Queensland in 2023

Rainfall

  • The state-averaged annual rainfall was 695.2 mm, which was 11.7% above the 1961–1990 average.
  • Rainfall was above average to very much above average over large parts of the Peninsula, Gulf Country, Northern Goldfields and Upper Flinders and the North Tropical Coast.
  • Rainfall was below average to very much below average for large areas of the Southeast Coast, Wide Bay and Burnett, Darling Downs and Granite Belt and Maranoa and Warrego.
  • Some sites had their highest daily rainfall on record.
  • Some sites had their highest total rainfall on record.
  • Some sites had their highest total rainfall for at least 20 years.

Temperature


Extremes in 2023
Hottest day 47.2 °C at Winton Airport on 30 Dec
Warmest days on average 33.9 °C at Kowanyama Airport
Coolest days on average 22.4 °C at Applethorpe
Coldest day 10.3 °C at Urandangi Aerodrome on 1 Jul
Coldest night -5.7 °C at Oakey Aero on 9 May
Coolest nights on average 9.0 °C at Applethorpe
Warmest nights on average 25.4 °C at Coconut Island
Warmest night 31.8 °C at Ballera Gas Field on 29 Jan
Warmest on average overall 29.0 °C at Coconut Island
Coolest on average overall 15.7 °C at Applethorpe
Wettest overall 5187.2 mm at Whyanbeel Valley
Wettest day 714.0 mm at Mossman South Alchera Drive on 18 Dec
Strongest wind gust 169 km/h at Archerfield Airport on 15 Dec

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

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Monthly maps
Rainfall rankMaximum temperature rankMinimum temperature rank
January Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
February Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
March Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
April Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
May Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
June Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
July Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
August Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
September Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
October Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
November Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
December Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record highest daily rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Undilla Station 227.0 on 9 Mar 210.8 on 4 Mar 1954 113
Mossman South Alchera Drive 714.0 on 18 Dec 564.4 on 28 Jan 1969 111
Whyanbeel Valley 699.8 on 18 Dec 641.4 on 5 Mar 1996 86
Mulgrave Mill 458.0 on 17 Dec 327.9 on 2 Mar 1935 85
Herbert Vale 204.0 on 8 Mar 175.0 on 4 Jan 2009 72
Slogan Downs 200.0 on 3 Mar 154.0 on 26 Dec 1990 48
White Cliff Point 512.0 on 17 Dec 349.2 on 26 Mar 2018 36
Heather Station 95.0 on 23 Nov 87.0 on 2 Mar 2010 25
Russell River 482.0 on 17 Dec 479.0 on 8 Apr 2000 25
Cooktown Airport 339.8 on 16 Dec 305.0 on 19 Mar 2004 24
Mareeba Airport 205.4 on 17 Dec 156.0 on 18 Feb 2001 24
Century Mine 313.4 on 8 Mar 207.2 on 13 Mar 2011 21



Record highest annual total rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Laura Post Office 1815.1 1649.8 in 1974 119 943.9
Undilla Station 1198.5 1064.0 in 1974 106 454.1
Gregory Downs Outstation 1552.7 1231.4 in 1903 78 551.2
Whyanbeel Valley 5187.2 4862.2 in 1950 76 2988.0
Innot Hot Springs Township 1555.4 1527.0 in 1977 59 899.6
Walkamin Research Station 1936.7 1750.5 in 1974 59 1033.8
Phosphate Hill 663.3 662.9 in 2016 27 320.5
Frankfield Station 944.0 780.0 in 2021 23 520.6
Mareeba Airport 1463.6 1394.6 in 2008 23 863.3
Century Mine 1510.2 1290.8 in 2011 20 615.1

Highest annual total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
higher
Annual
average
Moreton Telegraph Station 2033.3 2096.8 in 1894* 1382.2
Kuranda Railway Station 4417.2 4657.5 in 1979* 2163.9
Maitland Downs Station 1712.5 1879.0 in 1981* 951.8
Weipa Aero 2455.6 2719.4 in 1996* 1955.2
Werrina Station 669.0 787.8 in 1981* 468.1
Herbert Vale 1068.0 1277.0 in 2000* 482.2
Highbury Station 1729.2 1855.1 in 1999* 1039.8

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported




Record highest temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Coconut Island 37.9 on 3 Dec 37.8 on 20 Nov 2022 28 31.7
Winton Airport 47.2 on 30 Dec 46.9 on 10 Jan 2013 22 32.9



Record lowest daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Century Mine 12.6 on 2 Jul 13.8 on 21 Jun 2007 21 34.5



Record highest annual mean daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Cunnamulla Post Office 30.5 = 30.5 in 2017 112 28.2
Mitchell Post Office 30.3 30.0 in 2017 103 27.6
Stanthorpe Leslie Parade 23.4 23.2 in 1980 77 21.8
Mackay M.O 27.7 27.6 in 2018 64 26.6
Seventeen Seventy 27.1 26.9 in 2019 34 25.9
Tewantin RSL Park 26.2 = 26.2 in 2017 28 25.4



Record highest daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Redcliffe 27.5 on 4 Feb 27.4 on 21 Jan 2017 20 17.1



Record highest annual mean daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Birdsville Airport 17.6 17.5 in 2017 23 16.8
Ballera Gas Field 17.5 17.4 in 2005 21 16.7



Record highest annual mean temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Seventeen Seventy 23.2 = 23.2 in 2017 32 22.4



Summary statistics for 2023
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean
for
2023
Diff
from
average
Highest
for
2023
Mean
for
2023
Diff
from
average
Lowest
for
2023
Total
for
2023
Average
annual
total
Rank
of
2023
Fraction
of annual
average
North Peninsula (district 27)
Coconut Island 32.6 +0.9 37.9 3 Dec 25.4 +0.2 21.2 8 Aug 1197.6 1401.2 low 85%
Coen Airport 31.9 0.0 39.4 1 Dec 21.0 +0.1 12.4 16 Aug 1311.8 1125.6 high 117%
Horn Island 30.6 +0.1 34.1 29 Nov 24.9 +0.2 20.4 31 Aug 1833.8 1783.8 average 103%
Scherger RAAF 33.1 0.0 39.4 30 Nov 22.1 +0.1 15.6 25 Jul 2508.4 1805.9 high 139%
Weipa Aero 33.2 +0.4 39.2 4 Dec 22.1 +0.1 15.2 1 Sep 2455.6 1955.2 v high 126%
South Peninsula (district 28)
Lockhart River Airport 30.4 +0.5 39.8 12 Dec     13.5 1 Sep 1763.2 2052.6 average 86%
Lower Carpentaria (district 29)
Burketown Airport 33.4 -0.1 43.4 12 Dec 20.9 +0.1 9.8 24 May 1237.0 812.2 high 152%
Century Mine 33.5 -1.0 45.2 31 Dec 19.2 -0.7 8.0 21 Aug 1510.2 615.1 highest 246%
Cloncurry Airport 32.9 -0.5 46.2 30 Dec 18.6 -0.5 6.2 16 Jun 500.2 500.6 average 100%
Julia Creek Airport 33.7 -0.6 45.3 30 Dec 16.6 -0.7 1.4 24 Jul 740.6 471.2 high 157%
Kowanyama Airport 33.9 +0.5 40.4 1 Nov 21.7 +0.7 11.0 30 May 1930.6 1270.2 v high 152%
Lake Julius AWS 32.9   45.0 30 Dec 19.3   7.6 16 Jun 902.8
Mornington Island Airport 30.6 -0.2 36.4 17 Oct 22.9 -0.1 14.3 3 Jul 1159.4
Mount Isa Aero 32.4 +0.3 45.4 30 Dec 16.5 -0.8 2.3 16 Jun 637.2 463.8 high 137%
Normanton Airport 33.4 -0.3 41.3 12 Dec 21.9 0.0 9.7 25 Jul 1125.6 802.3 high 140%
Sweers Island 30.1 -0.3 38.0 31 Dec 23.8 +0.3 14.1 3 Jul 1574.1 1237.7 high 127%
Upper Carpentaria (district 30)
Georgetown Airport 33.0 +0.1 40.8 2 Nov 18.7 -0.4 4.0 25 Jul
Hughenden Airport 32.8 +0.4 42.2 24 Dec 17.5 -0.1 0.8 29 May 508.8 453.0 average 112%
Richmond Airport 33.7 +0.2 44.7 30 Dec 17.0 -0.2 1.8 29 May 522.6 463.1 average 113%
Barron North Coast (district 31)
Cairns Aero 29.8 +0.7 35.8 5 Dec 21.6 +0.7 13.0 14 Aug 2351.8 2004.0 high 117%
Cairns Racecourse 29.5 -0.2 36.2 11 Dec 20.8 +0.2 10.4 16 Aug
Cape Flattery 30.1 +0.2 34.5 31 Dec 23.6 +0.2 15.1 1 Sep 1838.8 1427.4 high 129%
Cooktown Airport 29.7 0.0 36.0 30 Nov 22.2 +0.1 12.9 30 May
Low Isles Lighthouse 29.2 -0.2 36.1 3 Dec 23.8 +0.4 18.7 25 Jul
Mareeba Airport 29.0 0.0 37.9 30 Nov 18.3 +0.3 7.0 16 Aug 1463.6 863.3 highest 170%
Walkamin Research Station 27.6 +0.2 35.8 17 Nov 17.3 +0.2 8.6 25 Jul 1936.7 1033.8 highest 187%
Herbert North Coast (district 32)
Cowley Beach (Defence) 28.4   34.2 11 Dec 21.0   11.7 20 Aug 2247.4
Innisfail Aerodrome 28.8   36.3 11 Dec 19.4   9.3 25 Jul 3867.8
Mount Stuart (Defence) 29.9   37.1 3 Dec 20.2   11.8 25 Jul
South Johnstone Exp Stn 28.5 +0.3 35.8 11 Dec 20.3 +1.0 10.8 25 Jul 3039.6 3280.9 average 93%
Townsville Aero 29.7 +0.7 35.1 11 Dec 20.4 +0.5 10.2 20 Aug 1148.2 1140.0 average 101%
Townsville- Air Weapons Range (Defence) 30.2   38.4 30 Nov 17.5   4.7 10 May
East Central Coast (district 33)
Ayr DPI Research Stn 29.7 +0.5 36.4 2 Feb 18.8 +0.7 8.4 30 May 1167.2 970.6 high 120%
Bowen Airport AWS 29.3   34.6 3 Feb 19.8   7.7 10 May
Collinsville Post Office 31.3 +1.0 39.9 30 Nov 17.2 +0.7 3.8 10 May 621.6 700.9 average 89%
Hamilton Island Airport 26.5 0.0 32.6 3 Dec 22.4 +0.5 14.1 25 Jul 1692.8 1468.1 high 115%
Mackay Aero 27.8 +0.4 37.0 2 Feb 18.4 +0.4 5.3 30 May 1558.0 1540.0 average 101%
Mackay M.O 27.7 +1.1 35.2 3 Feb 20.0 +0.8 9.6 30 May
Ooralea Racecourse (Mackay Turf Club) 27.7   37.5 2 Feb 18.4   6.3 30 May 1658.8
Proserpine Airport 29.5 +0.6 37.4 3 Dec 18.0 +0.4 4.8 30 May 1467.6 1430.8 average 103%
Samuel Hill Aero 27.3 +0.1 36.4 3 Feb 16.6 +0.5 3.6 9 Jul 1515.6 1482.5 average 102%
St Lawrence 29.1 +0.5 37.4 13 Apr 17.6 0.0 5.2 9 Jul 833.0 926.5 average 90%
Townsville- Fanning River (Defence) 30.4   39.7 30 Nov 17.3   4.5 10 May 741.0
Williamson 29.0 +0.6 36.9 3 Feb 17.2 +0.1 3.5 28 May 621.0 841.9 low 74%
Woolshed 26.5 +0.3 33.2 3 Dec 17.2 +0.4 3.1 30 May 667.6 1136.4 low 59%
Yeppoon The Esplanade 26.4 +0.5 37.7 13 Feb 19.2 +0.5 6.6 1 Jul 1095.6 994.9 high 110%
West Central Coast (district 34)
Moranbah Airport 31.0 +0.3 40.8 16 Nov 15.7 -0.2 2.6 28 May 540.4 560.8 average 96%
Central Highlands (district 35)
Clermont Airport 30.2 +0.3 39.9 16 Nov 14.7 0.0 -0.2 29 May 754.4 562.6 v high 134%
Emerald Airport 30.6 +0.7 41.1 16 Nov 16.2 -0.2 4.6 9 Jul 641.4 558.2 average 115%
Lochington 30.6 +0.5 40.5 16 Nov 14.4 -0.3 -0.6 28 May
Springsure Comet St     39.5 15 Nov 15.0 +0.6 2.3 9 Jul
Tambo Post Office 30.0 +0.9 40.9 29 Dec 13.3 +0.6 -2.0 1 Jun 510.4 531.1 average 96%
Central Lowlands (district 36)
Barcaldine Post Office 31.3 +1.1 42.3 30 Dec 17.4 +1.0 3.7 16 Jun 599.4 501.2 high 120%
Blackall Airport 31.3 +0.6 44.9 30 Dec 15.4 -0.2 1.1 9 May 417.2 486.6 average 86%
Isisford Post Office 31.7 +0.8 46.0 30 Dec 16.3 +0.6 2.4 28 May 399.2 446.7 average 89%
Longreach Aero 32.4 +0.8 46.5 30 Dec 16.1 +0.1 1.5 29 May 538.0 435.0 high 124%
Upper Western (district 37)
Camooweal Township 33.0 0.0 45.0 30 Dec 17.1 -0.6 1.7 28 May 718.0 405.4 v high 177%
New May Downs     44.0 30 Dec 18.5 -0.8 6.7 20 May 613.0 421.6 high 145%
The Monument Airport 32.1 -0.3 46.0 29 Dec 16.4 -0.4 2.5 16 Jun 578.6 335.6 v high 172%
Trepell Airport 32.3 -0.4 46.7 30 Dec 16.5 -0.8 3.2 28 May 608.2 341.7 v high 178%
Winton Airport 33.2 +0.3 47.2 30 Dec 16.5 -0.7 3.0 29 May 421.0 385.2 average 109%
Lower Western (district 38)
Bedourie 32.1 +0.2 45.2 29 Dec     2.4 11 Aug 165.4 201.4 average 82%
Birdsville Airport 32.4 +0.8 46.0 29 Dec 17.6 +0.8 4.5 17 Jun 76.6 135.8 low 56%
Port Curtis South Coast (district 39)
Bundaberg Aero 27.9 +1.0 35.1 30 Nov 16.5 0.0 5.2 16 Jun 662.4 1001.1 low 66%
Gayndah Airport 29.9 +1.1 40.6 17 Nov 13.9 -0.6 0.3 21 Jun 469.4 598.7 low 78%
Gladstone Airport 28.2 +0.7 36.6 4 Jan 18.2 0.0 6.9 10 May 687.4 860.3 low 80%
Gladstone Radar 28.8 +1.0 37.2 4 Jan 19.1 +0.5 9.9 9 Jul 710.2 879.9 low 81%
Rockhampton Aero 29.7 +1.2 40.3 30 Nov 17.5 +0.7 5.4 29 May 718.0 813.9 average 88%
Rundle Island 25.0 +0.1 33.0 8 Apr 21.3 +0.4 12.9 30 Jun
Seventeen Seventy 27.1 +1.2 32.8 16 Mar 19.3 +0.4 9.2 9 May 768.4 1147.2 v low 67%
Thangool Airport 30.1 +0.9 38.9 16 Nov 12.8 -0.5 -0.6 9 May 507.2 659.7 low 77%
Moreton South Coast (district 40)
Amberley AMO 28.3 +1.4 39.4 12 Feb 12.3 -0.8 -1.5 9 May 752.0 866.2 average 87%
Archerfield Airport 27.6 +1.2 37.5 29 Dec 14.8 +0.3 3.6 8 Jul 799.4 1057.9 low 76%
Beaudesert Drumley Street 27.9 +0.9 39.3 12 Feb 12.8 -0.3 -1.7 30 Jun 683.4 892.2 low 77%
Beerburrum Forest Station 26.9 +0.4 37.7 29 Dec 15.3 +0.4 5.4 21 Jun 942.2 1422.1 low 66%
Brisbane 27.2 +0.6 38.3 29 Dec 16.7 +0.2 6.7 8 Jul 777.4 997.7 low 78%
Brisbane Aero 26.0 +0.6 34.6 30 Nov 16.1 +0.3 3.9 1 Jul 673.4 1052.9 low 64%
Canungra (Defence) 26.7   38.2 12 Feb 11.2   -2.4 20 Jun
Cape Moreton Lighthouse 24.7 +1.3 31.5 4 Feb 18.9 +0.8 9.9 30 Jun 945.8 1476.2 low 64%
Coolangatta 25.8 +0.9 36.4 28 Dec 15.9 -0.1 2.5 30 Jun 1069.2 1499.1 low 71%
Double Island Point Lighthouse 25.7 +1.4 34.2 30 Dec 19.5 +0.7 9.8 30 Jun
Gold Coast Seaway 25.7 +0.3 35.3 28 Dec 17.3 0.0 7.3 8 Jul 836.8 1308.4 v low 64%
Greenbank (Defence) 27.9   39.9 12 Feb 12.6   -1.0 9 May 815.4
Gympie 28.3 +1.1 39.2 12 Feb 14.0 +0.3 0.7 1 Jul
Kingaroy Airport 26.6 +0.7 37.8 12 Feb 11.3 -0.1 -2.9 1 Jul 548.0 657.8 low 83%
Maryborough 28.0 +1.0 36.7 12 Feb 15.2 -0.1 1.9 29 May 778.4 1130.4 low 69%
Point Lookout 26.3 +0.6 35.1 17 Dec 18.8 +0.3 9.5 30 Jun 1180.4 1452.1 low 81%
Rainbow Beach 25.9 +0.4 34.1 30 Dec 16.9 +0.2 3.3 9 Jul 1089.8 1457.9 low 75%
Redcliffe 25.8 +0.4 35.4 31 Jan 17.2 +0.1 6.2 1 Jul 651.8 1131.9 v low 58%
Redland (Alexandra Hills) 25.8   33.7 17 Mar 15.9   6.0 22 Jun 589.4
Sunshine Coast Airport 26.0 +0.5 34.3 31 Jan 15.9 0.0 2.6 1 Jul 859.2 1493.8 v low 58%
Tewantin RSL Park 26.2 +0.8 35.1 28 Dec 17.2 +0.2 6.0 9 May 918.0 1571.7 lowest 58%
Tin Can Bay (Defence) 26.8   36.8 12 Feb 16.1   2.3 9 May 1041.2
University of Queensland Gatton 28.0 +1.0 40.8 12 Feb 12.8 -0.3 0.7 30 May 617.6 764.4 low 81%
East Darling Downs (district 41)
Applethorpe 22.4 +1.4 34.2 17 Dec 9.0 0.0 -5.0 11 Jul 804.8 763.5 average 105%
Dalby Airport 28.0 +1.1 41.0 12 Feb 11.4 -0.5 -3.2 9 May 439.0 595.2 low 74%
Goondiwindi Airport 28.5   40.3 18 Dec 12.9   -1.8 21 Jun
Oakey Aero 26.9 +1.3 39.5 12 Feb 10.7 -0.3 -5.7 9 May 499.0 612.5 low 81%
Stanthorpe Leslie Parade 23.4 +1.6 34.7 12 Feb     -5.0 11 Jul 754.7 765.3 average 99%
Texas Post Office 28.2 +1.2 41.1 7 Dec 11.8 +0.2 -2.2 9 May 476.5 657.6 low 72%
Toowoomba Airport 24.1 +0.9 37.0 12 Feb 12.7 +0.1 0.1 9 May 646.6 731.3 average 88%
Warwick 25.9 +1.0 38.6 17 Dec 10.3 -0.3 -3.6 9 May 740.4 690.8 average 107%
West Darling Downs (district 42)
Miles Constance Street 28.8 +1.0 41.0 12 Feb 12.8 -0.2 -2.9 23 Jul 509.6 562.3 average 91%
Maranoa (district 43)
Injune Post Office 29.4 +1.6 41.3 15 Nov 11.9 0.0 -3.3 17 Jun 455.4 630.0 low 72%
Mitchell Post Office 30.3 +2.7 41.0 11 Feb 12.2 +0.5 -3.0 17 Jun 417.6 570.0 low 73%
Roma Airport 29.8 +1.6 41.4 12 Feb 13.1 +0.4 -2.0 17 Jun 292.6 561.4 v low 52%
St George Airport 29.3 +1.2 40.6 18 Dec 14.2 +0.2 -1.2 21 Jun 347.8 468.9 low 74%
Surat 29.2 +1.3 40.5 1 Mar     -1.5 17 Jun 463.0 572.9 average 81%
Warrego (district 44)
Charleville Aero 30.3 +2.0 42.4 30 Dec 14.7 +1.0 -0.2 28 May 339.8 486.9 low 70%
Cunnamulla Post Office 30.5 +2.3 42.5 7 Dec 15.5 +1.2 2.3 30 Jun 265.1 373.5 low 71%
Far Southwest (district 45)
Ballera Gas Field 31.3 +0.8 44.7 6 Dec 17.5 +0.8 4.4 30 Jun 145.6 181.9 average 80%
Thargomindah Airport 30.7 +0.9 43.9 26 Jan 16.9 +0.5 2.9 28 May 257.4 266.6 average 97%
Offshore Islands
Cato Island 25.7   31.3 5 Feb 22.4   16.8 24 Jul
Lihou Reef Lighthouse 26.8   32.1 28 Dec 24.6   19.1 2 Sep
Marion Reef 26.4   33.1 4 Feb 24.1   19.0 24 Jul
Middle Percy Island 25.6 +0.4 32.8 3 Feb 20.8 +0.5 12.4 25 Jul 1096.2 1163.4 average 94%
Willis Island 29.2 +0.6 32.3 3 Feb 24.8 +0.7 19.9 12 Aug 775.1 1095.2 low 71%

Notes

The Annual climate summary, lists the main features of the weather in Queensland using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 1 pm on Monday 15 January 2024. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the rainfall is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Information about Australian Indigenous seasonal calendars is available at the Indigenous Weather Knowledge website.


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Climate