Wednesday, 6 January 2016 - Annual Climate Summary for South Australia - Product code IDCKGC53R0
South Australia in 2015: A warm year, dry across the southern agricultural areas
South Australia had another warm year in 2015, with February, spring and December especially warm, although autumn and winter were generally cool. Parts of the northeastern pastoral districts received above average rain, but rain was below average in the far west, near the southern coasts and in the southeast agricultural districts.
- Temperatures above average, especially in February, October, November and December
- Rain generally below average overall, especially in the southeast and near the southern coasts
- Above average rain and cooler than average days in January and April
- Cooler than average nights in March, July and September
South Australia's mean temperature for 2015 was 0.86 °C above average, making it the seventh-warmest year for the State. The mean maximum temperature was 0.97 °C above average and the mean minimum temperature 0.73 °C above average. Well above average temperatures were reported in February, and again from October through to December; October and December were both the warmest on record for the State as a whole. Temperatures were mostly below average in January, April, May and July. There were some significantly cooler than average days in April and July, and periods of cold nights in March and September. Snow was reported at more elevated parts of the State in July. In spring, high temperatures, low humidity and strong winds combined with persistently dry conditions to bring an early start to the fire weather season, with significant fires occurring in November.
The statewide average rainfall during 2015 was about 13% below the historical average, with February, March, July, September and October all markedly drier than average. The year started off with some locations reporting their wettest January on record, mainly from one event in the second week, with parts of the northern pastoral districts recording almost their entire annual total in this one event. Rainfall was persistently below average for much of the April to October growing season in the southern agricultural areas, while rainfall in the northern agricultural districts was closer to average. The northeast of the State saw several widespread thunderstorm events through the year resulting in above average totals.
Adelaide: warm and dry
- Very dry across the city in March and winter
- Cooler than average in autumn and winter
- Record spring and early summer heat
- Temperature reached 40 °C on twelve days, with a record seven of those in December
In Adelaide, the mean daily maximum temperature of 23.2 °C was 0.8 °C above average. Nights were generally warmer than average with a mean daily minimum of 12.5 °C. The hottest day in the city was 44.1 °C on 2 January, and the coldest morning was on 20 July when the overnight minimum dropped to 1.8 °C. On 7 December Adelaide's temperature did not drop below 30.7 °C, making it the warmest night for the city in more than six years and the warmest December night since 1897. The year ended with more heat: Kent Town reached 40.6 °C on 31 December giving a total of twelve 40 °C days for the year (equalling the record from 2009 and 1908).
Adelaide's total rainfall for the year was 395.2 mm, about 73% of the long-term average. The wettest day for the city was on 19 May when Kent Town registered 31.6 mm of rain in the 24 hours to 9 am. Only January, April and May brought above average rainfall totals to the city, with February, March and the last three months of the year recording little significant rain.
Notable events in 2015
Further information on these events can be found in the Monthly Weather Review
Heatwaves and bushfires
- 2 January: Particularly hot and windy conditions developed over the south and west of the State ahead of a trough. Several fires started during the day, including the large Sampson Flat fire in the Mount Lofty Ranges.
- 3–6 October: A severe heatwave resulted in several stations reporting record high early-season records, particularly in the eastern districts. The event was discussed in Special Climate Statement 52.
- 25 November: a large bushfire in the Mid North occurred in hot, dry and very windy conditions, as a cold front swept across southern parts of the State.
- 14–19 December: A severe heatwave resulted in several stations reporting record high temperatures in excess of 40 °C. The event was discussed in Special Climate Statement 53.
Thunderstorms, heavy rain
There were numerous severe thunderstorms across the State during 2015, with particularly high levels of thunderstorm activity during January, September and November. Some notable events include:
- 8–13 January: An upper level trough and a burst of tropical activity produced moderate to heavy rainfall for many locations across northern, central and eastern districts with several locations reporting highest January daily rainfall on record.
- 16 September: Slow moving thunderstorms developed over Adelaide during the early afternoon and tracked over the eastern suburbs. Large accumulations of small hail and heavy rainfall led to localised flooding of drains, gutters and roads.
- 4–5 November: Low pressure system and a burst of tropical activity produced moderate to heavy rainfall for many locations across northern, central and eastern districts with several locations reporting highest November daily rainfall on record.
- 21-22 December: Low pressure trough produced moderate to heavy rainfall for many locations across northern, central and eastern districts with several locations reporting their highest December daily rainfall on record.
- 11 July: Snow showers occurred in the morning around the Mount Lofty summit area. Further snow occurred across the higher parts of the Mid North district during the middle of the day, with the snow settling on the ground around Mount Bryan and nearby high ranges. Snow also reported from near Hallett, Peterborough, Belalie North, Tarcowie and Orroroo.
|Extremes in 2015|
|Hottest day||47.2 °C at Port Augusta Aero on 19 Dec|
|Warmest days on average||29.8 °C at Oodnadatta Airport|
|Coolest days on average||17.3 °C at Mount Lofty|
|Coldest day||5.3 °C at Mount Lofty on 11 Jul|
|Coldest night||-5.7 °C at Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) on 20 Jul|
|Coolest nights on average||7.8 °C at Naracoorte Aerodrome|
|Warmest nights on average||15.8 °C at Moomba Airport|
|Warmest night||34.1 °C at Moomba Airport on 7 Dec|
|Warmest on average overall||22.8 °C at Moomba Airport|
|Coolest on average overall||13.0 °C at Mount Lofty|
|Wettest overall||939.4 mm at Uraidla|
|Wettest day||156.0 mm at Gammon Ranges (Moolawatana) on 10 Jan|
|Strongest wind gust||135 km/h at Mount Crawford AWS on 5 May|
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|Rainfall rank||Maximum temperature rank||Minimum temperature rank|
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|Record highest daily rainfall|
|Jamestown||88.4||on 5 Nov||74.7||on 5 Feb 1890||135|
|Mount Wedge||77.0||on 4 Nov||74.4||on 21 Feb 1938||128|
|Jamestown Pirsa||81.2||on 5 Nov||70.2||on 31 Oct 1997||65|
|Huddleston (Willow Ponds)||72.8||on 10 Jan||71.0||on 31 Dec 1979||59|
|Sturt Vale||100.0||on 17 Apr||74.0||on 24 Oct 2007||54|
|Highest annual total rainfall for at least 20 years|
* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.
|Record lowest annual total rainfall|
|Mount Schank (Jethia)||501.4||543.0||in 1982||37||745.7|
|Lowest annual total rainfall for at least 20 years|
|Cape Willoughby||345.3||342.8||in 1967*||538.3|
|Mount Gambier Aero||512.4||468.0||in 1982*||708.2|
|Kingston SE||355.0||353.8||in 1982*||585.5|
|Streaky Bay||253.9||207.0||in 1994*||377.8|
* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported.
|Record highest daily minimum temperature|
|Loxton Research Centre||29.0||on 7 Dec||28.2||on 11 Jan 2008||32||9.0|
|Renmark Aero||29.9||on 19 Dec||29.4||on 9 Feb 2014||21||9.6|
|Record lowest temperature|
|Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS)||1.2||on 20 Jul||1.7||on 11 Sep 2004||22||10.2|
|Cleve Aerodrome||1.0||on 30 Jun||= 1.0||on 7 Jul 2012||20||11.5|
|Strathalbyn Racecourse||-1.6||on 20 Jul||-1.5||on 14 Jun 2006||20||10.2|
|Summary statistics for 2015|
|Northwest (district 16)|
|Andamooka||27.8||+0.2||44.9||3 Jan||14.5||+0.7||-0.3||20 Jul||162.5||192.6||average||84%|
|Coober Pedy Airport||28.1||+0.5||44.3||19 Nov||14.5||+0.3||0.9||19 Jul||81.4||132.0||low||62%|
|Ernabella (Pukatja)||27.7||+0.2||41.9||19 Mar||14.0||+0.9||-0.3||4 Jul||174.4||257.5||low||68%|
|Mount Ive||26.0||44.3||19 Dec||-2.5||1 Jul||187.1||238.0||low||79%|
|Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome)||27.9||+0.2||45.0||18 Dec||13.1||+0.5||-2.2||18 Jul||126.8||148.6||average||85%|
|Tarcoola Aero||27.9||+0.2||45.7||18 Dec||12.4||+0.2||-2.9||19 Jul||116.2||172.4||average||67%|
|Woomera Aerodrome||26.6||+0.8||44.8||18 Dec||13.5||+0.8||1.0||20 Jul||158.6||182.2||average||87%|
|Far North (district 17)|
|Leigh Creek Airport||27.0||+0.6||44.4||19 Dec||13.4||+0.6||-0.3||18 Jul||265.0||224.2||high||118%|
|Marree Aero||29.1||0.0||45.2||19 Dec||14.1||+0.1||0.3||19 Jul||199.0||140.4||high||142%|
|Moomba Airport||29.7||+0.2||45.6||6 Dec||15.8||+0.3||1.7||17 Jul||84.6||172.8||low||49%|
|Oodnadatta Airport||29.8||+0.7||45.3||3 Jan||15.3||+0.7||0.3||20 Jul||122.0||174.7||average||70%|
|Western Agricultural (district 18)|
|Ceduna AMO||24.0||+0.5||46.8||14 Feb||10.6||+0.2||-2.1||29 Jun||182.8||294.3||v low||62%|
|Cleve||22.3||+0.2||43.2||2 Jan||11.9||+0.5||1.8||26 Aug||461.4||400.6||high||115%|
|Cleve Aerodrome||22.4||-0.2||43.6||2 Jan||11.1||-0.4||1.0||30 Jun||399.4||356.9||average||112%|
|Cummins Aero||22.9||44.4||2 Jan||9.7||-1.0||1 Jul||376.6|
|Elliston||21.8||+0.3||41.3||14 Feb||0.7||20 Jun||300.8||426.3||v low||71%|
|Kimba||24.0||+0.4||43.5||18 Dec||10.7||+0.3||-0.5||20 Jul||311.2||346.8||average||90%|
|Kyancutta||25.8||+0.7||46.0||14 Feb||9.6||+0.3||-2.9||1 Jul||278.0||312.9||average||89%|
|Minnipa Pirsa||24.6||-0.2||44.6||14 Feb||10.9||-0.3||1.3||27 Aug||314.2||274.1||average||115%|
|Neptune Island||18.8||+0.2||35.1||19 Dec||14.0||+0.3||7.6||11 Jul||299.6||445.2||v low||67%|
|North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS)||21.6||+0.3||44.8||2 Jan||11.2||-0.2||2.6||2 Jun||301.2||389.7||v low||77%|
|Nullarbor||24.3||+0.6||46.7||14 Feb||11.2||+0.4||0.0||30 Jun||205.2||249.8||average||82%|
|Port Augusta Aero||26.3||-0.1||47.2||19 Dec||12.2||0.0||-1.3||20 Jul||188.6||214.1||low||88%|
|Streaky Bay||42.2||5 Dec||12.6||+0.4||1.0||30 Jun||253.9||377.8||v low||67%|
|Whyalla Aero||23.9||+0.2||45.8||19 Dec||11.9||+0.4||-2.3||20 Jul||298.0||263.6||high||113%|
|Wudinna Aero||25.4||0.0||45.3||2 Jan||9.7||-0.5||-1.8||24 Sep||286.2||274.2||average||104%|
|Upper North (district 19)|
|Hawker||25.8||+0.6||44.0||18 Dec||10.7||+0.1||-3.0||28 Jul||299.8||308.9||average||97%|
|Yongala||41.4||19 Dec||8.5||+1.2||-3.3||1 Jul||328.0||365.2||average||90%|
|Northeast (district 20)|
|Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot)||25.5||+0.2||45.1||3 Jan||9.5||+0.2||-5.7||20 Jul||267.0||276.1||average||97%|
|Lower North (district 21)|
|Clare High School||21.6||+0.3||41.7||19 Dec||9.3||+0.3||-3.4||20 Jul||566.8||545.6||average||104%|
|Snowtown (Rayville Park)||24.3||+0.1||45.2||19 Dec||9.0||0.0||-2.2||30 Jun||308.8||364.3||low||85%|
|Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)|
|Edithburgh||20.8||+0.4||41.1||7 Jan||12.2||+0.1||0.0||20 Jul||255.2||372.5||v low||69%|
|Kadina AWS||23.7||44.0||19 Dec||9.4||-2.2||1 Jul||253.4||330.1||low||77%|
|Minlaton Aero||22.6||0.0||43.6||2 Jan||10.7||-0.2||0.6||29 Sep||294.2||353.9||low||83%|
|Stenhouse Bay||20.6||+0.2||43.3||2 Jan||12.9||-0.1||3.7||20 Jul||296.0||438.4||v low||68%|
|Warooka||21.6||+0.4||39.6||14 Feb||11.8||+0.3||2.6||20 Jul||300.4||443.7||v low||68%|
|Kangaroo Island (district 22B)|
|Cape Borda||19.2||0.0||35.4||14 Feb||11.3||-0.3||3.9||30 Aug||364.7||535.1||v low||68%|
|Cape Willoughby||18.4||+0.3||37.9||2 Jan||13.1||+0.3||5.6||11 Jul||345.3||538.3||v low||64%|
|Kingscote Aero||21.3||+0.3||41.7||2 Jan||9.0||0.0||-0.4||3 Jun||357.2||444.0||low||80%|
|Parndana Cfs AWS||19.9||41.5||2 Jan||9.5||1.1||31 Jul||471.6|
|Adelaide Plains (district 23A)|
|Adelaide (Kent Town)||23.2||+0.8||44.1||2 Jan||12.5||+0.2||1.8||20 Jul||395.2||543.9||low||73%|
|Adelaide Airport||22.2||+0.7||42.5||2 Jan||12.1||+0.7||1.4||19 Jul||276.0||439.2||v low||63%|
|Edinburgh RAAF||23.3||+0.7||43.9||2 Jan||11.3||+0.2||-0.6||20 Jul|
|Parafield Airport||23.5||+1.1||43.4||2 Jan||11.1||-0.1||-0.3||11 Jun||348.4||451.1||v low||77%|
|Roseworthy AWS||23.8||+0.1||44.7||2 Jan||9.9||+0.2||-1.0||29 Aug||321.6||374.8||low||86%|
|County Light (district 23B)|
|Nuriootpa Viticultural||21.8||+0.2||41.8||2 Jan||9.3||+0.1||-3.5||20 Jul||338.4||466.7||v low||73%|
|Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre)||23.3||+0.7||43.6||2 Jan||10.1||+0.1||-2.1||20 Jul||361.4||466.9||low||77%|
|Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)|
|Hindmarsh Island AWS||21.0||+0.2||43.9||2 Jan||11.8||0.0||1.3||20 Jul||333.4||383.2||low||87%|
|Kuitpo Forest Reserve||19.4||+0.1||40.5||2 Jan||10.3||0.0||0.6||20 Jul||691.4||712.9||average||97%|
|Mount Barker||21.4||+1.4||41.2||2 Jan||9.0||+1.0||-1.7||20 Jul||584.8||762.8||low||77%|
|Mount Crawford AWS||19.4||+0.4||40.0||2 Jan||9.8||+0.1||1.2||20 Jul||481.0||646.0||low||74%|
|Mount Lofty||17.3||+2.1||37.7||2 Jan||8.8||+0.2||0.1||19 Jul||894.4|
|Noarlunga||21.8||+0.1||42.3||2 Jan||12.6||-0.1||2.9||20 Jul|
|Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay)||20.8||+0.2||43.4||2 Jan||10.3||+0.1||-2.5||20 Jul||419.0||529.8||low||79%|
|Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)|
|Loxton Research Centre||24.7||+0.8||43.7||18 Dec||9.7||+0.7||-3.9||20 Jul||202.4||259.5||low||78%|
|Renmark Aero||25.3||+0.4||45.2||18 Dec||10.0||+0.4||-5.3||20 Jul||196.8||240.1||low||82%|
|Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)|
|Eudunda||21.8||+0.7||41.8||18 Dec||9.9||+0.6||-1.6||20 Jul||403.4||447.5||average||90%|
|Meningie||21.5||+0.7||42.1||2 Jan||10.7||+0.4||0.6||20 Jul||376.0||468.3||low||80%|
|Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome)||23.2||44.5||2 Jan||9.0||-4.6||20 Jul||298.8|
|Strathalbyn Racecourse||21.7||+0.1||43.5||2 Jan||10.4||+0.2||-1.6||20 Jul||371.4||409.9||average||91%|
|Murray Mallee (district 25A)|
|Karoonda||23.7||+0.1||43.4||2 Jan||9.4||+0.1||-3.1||20 Jul||310.6||340.8||average||91%|
|Upper Southeast (district 25B)|
|Keith||44.5||2 Jan||9.6||+0.4||-2.5||3 Jul||329.1||459.4||v low||72%|
|Keith (Munkora)||23.1||+0.2||43.7||2 Jan||8.5||+0.6||-3.8||30 Aug|
|Lameroo (Austin Plains)||23.5||+0.1||43.2||15 Feb||9.0||+0.3||-2.3||20 Jul||290.6||310.3||average||94%|
|Lower Southeast (district 26)|
|Cape Jaffa (The Limestone)||19.6||+0.3||40.1||19 Dec||10.4||+0.1||0.8||20 Jul||352.2||489.4||v low||72%|
|Coonawarra||21.1||+0.7||41.8||2 Jan||8.2||+0.2||-1.6||20 Jul||435.8||564.1||v low||77%|
|Mount Gambier Aero||20.1||+1.1||42.8||19 Dec||8.6||+0.5||-0.3||31 Aug||512.4||708.2||v low||72%|
|Naracoorte Aerodrome||21.9||+0.2||43.2||2 Jan||7.8||-0.3||-1.8||2 Jun||331.2||473.6||v low||70%|
|Padthaway South||21.9||+0.4||42.6||2 Jan||8.4||-0.1||-3.1||3 Jul||297.8||443.8||v low||67%|
|Robe Airfield||20.0||+0.4||38.9||19 Dec||9.5||0.0||0.0||30 Aug||467.0||581.4||v low||80%|
The Annual climate summary lists the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.
A climate summary is generally published on the first working day of each month.
This statement has been prepared based on information available at 8 am on Wednesday 6 January 2016. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.
Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from
all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site.
They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.
The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site,
based on the
(very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3,
average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9
and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.
The ACORN-SAT dataset is used for temperature area averages.