South Australia in 2013:A year of extreme heat and record high temperatures

The year of 2013 started with very hot conditions across South Australia, with persistent extreme heat across large parts of the State for much of January. Record high temperatures were observed several times throughout the year, with many areas experiencing extensive and prolonged heat events. Total annual rainfall across the State tended to be near average despite large parts of the State having very much above average to highest on record rainfall through June and July. Rainfall became scarce through the second half of the year from August, with monthly totals across the state tending below average.

  • The warmest year on record for South Australia
  • Highest on record temperatures observed in January, March and September
  • Rainfall for South Australia as a whole near average
  • The first half of the year was wetter than normal and the second half of the year drier
  • Record warmest ocean temperatures along much of the South Australian coast in 2013

The Bureau of Meteorology's Australian annual climate statement is also available.

Temperature

The mean temperature (the average of daytime maximum temperatures and overnight minimum temperatures) for South Australia as a whole for 2013 was 1.6 C above the long-term average. This resulted in the warmest year on record for South Australia (more than 0.4 C warmer than the previous record set in 2009) with several sites around the state observing their hottest year on record.

Adelaide (Kent Town) had an annual mean temperature (average of the daily maximum and minimum temperatures) of 18.3 C, which is 1.0C above the long-term average and the equal second warmest with 2009 for Adelaide, and only slightly less than the hottest year on record for Adelaide in 2007 when the annual mean temperature was 18.4C. Adelaide also recorded its warmest start to spring, with a mean daily maximum temperature through September of 22.3 C (3.3 C above the long-term September average, and beating the previous record by more than one degree).

Maximum temperature

The year began with extensive heatwave conditions in place across much of South Australia, particularly in the north. While southern areas saw some relief from the heat as weak cold frontal systems tracked across the Great Australian Bight, the heat persisted across inland areas for much of January. Oodnadatta, in the far north of South Australia, observed a record run of seven consecutive days with maximum temperatures above 45 C and some sites observed their highest temperature on record. Further details on this event are available in Special Climate Statement 43. Moomba Airport reported the hottest day of the year for any location in the State with 49.6 C on 12 January; the highest temperature of the January heat event and the highest temperature recorded in South Australia since 1960 as well as a record highest for this location. This was also the sixth hottest temperature ever officially recorded in Australia, and the hottest for Australia in 2013.

A prolonged heatwave event in March saw autumn 2013 maximum temperatures 1 to 2 C above average across much of the State. Several locations including Robe, Mount Gambier, Streaky Bay and Adelaide observed their hottest autumn days on record. Spring saw another heat event, with record high daily September temperatures reported across several locations throughout pastoral districts. September as a whole for the State was extremely warm, with an anomaly of +5.39 C, beating the previous September record by almost two degrees, and also the largest anomaly observed for any State or Territory in any month.

The annual maximum temperature across the State for 2013 was 1.9 C above average, more than 0.5 C above the previous warmest year observed in 2005. The entire State observed maximum temperatures in the highest decile (highest 10 percent of 104 years of observations), with 66% of South Australia having highest annual-averaged daytime temperatures on record. Daytime temperatures ranged from 17.7 C at Mount Lofty to 31.0 C at Oodnadatta in the north of the State with several sites observing their highest mean daily maximum temperature on record and some other sites having theirhighest mean daily maximum temperature for at least 20 years.

Daytime temperatures for the Adelaide region were above average and the warmest since 2009. Adelaide saw maximum temperatures averaged across the year of 23.5C, which is 1.2C warmer than the long term average and equal 3rd warmest on record for daytime temperatures.

Minimum temperature

As with daytime temperatures, minimum temperatures were highest on record for South Australia for 2013. The statewide annual minimum temperature for 2013 was 1.2 C above the long-term average. Minimum temperatures were in the highest decile for 85% of the State, with 35% of the State observing the highest minimum temperature on record. Coolest nights were observed at Keith (Munkora) with an average of 8.4C, while Oodnadatta had the warmest nights on average with 15.8 C. Several locations across the State had their highest mean daily minimum temperature on record while other locations had theirhighest mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years.

Adelaide saw minimum temperatures averaged across the year of 13.2C, which is 1 C warmer than average, and the warmest nights since 2009 and equal 2nd warmest on record.

Minimum temperatures were generally above average across most of the State from January through to September. However, October and November saw generally below average minimum temperatures, particularly across eastern districts. The warmest nights for any month occurred in September, with most of South Australia observing the warmest September nights on record.

Rainfall

South Australia as a whole received 87% of the long-term average rainfall throughout 2013 (i.e. 13% below average). Parts of the Northeast Pastoral received very much below average rainfall, while elsewhere across South Australia rainfall totals for the year were mostly near average with some coastal areas tending above average. Some locations observed their highest total rainfall on record or their highest total rainfall for at least 20 years. The second half of the year was very dry for northern parts of the State. Moomba had no measureable rain at all from July to November, and only 10.8mm from 1 June to 31 December. Most locations in the Northeast Pastoral reported less than 10mm since 1 July.

The most significant rainfall events for the year occurred at the beginning of June, when a broad low pressure trough crossed the State, producing widespread rainfall over most districts. The passage of a low pressure system on 11 June and another on 21 June resulted in the wettest June in 9 years for the state as a whole. The wettest day was observed at Murray Lagoon (Hawks Nest) on Kangaroo Island where 150.8 mm was recorded in the 24 hours to 9am on 12 June, a record high daily rainfall observation for any month for this location in 125 years. Flinders Chase (Rocky River) also had a record highest annual daily rainfall with 82.8 mm (see sites with theirhighest daily rainfall on record.)

For the agricultural cropping areas, the April to October growing season rainfall was generally above average, with very much above average falls from April through to July. Rainfall from August onwards tended to be below average across most of the State except for the Lower Southeast.

Adelaide (Kent Town) received in 507.4 mm of rainfall through 2013, near the long-term average of 549.4mm. In comparison 2012 recorded 527.2 mm for the year, despite also experiencing drier than average conditions in the second half of the year. The last year with above average rainfall for Adelaide was in 2010 with 592.6 mm.

Notable events through 2013

January 4 Adelaide reached 45 C for only the fourth time on record.
January 7 - Severe thunderstorms developed across the north of the State, with Tarcoola recording a wind gust of 93 km/h.
January 12 Moomba reached 49.6 C, the highest temperature recorded in South Australia since 1960, and the sixth hottest temperature ever officially recorded in Australia.
January 24 A trough associated with ex-tropical cyclone Peta, combined with a cold front, moved across western parts of the State. Coober Pedy recorded gale force winds and very dusty conditions with average wind speeds up to 63 km/h recorded in the evening.
February 15 Severe thunderstorms and heavy rainfall occurred across the West Coast of South Australia damaging sheds, fences and trees in what could have been a tornado. Large areas of small hail fell between Streaky Bay and Ceduna, with fallen trees and localised flash flooding in Adelaides northern suburbs.
February 27 Severe thunderstorms in the Northeast Pastoral and Flinders districts produced heavy rainfall, with daily totals in excess of 50 mm at several locations.
March 7 to 8 Severe thunderstorms in the Lower Eyre Peninsula produced heavy rain with daily rainfall totals of in excess of 40 mm observed at several locations. A low pressure trough on the 8th then produced a 102 km/h wind gust at Coober Pedy.
March 21 Severe wind gusts at several locations in the southeast of the State and the Adelaide Hills, with lightning starting a number of fires.
May 20 Severe thunderstorms from a cold front moved across the southeast of the State producing 1-2 cm diameter hail near Bordertown.
May 31 to June 1 Widespread rainfall across South Australia, heavy at times in the Adelaide region and Mount Lofty Ranges, produced localised flooding and fallen trees. The highest rainfall recorded for the two day period was 105 mm at Millbrook Reservoir and Lenswood in the Mount Lofty Ranges, with Millbrook Reservoir recording 66 mm in a six hour period.
June 12 A low pressure system delivered heavy rainfall across southern parts of South Australia, with Murray Lagoon (Hawks Nest) on Kangaroo Island observing a record high daily rainfall total of 150.8 mm in 125 years.
July 4 Thunderstorms across Lower Eyre Peninsula and Kangaroo Island produced a tornado which produced damage northwest of Port Lincoln. Squally westerly affected southern coastal districts with a vigorous cold front. Severe wind gusts of 90-95 km/h were recorded at Cape Borda and Parndana on Kangaroo Island and at Cape Jaffa in the Lower South East district.
July 18 Severe thunderstorms tracked across northern SA producing a 95 km/h wind gust at Leigh Creek Airport. Gale force winds occurred around a low pressure system in the south of the State producing tree damage in northern Adelaide suburbs and on the Fleurieu Peninsula and Victor Harbor area.
August 3 Severe thunderstorms associated with a front tracked across the southeastern districts producing a tornado witnessed by several people. Shortly after, a second tornado caused damage on a property at Keilira, 30 km northeast of Kingston.
August 16 Strong to near gale force northerly winds ahead of a vigorous front affected central parts of South Australia. Gale force winds were recorded briefly at Port Augusta and at Port Lincoln where a yacht broke its moorings. Wind gusts of 90-96 km/h were recorded at Wudinna on the West Coast and at Minlaton on Yorke Peninsula with the frontal passage.
August 18 A vigorous cold frontal system across southern districts produced gale force winds over Kangaroo Island and the Mount Lofty Ranges. Gusts of 98 km/h were recorded at Cape Borda and 93 km/h at Strathalbyn and tree damage was reported.
August 21 A short-lived tornado damaged three properties on the northern outskirts of Adelaide.
August 28 to 29 Severe thunderstorms tracked across central and eastern South Australia producing wind gusts to 100 km/h at Coober Pedy late, 95 km/h at Woomera, 95 km/h at Mount Crawford and 91 km/h at Kadina where trees and fences were damaged.
September 9 Severe thunderstorms produced damaging wind gusts of 95 km/h at Mount Crawford in the Mount Lofty Ranges.
September 16 Severe thunderstorms produced heavy rain in the southeast of the State. Flooding was reported from Penola where 51 mm of rainfall was recorded in 24 hours.
September 17 An intense cold front produced strong and gusty winds in the west of the State, with wind gusts to 91km/h recorded at Nullarbor, and to 100km/h at Oodnadatta.
September 23 Strong northerly winds raised large areas of dust in the north of the State. At Marree Airport a mean wind speed of 69 km/h with a gust to 91 km/h was observed. A large area of raised dust originating from Lake Eyre was also observed on satellite imagery, with a maximum extent of approximately 400 km long by 60 km wide.
September 25 to 26 A fast-moving trough of low pressure over South Australia produced damaging winds and thunderstorm activity on the Lower Eyre Peninsula, Yorke Peninsula, Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, and the Lower South East districts. There were numerous reports of trees down, mainly about the Mount Lofty Ranges. Wind gusts up to 100 km/h were recorded at Edinburgh Airport. Gale force winds of 65km/h were also observed at Outer Harbor in Adelaide.
September 30 An intense cold front over South Australia produced damaging wind gusts and gale force winds. Tree and property damage was reported in the Mid North, Barossa Valley, Riverland and Adelaide Hills. Wind gusts up to 107 km/h were recorded at Snowtown, 106 km/h at Renmark, 104 km/h at Noarlunga and 102 km/h at Loxton.
October 2 A low pressure system across the south of the State produced damaging wind gusts in the Lower South East, Mount Lofty Ranges, and Eastern Eyre Peninsula districts, and gale force winds on Kangaroo Island, Lower Eyre Peninsula and the Lower South East districts. A wind gust of 104 km/h was recorded at Mount Gambier, with tree and storm damage reported and a boat breaking moorings and sinking near Granite Island.
October 9 a cold front moved over the State, producing strong to gale force and gusty northerly winds. Cleve on the Eastern Eyre Peninsula recorded a mean wind speed of 63 km/h and a gust of 93 km/h.
October 22 an intense low pressure system over the south of the State produced gale force winds and damaging wind gusts, with tree and property damage reported on the Lower Eyre Peninsula and to Adelaide Oval. A wind gust of 107 km/h was recorded at Port Lincoln Airport and 102 km/h at Roseworthy.
December 3 Extensive thunderstorm activity was observed over most of South Australia.
December 21 Damaging strong to gale force southeasterly winds occurred about the southern Mount Lofty Ranges and the Adelaide Metropolitan area early in the morning.

Further information

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Enquiries

Extremes in 2013
Hottest day 49.6 C at Moomba Airport on 12 Jan
Warmest days on average 31.0 C at Oodnadatta Airport
Coolest days on average 17.7 C at Mount Lofty
Coldest day 5.5 C at Mount Lofty on 20 Jul
Coldest night -4.9 C at Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) on 10 Jul
Coolest nights on average 8.4 C at Keith (Munkora)
Warmest nights on average 15.8 C at Oodnadatta Airport
Warmest night 32.6 C at Tarcoola Aero on 20 Dec
32.6 C at Arkaroola on 21 Dec
Warmest on average overall 23.4 C at Oodnadatta Airport
Coolest on average overall 13.6 C at Mount Lofty
Wettest overall 1170.4 mm at Uraidla
Driest overall 55.8 mm at Oodnadatta Airport
Wettest day 150.8 mm at Murray Lagoon (Hawks Nest) on 12 Jun
Highest wind gust 117 km/h at Neptune Island on 4 Jul

Maps

Observed Anomaly Decile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

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Month by month
January Rainfall across much of South Australia during January was below average due to weak tropical activity for this time of the year, with many locations receiving less than half of their average January rainfall. Averaged across the State, January 2013 was the driest January since 1989. Temperatures were very high at the start of the year with extensive heatwave conditions in place across much of the State, particularly for the northern districts. While southern areas saw relief from weak cold frontal systems, the heat persisted for much of the month inland.
  • Driest January in 24 years (since 1989) with below average rainfall across most of the state.
  • Extensive heatwave conditions see record high temperatures for several locations.
  • Moomba observes the highest temperature in South Australia in 54 years, and the sixth hottest temperature ever officially recorded in Australia.
  • Oodnadatta has a record run of days with maximum temperatures above 45 C.
Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
Rainfall rank Maximum temperature rank Minimum temperature rank
February Rainfall across much of South Australia during February was mostly near average tending above average for some areas. Averaged across the State, February was the driest February in 4 years. Much of the month was without significant rainfall for many locations. The mean temperature (the average of the maximum and minimum temperatures) for South Australia as a whole through February was 0.9 C above the long-term average, the warmest February for the state since 2009.
  • Despite remaining dry for much of month, a band of rain at the months end resulted with some locations observing slightly above average February rainfall.
  • Above average daytime temperatures for southern parts of the State, with nights closer to average.
Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

March Rainfall during March was patchy. Parts of the pastoral districts received some rainfall in the first week, but much of the month saw little significant rainfall for most locations. Only in the last week of the month tropical moisture combined with a low pressure system resulted in moderate totals for many areas. The average daily temperature for South Australia in March was 1.3 C above the long-term March average, 11th highest on record. Nights were warmer than average across most agricultural areas.

  • A dry and hot start and cool and wet finish to the month.
  • Record hottest March night-time temperatures for some locations in Adelaide and on southern coasts.
Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

April Rainfall totals were average to below average across South Australia through April, as high pressure systems dominated the weather across the State throughout the month. Through the early part of April, weak low pressure troughs delivered only small rainfall totals across coastal areas. The wettest period occurred during the latter half of the month as a series of vigorous cold fronts resulted in moderate to high totals that were mainly concentrated about southern areas of the State. Maximum temperatures for the month were above average across the entire State, with Pastoral areas seeing daytime temperatures 2 to 3 C warmer than usual and the warmest since 2005.

  • Warmest April, with respect to daytime temperatures, for South Australia since 2005 and sixth warmest on record.
  • Rainfall tending average to above average across southern districts but drier than normal in the north and the lower southeast.
Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
May Rainfall throughout May was patchy. Bursts of tropical activity produced heavy rain across northern districts mid-month with coastal areas receiving persistent showers. Another rainfall event in the third week of May brought welcome rainfall to most of the State; another widespread rainfall event started at the end of the month. The average daily temperature for South Australia as a whole in May was 2.5 C above the long-term average; the highest May average temperature since observations began in 1910.
  • Warmest May nights, and fourth warmest May days on record.
  • Temperatures 1 to 3 C warmer across the State.
  • Average to above average rainfall across SA, with new records at some locations.
Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
June South Australia received well above average June rainfall, resulting in the wettest June for the State since 2004. Apart from the far west and northeast where rainfall was average to below average, most locations recorded a wetter than average start to winter. Parts of Upper North and Flinders Ranges observed record high June total rainfall. The wettest periods for most districts occurred between the 1st and 3rd, between the 11th and 14th and between the 21st and 24th. Mean maximum temperatures over South Australia were generally below average across the State, particularly for the Northwest pastoral. June maximum temperatures were 0.3 C below normal. Some locations were as cool as 2 C below average across the northwest of the state. Nights were warmer than usual across most districts.
  • A wet start to winter with several locations observing record highest daily and monthly totals.
  • State-wide maximum temperatures mostly below average - the coolest since 2007, particularly across the northwest pastoral regions.
  • Minimum temperatures warmer than average, being the warmest since 2004.
Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
July rainfall was very much above average, resulting in the wettest July since 2006. Parts of the northern pastoral districts recorded average to below average rainfall, while most agricultural locations recorded a wetter than average July with some locations observing new record high July total rainfall. The wettest periods for most districts occurred between the 5th and 8th, between the 13th and 15th and between the 18th and 23rd. Mean maximum temperatures over South Australia were generally above average across the State, particularly in the pastoral districts.
  • Wet conditions continue for agricultural areas with record daily and monthly totals.
  • State-wide maximum temperatures mostly above average with new daily records.
  • Warmest July nights in 38 years at Kent Town and warmest July days in 11 years.
Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
August Apart from the southern coastal areas and the lower southeast of South Australia where August rainfall tended above average and some locations recording highest monthly falls, most locations across the State saw below average rainfall to finish winter. Minimum temperatures were widely above average across South Australia through August, apart from areas about the Upper North. With a State-wide anomaly of 1.4 C above average, August 2013 is the warmest since 2009 and the sixth warmest August nights on record.
  • Wet across the southeast, but dry across most of the north of the State.
  • Warm nights and warm days.
Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
September South Australia had a record warm month. Mean daily temperatures for South Australia as a whole in September were 4.3 C above the long-term average and the highest anomaly for any month on record. Most locations in South Australia received average to below average rainfall throughout September, apart from far western parts of the State and the southern tip of Eyre Peninsula where rainfall was above average.
  • Warmest September on record for South Australia.
  • Record September day-time and night-time temperatures at many locations.
  • Average to below average rainfall across most of the state.
Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
October Most locations in South Australia received below average rainfall throughout the month, apart from the lower southeast where above average rainfall was recorded in a persistent westerly airstream. While most of the eastern half of South Australia experienced cooler than average nights, mean minimum temperatures were mostly near average as a whole.
  • Rainfall was below average for most of the state
  • Daytime temperatures were above average, with cooler nights across eastern districts
  • Windy, with increased frequent strong and gusty winds across the state
Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
November rainfall was generally below average across much of the State, apart from western and coastal areas where rainfall tended average to above average. Most eastern districts recorded very much below average rainfall. The daily mean temperature for South Australia in November was 0.1 C warmer than average, while large parts of eastern and southern coastal areas tended cooler than average with nights.
  • Rainfall tended below average across large parts of the state
  • Day temperatures mostly near average
  • Night time temperature cooler than average and coolest since 2001
Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
December The first half of the month saw cool conditions for the beginning of summer owing to a high pressure ridge centred south of Western Australia. Temperatures in the second half of the month tended above average with much hotter conditions over central and northern areas. The lead up to Christmas and the end of the year saw extensive heatwave conditions across the State.
  • A heatwave across northern South Australia at months end produces some record hot days
  • The hottest December day for Adelaide in 82 years, and third hottest December day on record occurs on the 19th
  • Mild temperatures to start the month but with a hot finish
Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
Rainfall rank Maximum temperature rank Minimum temperature rank



Record highest daily rainfall

Highest daily rainfall
in 2013 (mm)
Previous annual
wettest
Years of
record
Murray Lagoon (Hawks Nest) 150.8 on 12 Jun 101.6 on 21 Feb 1930 96
Flinders Chase (Rocky River) 82.2 on 12 Jun 76.8 on 29 Nov 1977 54
Upper Hermitage 78.8 on 1 Jun 69.0 on 5 Jun 1988 45



Record highest total annual rainfall

Total rainfall
for 2013 (mm)
Previous annual
wettest
Years of
record
Annual
average
American River 758.6 750.1 in 1992 108 532.1

Highest total annual rainfall for at least 20 years

Total rainfall
for 2013 (mm)
Most recent annual
at least this wet
Years since
wetter
Annual
average
Neptune Island 529.8 615.2 in 1992 21 448.4
Coulta 628.4 849.8 in 1992* 20 520.0

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.




Record highest temperature

Highest temperature
in 2013 (C)
Previous annual
warmest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Mount Gambier Aero 43.6 on 4 Jan = 43.6 on 29 Jan 2009 72 18.9
Adelaide Airport 44.1 on 4 Jan 44.0 on 28 Jan 2009 59 21.5
Kimba 46.0 on 4 Jan 45.6 on 31 Jan 1968 47 23.5
Leigh Creek Airport 46.3 on 6 Jan 46.1 on 25 Jan 2011 32 26.2



Record highest annual mean daily maximum temperature

Mean daily maximum
temperature
for 2013 (C)
Previous annual
warmest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Kyancutta 26.5 = 26.5 in 2007 79 25.1
Marree Comparison 30.9 30.3 in 2006 71 28.7
Woomera Aerodrome 27.4 27.1 in 2007 63 25.7
Oodnadatta Airport 31.0 30.4 in 1980 62 29.0
Elliston 22.9 22.8 in 2007 49 21.4
Neptune Island 19.7 19.4 in 2009 48 18.5
Meningie 22.0 21.9 in 2007 46 20.8
Cape Willoughby 19.3 19.1 in 2007 45 18.1
Andamooka 28.7 = 28.7 in 2005 41 27.5
Hawker 26.2 = 26.2 in 2002 37 25.2
Arkaroola 27.3 26.7 in 2005 35 25.6
Leigh Creek Airport 28.0 27.6 in 2006 27 26.2
Whyalla Aero 24.8 24.6 in 2007 24 23.7
Edithburgh 21.3 21.1 in 2007 20 20.3
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 22.4 22.1 in 2007 20 21.2

Highest annual mean daily maximum temperature for at least 20 years

Mean daily maximum
temperature
for 2013 (C)
Most recent annual
at least this warm
Years since
warmer
Annual
average
Streaky Bay 24.7 25.0 in 1961* 49 23.0
Warooka 22.1 22.3 in 1980* 32 21.2

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.




Record highest annual mean daily minimum temperature

Mean daily minimum
temperature
for 2013 (C)
Previous annual
warmest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Robe Comparison 11.9 = 11.9 in 2000 127 10.9
Mount Barker 9.7 9.4 in 2000 109 8.0
Lameroo Comparison 10.2 = 10.2 in 2007 95 8.7
Streaky Bay 13.4 = 13.4 in 2000 84 12.2
Kyancutta 10.5 = 10.5 in 2000 80 9.3
Ceduna AMO 11.9 11.4 in 1968 70 10.4
Cleve 12.8 12.5 in 2007 70 11.3
Woomera Aerodrome 13.8 = 13.8 in 2009 63 12.7
Adelaide Airport 12.6 12.5 in 2000 57 11.4
Warooka 12.5 12.3 in 2009 50 11.5
Elliston 12.9 12.7 in 2000 49 11.8
Eudunda 10.2 10.1 in 2009 48 9.2
Neptune Island 14.8 14.4 in 2009 48 13.7
Cape Willoughby 13.8 13.6 in 2009 45 12.8
Murray Bridge Comparison 10.7 = 10.7 in 1974 45 9.9
Andamooka 14.9 14.7 in 2009 41 13.7
Edinburgh RAAF 12.1 11.9 in 1973 40 11.1
Adelaide (Kent Town) 13.2 = 13.2 in 2009 35 12.2
Maitland 12.5 12.3 in 2009 28 11.3
Nullarbor 11.9 11.8 in 2011 24 10.7
Whyalla Aero 12.3 12.2 in 2000 24 11.4
Edithburgh 12.6 = 12.6 in 1999 20 12.0
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 11.9 11.8 in 1997 20 11.3

Highest annual mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years

Mean daily minimum
temperature
for 2013 (C)
Most recent annual
at least this warm
Years since
warmer
Annual
average
Oodnadatta Airport 15.8 15.9 in 1973* 30 14.6
Coonawarra 8.7 8.9 in 1988 25 8.0
Parafield Airport 12.0 12.2 in 1991 22 11.2
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 11.0 11.1 in 1992 21 10.3

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.




Record highest annual mean temperature

Mean daily
temperature
for 2013 (C)
Previous annual
warmest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Kyancutta 18.5 18.3 in 2007 79 17.2
Ceduna AMO 18.4 18.0 in 2009 70 16.9
Cleve 18.0 17.9 in 2007 69 16.7
Woomera Aerodrome 20.6 20.4 in 2009 63 19.2
Oodnadatta Airport 23.4 22.9 in 2009 62 21.8
Parafield Airport 18.0 17.9 in 2007 55 16.8
Warooka 17.3 17.1 in 2009 50 16.3
Elliston 17.9 17.7 in 2009 49 16.6
Eudunda 16.2 = 16.2 in 2007 48 15.1
Neptune Island 17.3 16.9 in 2009 47 16.1
Meningie 16.5 = 16.5 in 2007 46 15.5
Cape Willoughby 16.5 16.3 in 2007 45 15.4
Murray Bridge Comparison 17.5 = 17.5 in 2007 45 16.4
Andamooka 21.8 21.6 in 2009 41 20.6
Edinburgh RAAF 17.8 = 17.8 in 2007 40 16.8
Maitland 17.6 = 17.6 in 2007 28 16.5
Leigh Creek Airport 20.7 20.6 in 2009 27 19.5
Whyalla Aero 18.6 18.3 in 2009 24 17.5
Nullarbor 18.3 17.8 in 2005 23 17.2
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 15.5 15.3 in 2007 21 14.7
Edithburgh 16.9 16.8 in 2007 20 16.2
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 17.2 16.9 in 2007 20 16.3



Summary statistics for 2013

Maximum temperatures
(C)
Minimum temperatures
(C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean
for
2013
Diff
from
average
Highest
for
2013
Mean
for
2013
Diff
from
average
Lowest
for
2013
Total
for
2013
Average
annual
total
Rank
of
2013
Fraction
of annual
average
Northwest (district 16)
Andamooka 28.7 +1.2 47.2 6 Jan 14.9 +1.2 2.6 7 Jul 151.9 193.9 average 78%
Coober Pedy Airport 28.9 46.3 7 Jan 15.0 1.9 22 Jul 144.8


Ernabella (Pukatja) 28.5 43.8 11 Jan 13.5 -2.8 22 Jul 200.8


Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome) 28.8 47.3 6 Jan 13.1 -2.0 15 Aug 131.0


Tarcoola Aero 28.7 47.4 4 Jan 13.1 -0.3 7 Jul 159.8


Woomera Aerodrome 27.4 +1.7 46.1 4 Jan 13.8 +1.1 2.7 7 Jul 142.6 183.6 average 78%
Far North (district 17)
Arkaroola 27.3 +1.7 44.8 5 Jan -2.3 6 Jul 202.0 257.9 average 78%
Leigh Creek Airport 28.0 +1.8 46.3 6 Jan 13.5 +0.7 0.5 18 Jun 189.4 225.7 average 84%
Marree Aero 30.1 48.3 5 Jan 14.3 1.2 7 Jul 103.2


Marree Comparison 30.9 +2.2 48.4 8 Jan 1.5 7 Jul 104.0 161.9 low 64%
Oodnadatta Airport 31.0 +2.0 48.2 8 Jan 15.8 +1.2 1.4 23 Jul 55.8 176.8 v low 32%
Western Agricultural (district 18)
Ceduna AMO 25.0 +1.5 46.3 31 Dec 11.9 +1.5 0.4 15 Aug 333.6 295.4 average 113%
Cleve 23.2 +1.1 45.0 4 Jan 12.8 +1.5 3.5 15 Aug 501.0 400.6 high 125%
Cummins Aero 23.6 43.9 17 Jan 10.4 0.2 8 Jul 489.6


Elliston 22.9 +1.5 41.8 19 Dec 12.9 +1.1 1.8 17 Jun 486.2 427.6 high 114%
Kimba 24.5 +1.0 46.0 4 Jan 1.0 15 Aug 419.4 347.2 high 121%
Kyancutta 26.5 +1.4 48.0 4 Jan 10.5 +1.2 -0.9 15 Aug 297.9 313.5 average 95%
Minnipa Pirsa 25.4 46.9 4 Jan 11.8 1.8 15 Aug 315.8


Neptune Island 19.7 +1.2 32.7 17 Jan 14.8 +1.1 7.4 21 Jul 529.8 448.4 high 118%
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 22.4 +1.2 45.6 17 Jan 11.9 +0.6 3.8 18 Oct 461.0


Nullarbor 24.8 +1.1 46.8 3 Jan 11.9 +1.2 0.6 7 Jul 293.2 249.6 high 117%
Port Augusta Aero 27.1 47.7 4 Jan 12.3 -2.4 15 Aug 201.2


Streaky Bay 24.7 +1.7 43.3 17 Jan 13.4 +1.2 4.0 8 Jul 367.4 378.3 average 97%
Whyalla Aero 24.8 +1.1 47.2 4 Jan 12.3 +0.9 0.8 10 Jul 226.8 262.5 low 86%
Wudinna Aero 26.2 48.2 4 Jan 10.7 0.7 15 Aug 304.8


Upper North (district 19)
Hawker 26.2 +1.0 45.0 7 Jan 11.3 +0.7 -2.5 20 Aug 342.0 308.5 average 111%
Northeast (district 20)
Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) 45.7 4 Jan 9.6 -4.9 10 Jul 206.7


Yunta Airstrip 25.5 44.8 7 Jan 10.0 -4.2 10 Jul 170.0


Lower North (district 21)
Clare High School 22.1 42.4 4 Jan 9.6 -1.2 15 Aug 587.8


Port Pirie Aerodrome 25.4 45.5 4 Jan 11.8 -1.1 15 Aug 355.2


Snowtown (Rayville Park) 24.4 45.4 4 Jan 9.7 -0.1 25 Oct 441.6


Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)
Edithburgh 21.3 +1.0 44.8 4 Jan 12.6 +0.6 2.0 18 Oct 494.6


Kadina AWS 24.1 46.1 4 Jan 10.2 -0.4 15 Aug 390.2


Maitland 22.8 +1.1 44.5 4 Jan 12.5 +1.2 4.1 22 Jul 538.6 504.2 average 107%
Minlaton Aero 23.2 44.8 4 Jan 11.6 2.7 25 Oct 348.0


Stenhouse Bay 21.2 41.1 4 Jan 13.6 5.5 18 Oct 510.0


Warooka 22.1 +0.9 41.8 4 Jan 12.5 +1.0 4.6 21 Jul 443.4 445.3 average 100%
Kangaroo Island (district 22B)
Cape Borda 19.9 38.5 19 Dec 12.3 3.9 20 Jul 670.4


Cape Willoughby 19.3 +1.2 39.7 4 Jan 13.8 +1.0 6.4 20 Jul 639.0 540.9 high 118%
Kingscote Aero 21.7 42.8 4 Jan 9.9 0.5 9 Jul 631.0


Parndana Cfs AWS 20.4 41.6 17 Jan 10.3 2.1 8 Aug 856.6


Adelaide Plains (district 23A)
Adelaide (Kent Town) 23.5 +1.2 45.0 4 Jan 13.2 +1.0 3.6 19 Jun 507.4 549.4 average 92%
Adelaide Airport 22.6 +1.1 44.1 4 Jan 12.6 +1.2 2.5 19 Jun 432.6 442.0 average 98%
Edinburgh RAAF 23.6 +1.0 45.2 4 Jan 12.1 +1.0 1.2 19 Jun 439.8 430.5 average 102%
Parafield Airport 23.9 +1.6 44.7 4 Jan 12.0 +0.8 0.9 19 Jun 444.2 453.2 average 98%
Roseworthy AWS 24.2 46.0 4 Jan 10.3 1.0 8 Aug 368.0


County Light (district 23B)
Nuriootpa Viticultural 22.2 43.4 4 Jan 9.8 -0.3 20 Aug 451.9


Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 23.7 +1.2 45.6 4 Jan 10.6 +0.6 0.4 20 Aug 472.6 467.3 average 101%
Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)
Kuitpo Forest Reserve 19.9 41.0 4 Jan 11.0 2.6 20 Jul 776.8


Mount Barker 20.9 +0.9 42.7 4 Jan 9.7 +1.7 1.2 19 Jun 762.4 764.4 average 100%
Mount Crawford (Mt Crawford AWS) 19.9 41.8 4 Jan 10.3 1.8 20 Jul 686.2


Mount Lofty 17.7 38.5 4 Jan 9.4 0.9 20 Jul 974.6


Noarlunga 22.3 43.4 4 Jan 13.5 5.0 1 Aug 451.0


Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) 18.5 39.6 4 Jan 11.1 3.0 20 Jul 947.2


Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay) 21.4 43.8 4 Jan 10.7 0.6 10 Jul 629.2


Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)
Loxton Research Centre 24.9 +1.0 45.0 4 Jan 9.7 +0.7 -2.3 10 Jul 252.8 260.7 average 97%
Renmark Aero 25.7 46.0 4 Jan 9.9 -4.7 10 Jul 212.2


Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)
Eudunda 22.3 +1.3 43.0 4 Jan 10.2 +1.0 0.2 10 Jul 423.8 447.3 average 95%
Meningie 22.0 +1.2 43.0 4 Jan 11.1 +0.9 1.9 20 Jun 531.5 468.7 high 113%
Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) 23.7 45.7 4 Jan 9.4 -1.1 4 Oct 272.8


Murray Bridge Comparison 24.4 +1.5 45.6 4 Jan 10.7 +0.8 0.6 10 Jul 346.1 349.7 average 99%
Strathalbyn Racecourse 22.2 43.6 4 Jan 11.1 2.4 20 Jun 465.4


Murray Mallee (district 25A)
Karoonda 24.1 45.6 4 Jan 9.8 -0.5 9 Jul 289.1 341.5 low 85%
Upper Southeast (district 25B)
Keith 23.1 +0.9 44.8 4 Jan 9.7 +0.6 -0.8 25 Jun 409.1 462.2 low 89%
Keith (Munkora) 23.3 46.1 4 Jan 8.4 -2.4 10 Nov 427.8


Lameroo (Austin Plains) 23.7 45.0 4 Jan 9.0 -1.0 10 Jul 268.8


Lameroo Comparison 23.9 +1.0 44.0 4 Jan 10.2 +1.5 0.2 10 Jul 272.0 383.2 low 71%
Lower Southeast (district 26)
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 19.9 +0.7 38.6 19 Dec 11.0 +0.7 1.1 25 Jun 626.4


Coonawarra 21.2 +0.8 42.9 4 Jan 8.7 +0.7 -2.8 20 Jun



Mount Gambier Aero 20.2 +1.3 43.6 4 Jan 9.1 +1.0 -0.9 20 Jun 834.0 711.9 high 117%
Naracoorte Aerodrome 21.8 44.6 4 Jan 8.8 -3.0 20 Apr 479.0


Padthaway South 21.9 43.9 4 Jan 9.1 -1.9 25 Jun 525.4


Robe Airfield 20.1 38.7 4 Jan 10.1 -1.1 5 May 687.0


Robe Comparison 34.5 17 Feb 11.9 +1.0 2.3 25 Jun 686.8 632.9 high 109%

Notes

A Annual Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 8 am on Thursday 2 January 2014. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 20 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

The ACORN-SAT dataset is being used for temperature area averages from December 2012 onwards. The major change from earlier datasets is that the ACORN-SAT dataset commences in 1910, rather than 1950, and hence rankings are calculated using a larger set of years.

Further information

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