in September and October 1913, but rainfall tended to be below normal for the four months following this.


Figure 1. Jun 1913 - Feb 1914





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 13 - April 14 Autumn 13 to Autumn 14


El Niño: 1911 - 12


SOI: Moderate to strong
SST: N/A

This event took a little while to get going in terms of rainfall anomalies, but for the 14 months from April 1911 to May 1912 (Figure 1) the overall impact was moderate to strong. For this period falls were in decile 1 over much of eastern Queensland, northern NSW, northern Victoria and the southern border areas of NSW, western WA and parts of both southeast SA and Tasmania. In parts of central Queensland, it was the driest such period on record.

Occasional good falls happened during the early and middle parts of the event with November and December 1911 being particularly wet across central NSW. However, January, April and May 1912 were dry over large areas. This pattern was broken in June and July 1912 with widespread above average rainfall.


Figure 1. Apr 1911 - May 1912





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 11 - April 12 Autumn 11 to Autumn 12


El Niño: 1905 - 06


SOI: Strong
SST: N/A

Despite very strongly negative SOI values in autumn, it wasn't until winter 1905 that drier than average areas began to emerge in eastern Australia. The effect was relatively short-lived with a moderate impact over the 8 months from June 1905 to January 1906 (Figure 1). During this period most parts of eastern and northern Australia recorded below average rainfall, with decile 1 areas scattered throughout. Below average falls also occurred across much of SA and the west of WA.

The driest period during the event over eastern and southern Australia was from November to January, but the pattern changed in February with above average to record falls occurring over southern Queensland and western NSW. High totals were widespread in the east of the country in March, although the monsoon remained weak over the far north. There was a brief return to widespread dry conditions in April.


Figure 1. Jun 1905 - Jan 1906





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 05 - April 06 Autumn 05 to Autumn 06


El Niño: 1902 - 03


SOI: Weak
SST: N/A

This was the culmination of the Federation Drought with a very strong impact over the eastern half of the country where most rainfall totals for the 12 months from November 1901 to October 1902 (Figure 1) were in the lowest 10% of records. Vast areas of Queensland, NSW and central Australia had record low falls. The southwest of WA was also drier than average.

Negative SOI values occurred from September to December 1901, but apart from February 1902, the next negative monthly SOI value wasn't observed until August 1902. So it was an odd event in this respect.

Areas of above average rainfall were observed in November 1902 over parts of SA, southern NT, western Queensland and the far northwest of NSW heralding further widespread falls in December across southern and eastern Australia. The relief was shortlived though with more dry conditions in January and February 1903. It wasn't until March 1903 that a consistent pattern of above average falls was established.


Figure 1. Nov 1901 - Oct 1902





Monthly Decile Loop: Seasonal Decile Loop:
March 02 - April 03 Autumn 02 to Autumn 03



Product Code: IDCKGEA000

© Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology