Tuesday, 4 January 2011 - Annual Climate Summary for South Australia - Product code IDCKGC23R0
The year 2010 commenced with an El Niño event present in the Pacific Ocean. Above average rainfall accompanied the breakdown of the El Niño during the autumn. The El Niño event transitioned into a La Niña by early winter and coincided with the development of a negative Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) event in August. Above average rainfall, particularly over northern and eastern Australia is typical of El Niño breakdowns and La Niña periods. Negative Indian Ocean Dipole events are also often associated with above average rainfall over southern Australia, as warm sea surface temperatures in the eastern Indian Ocean feed moisture south from the northwest.
The start of 2010 saw average to below average rainfall for large parts of South Australia in January through March, with the exception of the northeast which received well above average rainfall in February due to the passage of a monsoon low from the NT. Rainfall totals then tended average to above average across much of the state right through to years end, apart from June when rainfall was predominantly below average state-wide.
The combination of a La Niña event and the negative Indian Ocean Dipole through 2010 provided extremely favourable conditions for increased rainfall over South Australia, particularly in pastoral areas during spring, with several severe thunderstorm and flash flooding events recorded across the State. As a result of these tropical influences, South Australia recorded its third wettest year on record, with a state average of 362 mm) following 1974 (484 mm) and 1973 (385 mm), and its wettest spring on record (133 mm) exceeding spring 1975 by 3 mm: 1975 was the previous time that both a La Niña event and a negative IOD event of similar strength occurred simultaneously. See the South Australia in spring 2010 summary for more information. Across the whole of South Australia, rainfall in 2010 was 161% of the average. Moomba Airport in the North-east district was exceptional, recording 660.2 mm against an annual average of just 179.2 mm, its second highest rainfall total after 1974 (869.2 mm) considered over the combined rainfall record for Moomba at the town and airport.
The autumn break start to the growing season (April to October) arrived for most agricultural areas by late May, with average to above average rainfall through until the end of the season, with the exception of June and July where rainfall was below average. Overall, the agricultural districts received above average rainfall for the growing season, with conditions generally the wettest since 1992.
Adelaide (Kent Town) annual rainfall was 592.6 mm recorded over 128 rain days, which exceeds the annual average of 549.1 mm (average is calculated over all years of record from 1978 to 2009). The last time Adelaide received more than its average annual rainfall was in 2005. The record highest annual rainfall for the complete Adelaide record (measurements made at both Kent Town and West Terrace, back to 1839) was recorded in 1992, with 883.2 mm in the gauge. The wettest overall station across South Australia was Uraidla with 1195.6 mm, followed by 1180.8 mm at Crafers (Mount Lofty), both in the Mount Lofty Ranges. The wettest single daily rainfall total was of 147 mm at Waikerie in the Upper Murray Valley on 8 December 2010. The lowest annual rainfall total for 2010 in the state was at Coober Pedy Airport, with 179.8 mm recorded over 59 rain days. This was still above the average of 123.4 mm for this location. Several stations broke daily rainfall records. Most of these occurred in the Barossa Valley in severe thunderstorm activity on the 7th and 8th of December.
The mean temperature (the average of daytime maximum temperatures and overnight minimum temperatures) for South Australia for 2010 was equal to the 1961-1990 mean of 19.5°C. In comparison, 2009 was the warmest year on record with temperatures 1.3°C above average.
For the decade from 2001 to 2010, South Australian temperatures have averaged +0.7°C above the 1961-1990 mean temperature, reflecting what has generally been a steady rise in annual temperatures for South Australia since the 1970’s.
Adelaide (Kent Town) in 2010 had an annual mean temperature of 17.5°C, 0.3°C above the normal of 17.2°C.
Annual maximum temperatures were up to 1.5°C below average in northern parts of the state in 2010, tending to close to average in the southeast. Overall, the annual maximum temperature across the state for 2010 was 0.6°C below the 1961-90 average of 26.7°C. This is consistent with historical patterns of rainfall and temperature, with high rainfall years having, in general, more cloud cover and lower daytime temperatures. The warmest year on record for maximum temperatures across the state as a whole was 2007 (1.4°C above average), the coldest was in 1956 (1.3°C below average).
The first four months of 2010 were generally warmer than average, apart from the north where temperatures were generally cooler. A widespread heatwave event was experienced across south-eastern Australia in the second week of January, with temperatures 6°C to 10°C above average across the agricultural areas. Temperatures were then generally close to average from May to July. South Australia then experienced below average temperatures from August through to the end of the year, coinciding with the period of highest rainfall.
Adelaide’s annual maximum temperature for 2010 was 22.5°C, which is 0.2°C above the long-term average of 22.3°C. The warmest year on record at Adelaide was 2007 where the mean maximum temperature was 23.7°C.
Oodnadatta in the Far North District was the warmest location in South Australia during 2010, with an average maximum temperature of 27.8°C, 1.2°C below its average. The coolest annual maximum in the state was 16.7°C at Mount Lofty.
The hottest day was 45.8°C recorded at both Keith (Munkora) and Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) on the 11th of January 2010, with the coldest day recorded being on the 4th of August when Mount Lofty reported 5.7°C.
Annual mean minimum temperatures were generally close to average across South Australia in 2010, if tending slightly warmer than average. The annual minimum temperature across the state for 2010 was 0.5°C above the average of 12.2°C. Again this is consistent with conditions expected during La Niña events, when warmer night-time temperatures result from greater cloud cover trapping more heat overnight. Previously, 2009 was the warmest year on record for minimum temperatures across the state as a whole, being 1.2°C above average.
Adelaide had an annual mean minimum temperature of 12.6°C, which is 0.4°C above the long-term average for the Kent Town recording site of 12.2°C. The warmest year for overnight temperatures was in 1973 where the mean minimum temperature was 13.5°C at West Terrace.
The coldest night recorded in 2010 was –4.5°C at Renmark Aerodrome on the 6th of July. The coolest overnight minimum temperatures were recorded at Yongala where the annual average overnight minimum temperature was 7.4°C. The warmest minimum temperatures annually were 14.7°C at Moomba Airport and at Oodnadatta Airport. The warmest night was on the 11th of January when the overnight minimum was 32.0°C at Port Pirie.
In the north, severe thunderstorms with wind gusts over 100km/h were recorded on a number of occasions during January, February and April. Several heavy rainfalls were recorded in February associated with thunderstorms, with Moomba (Tirrawarra) having its wettest day on record with 131.2 mm on the 13th. Severe thunderstorms also caused structural damage in southeast parts of the state in early February.
A broad swathe of strong to gale force northerly winds ahead of a cold front affected a large part of the state overnight on the 9th of July. Many locations on the Eyre and Yorke peninsulas, as well as the Mount Lofty Ranges, saw sustained periods of winds of 65-75 km/h. On the 14th of July, a cold front and thunderstorms tracked across the Adelaide region and southern districts. Squally winds, heavy rain and small hail generated flash flooding in the northern suburbs of Adelaide. On the same day, another thunderstorm spawned a tornado in Redbanks, near Mallala in the Mid North, which cut a swathe of damage through a farm property. On the 18th of July, a fairly slow moving cluster of heavy convective showers tracked northeast across the southern suburbs of Adelaide during the early evening. The heavy rain caused localised flash flooding.
Thunderstorm activity in the Lower South-East district on the 31st of July spawned a tornado, of likely high end F1 or low end F2 intensity, creating a narrow path of severe wind damage in Penola, damaging many buildings and causing several million dollars damage.
On the 3rd of September a band of thunderstorms moving through the state produced heavy rain and large hail on the Yorke Peninsula, with associated flooding and widespread power outages. Later, on the 3rd of September, an intense low pressure system over southern South Australia produced gale force winds across Kangaroo Island, Yorke Peninsula, the Mid North, Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges and Murraylands districts. The winds caused widespread mostly tree related damage and widespread power outages.
Thunderstorms formed ahead of a strong cold front and developing low pressure system on the 14th of October. There were heavy falls of 1-2 cm sized hail on several properties around New Well in the Murray Valley, which caused severe crop damage.
On the 7th of December a trough and low pressure system produced widespread thunderstorm and lightning activity, heavy rainfall and severe winds across much of South Australia. The highest recorded wind gust was at Woomera (135 km/h). Several other centres recorded wind gusts in the 90 to 108 km/h range. Intense rainfall with this event saw 60 locations around South Australia breaking December daily rainfall totals, with an approximately 1 in 20 year recurrence. An area in the Barossa Valley east of Gawler extending across to Mannum saw rainfall intensities exceeding 1 in 100 average recurrence intervals. Flooding occurred at some locations in the Barossa Valley and Mount Lofty Ranges.
|Extremes in 2010|
45.8 °C at Keith (Munkora) on 11 Jan|
45.8 °C at Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) on 11 Jan
|Warmest days on average||27.8 °C at Oodnadatta Airport|
|Coolest days on average||16.7 °C at Mount Lofty|
|Coldest day||5.7 °C at Mount Lofty on 4 Aug|
|Coldest night||-4.5 °C at Renmark Aero on 6 Jul|
|Coolest nights on average||7.4 °C at Yongala|
|Warmest nights on average||
14.7 °C at Moomba Airport|
14.7 °C at Oodnadatta Airport
|Warmest night||32.0 °C at Port Pirie Nyrstar Comparison on 11 Jan|
|Warmest on average overall||21.3 °C at Oodnadatta Airport|
|Coolest on average overall||12.8 °C at Mount Lofty|
|Wettest overall||1195.6 mm at Uraidla|
|Driest overall||179.8 mm at Coober Pedy Airport|
|Highest wind gust||135 km/h at Woomera Aerodrome on 7 Dec|
|Record highest annual daily rainfall|
Highest daily rainfall
in 2010 (mm)
|Tanunda||94.0||on 8 Dec||87.1||on 17 Apr 1889||132|
|Birdwood||128.2||on 8 Dec||125.5||on 9 Feb 1969||124|
|Mount Bryan||76.6||on 8 Dec||62.4||on 27 Sep 1979||114|
|Mindarie||85.0||on 8 Dec||79.8||on 18 Feb 1946||98|
|Freeling||96.3||on 8 Dec||68.6||on 31 Oct 1997||48|
|Wilpena (Martins Well)||78.0||on 4 Sep||76.0||on 12 Nov 2000||40|
|Caliph||64.0||on 8 Dec||59.0||on 12 Nov 1998||37|
|Adelaide (Kent Town)||66.2||on 8 Dec||55.6||on 31 Oct 1997||34|
|Innamincka (Dullingari)||93.0||on 2 Feb||87.0||on 31 Mar 1988||27|
|Moomba (Tirrawarra)||131.2||on 13 Feb||116.0||on 15 May 2007||27|
|Wilpena (Oraparinna)||84.4||on 4 Sep||66.0||on 19 Oct 2005||26|
|Record highest total annual rainfall|
for 2010 (mm)
|Highest total annual rainfall for at least 25 years|
for 2010 (mm)
Most recent annual
at least this wet
|Port Wakefield||464.8||584.3||in 1974||34||332.0|
|Marree Comparison||342.3||358.2||in 1979||30||162.5|
|Mount Dare||367.8||569.0||in 1976||29||164.3|
|Lowest annual mean daily maximum temperature for at least 25 years|
Mean daily maximum
for 2010 (°C)
Most recent annual
at least this cool
|Oodnadatta Airport||27.8||27.7||in 1974||26||29.0|
|Record highest annual daily minimum temperature|
Highest daily minimum
in 2010 (°C)
|Neptune Island||23.3||on 11 Jan||23.2||on 20 Feb 1997||49||13.7|
|Warooka||28.4||on 11 Jan||= 28.4||on 22 Jan 2006||46||11.4|
|Summary statistics for 2010|
|Northwest (district 16)|
|Andamooka||26.6||-1.0||43.3||27 Jan||13.9||+0.2||0.0||11 Jul||412.3||196.3||v high||210%|
|Coober Pedy Airport||26.3||43.4||27 Jan||13.9||0.7||1 Jul||179.8|
|Ernabella (Pukatja)||25.7||41.5||27 Jan||12.4||-3.7||2 Jul||448.0|
|Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome)||26.3||43.1||31 Dec||12.7||-2.0||8 Jul||320.2|
|Tarcoola Aero||26.7||45.1||31 Dec||11.9||-2.7||8 Jul||194.6|
|Woomera Aerodrome||25.5||-0.2||43.1||31 Dec||13.0||+0.3||0.7||8 Jul||242.8||184.3||high||132%|
|Far North (district 17)|
|Arkaroola||41.9||22 Jan||11.4||-0.2||-2.5||7 Jul||427.6||252.8||high||169%|
|Leigh Creek Airport||25.3||-0.9||42.4||22 Jan||12.8||0.0||-0.5||28 Jun||496.0||223.4||v high||222%|
|Marree Aero||27.3||44.2||27 Jan||13.8||-0.5||28 Jun||263.0|
|Moomba Airport||27.3||44.1||26 Jan||14.7||0.1||28 Jun||660.2|
|Oodnadatta Airport||27.8||-1.2||44.3||27 Jan||14.7||+0.1||-0.6||8 Jul||351.4||177.8||v high||198%|
|Western Agricultural (district 18)|
|Ceduna AMO||23.5||+0.1||45.6||30 Dec||11.0||+0.6||-0.4||15 Jun||322.4||296.1||average||109%|
|Cleve||21.7||-0.4||42.0||10 Jan||11.9||+0.6||4.0||15 Jun||599.2||399.4||v high||150%|
|Cleve Aerodrome||21.7||43.0||10 Jan||11.5||2.7||27 Jun||535.0||357.3||v high||150%|
|Cummins Aero||22.2||43.6||9 Jan||10.3||0.6||3 Jul||520.2|
|Elliston||21.4||0.0||40.1||9 Jan||12.0||+0.3||1.1||7 Jul||546.8||426.9||v high||128%|
|Kimba||22.6||-1.0||42.8||31 Dec||10.4||+0.1||0.5||15 Jun||471.1||345.7||high||136%|
|Kyancutta||24.6||-0.5||44.7||9 Jan||9.8||+0.6||-1.6||5 Aug||351.2||313.5||high||112%|
|North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS)||20.9||43.6||10 Jan||11.3||2.7||5 Jul||556.6|
|Nullarbor||22.8||-0.9||43.9||30 Dec||11.0||+0.4||0.0||5 Jul||402.0||248.8||v high||162%|
|Port Augusta Aero||25.5||45.5||31 Dec||12.0||-1.3||6 Aug||303.6|
|Streaky Bay||23.3||+0.3||42.8||30 Dec||12.7||+0.5||3.6||25 Jul||456.2||379.1||high||120%|
|Whyalla Aero||23.2||-0.5||44.5||31 Dec||11.6||+0.2||-0.8||15 Jun||342.0||261.9||high||131%|
|Wudinna Aero||24.7||44.9||9 Jan||10.1||-1.5||5 Aug||349.0|
|Upper North (district 19)|
|Hawker||24.2||-1.0||42.3||31 Dec||10.6||0.0||-2.6||6 Aug||364.8||308.3||high||118%|
|Yongala||22.0||+0.2||41.0||31 Dec||7.4||+0.1||-4.3||28 Jun||398.7||365.3||average||109%|
|Northeast (district 20)|
|Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot)||24.5||44.2||31 Dec||9.6||-3.6||9 Jul||420.6|
|Yunta Airstrip||23.4||42.5||31 Dec||9.8||-3.6||6 Aug||315.2|
|Lower North (district 21)|
|Clare High School||20.9||40.3||9 Jan||9.2||-2.5||6 Jul||651.0|
|Port Pirie Aerodrome||24.3||43.3||9 Jan||11.1||-0.6||6 Jul||384.3|
|Port Pirie Nyrstar Comparison||24.4||-0.1||43.0||9 Jan||13.2||+0.5||3.0||14 Jun||408.5||345.2||high||118%|
|Snowtown (Rayville Park)||23.5||43.4||31 Dec||8.9||-1.4||14 Jun||491.2|
|Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)|
|Edithburgh||20.3||42.4||11 Jan||12.0||2.0||27 Jun||439.8|
|Kadina AWS||23.4||44.0||9 Jan||9.7||-0.9||6 Jul||501.8|
|Maitland||21.7||+0.1||41.8||10 Jan||11.9||+0.7||3.3||27 Jun||587.4||501.7||high||117%|
|Minlaton Aero||22.0||42.8||11 Jan||11.0||1.9||29 Sep||494.6|
|Stenhouse Bay||20.0||41.4||11 Jan||12.8||4.1||15 Jun||477.4|
|Warooka||21.1||-0.1||41.6||10 Jan||11.7||+0.3||3.8||2 Jul||552.1||446.9||high||124%|
|Kangaroo Island (district 22B)|
|Cape Borda||18.8||37.7||9 Jan||11.6||5.4||2 Jul||575.7|
|Cape Willoughby||18.2||+0.2||37.4||11 Jan||13.2||+0.4||6.4||20 Aug||572.9||540.0||average||106%|
|Kingscote Aero||21.2||42.4||10 Jan||8.8||-0.6||15 May||432.6|
|Adelaide Plains (district 23A)|
|Adelaide (Kent Town)||22.5||+0.2||42.8||11 Jan||12.6||+0.4||2.2||14 Jun||592.6||549.1||average||108%|
|Adelaide Airport||21.7||+0.2||41.0||10 Jan||11.9||+0.5||1.8||15 Jun||490.2||442.6||high||111%|
|Edinburgh RAAF||22.6||0.0||44.5||11 Jan||11.5||+0.4||0.3||15 Jun||544.4||429.4||high||127%|
|Parafield Airport||23.1||+0.8||42.4||10 Jan||11.2||0.0||-0.3||6 Jul||478.4||453.8||average||105%|
|Roseworthy AWS||23.2||45.1||11 Jan||9.9||-0.2||5 Aug||414.2|
|County Light (district 23B)|
|Nuriootpa Viticultural||21.1||42.1||11 Jan||9.2||-2.1||6 Jul||580.8|
|Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre)||22.6||+0.1||44.1||11 Jan||9.9||-0.1||-0.5||6 Jul||620.2||469.4||v high||132%|
|Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)|
|Hindmarsh Island AWS||20.4||40.8||11 Jan||11.8||2.0||15 Jun||513.4|
|Kuitpo Forest Reserve||18.9||38.5||10 Jan||10.3||1.7||15 Jun||824.6|
|Mount Barker||21.1||+1.1||41.0||11 Jan||8.4||+0.4||-1.2||15 Jun||844.1||764.1||high||110%|
|Mount Crawford (Mt Crawford AWS)||18.9||40.4||11 Jan||9.7||2.6||17 Aug||829.2|
|Mount Lofty||16.7||36.8||11 Jan||8.9||0.6||14 Jun||1122.0|
|Noarlunga||21.3||40.3||10 Jan||12.7||4.0||5 Jul||476.0|
|Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS)||17.5||38.8||10 Jan||10.4||3.0||15 Jun||936.8|
|Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay)||20.3||42.0||10 Jan||10.3||0.0||14 May||613.9|
|Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)|
|Loxton Research Centre||23.7||-0.1||44.3||10 Jan||9.5||+0.6||-3.9||6 Jul||380.8||265.1||v high||144%|
|Renmark Aero||24.1||44.9||22 Jan||10.1||-4.5||6 Jul||408.8|
|Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)|
|Eudunda||21.1||+0.1||41.6||9 Jan||9.6||+0.4||0.0||15 Jun||560.0||447.3||high||125%|
|Meningie||21.0||+0.3||42.1||10 Jan||10.4||+0.2||0.3||15 Jun||695.2||468.0||v high||149%|
|Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome)||22.6||45.8||11 Jan||8.9||-3.2||5 Jul||429.4|
|Murray Bridge Comparison||23.3||+0.4||45.5||10 Jan||10.1||+0.3||-1.2||5 Jul||511.1||348.3||v high||147%|
|Strathalbyn Racecourse||21.3||43.1||11 Jan||10.2||0.4||9 Jul||494.8|
|Murray Mallee (district 25A)|
|Karoonda||22.8||44.5||11 Jan||9.2||-1.3||6 Jul||546.4||339.5||v high||161%|
|Upper Southeast (district 25B)|
|Keith||22.0||-0.2||44.0||10 Jan||9.6||+0.5||-1.2||27 Jun||577.8||462.8||high||125%|
|Keith (Munkora)||22.3||45.8||11 Jan||8.3||-1.8||25 Oct||580.2|
|Lameroo (Austin Plains)||22.6||44.5||11 Jan||9.0||-0.9||6 Jul||467.8|
|Lameroo Comparison||22.9||0.0||43.7||11 Jan||9.8||+1.1||-1.0||6 Jul||472.2||384.7||high||123%|
|Lower Southeast (district 26)|
|Cape Jaffa (The Limestone)||18.9||39.5||10 Jan||10.4||1.4||23 May||616.6|
|Coonawarra||20.4||+0.1||41.6||11 Jan||8.2||+0.2||-2.5||27 Jun||691.0||575.9||high||120%|
|Mount Gambier Aero||19.4||+0.5||42.5||11 Jan||8.5||+0.4||-0.8||15 Jun||815.6||710.8||high||115%|
|Naracoorte Aerodrome||21.1||43.0||11 Jan||8.1||-2.7||15 Jun||635.0|
|Padthaway South||21.1||42.9||10 Jan||8.6||-3.0||27 Jun||630.4|
|Robe Airfield||19.2||38.9||10 Jan||9.2||-1.8||15 Jun||675.0|
|Robe Comparison||18.3||+0.2||34.9||10 Jan||11.2||+0.3||1.9||15 Jun||684.4||632.6||high||108%|
A Annual Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.
This statement has been prepared based on information available at 9 am on Tuesday 4 January 2011. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.
Averages are long-term means based on observations from
all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site.
They are not shown for sites with less than 20 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.
The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site,
based on the
(very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3,
average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9
and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.