Victoria in 2009

Another warm year;

Many high temperature records broken;

Rainfall improves during the second half.

Summary

Victorian rainfall during 2009 was close to normal in the northwest of the State, and also along the west coast.

However, the start to the year was very dry, and, although rainfall improved during the second half of 2009, totals still finished up below the long-term normals in central and eastern Districts.

Daytime temperatures were above normal throughout, averaging up to 3 deg C above normal along the Murray River, but, by contrast, only between 0.5 and 1 deg C above normal along the western and central coasts.

Overnight temperatures were above normal by about 0.5 to 1 deg C in most Districts, but along the western central and South Gippsland coast, they were mostly close to normal.

Melbourne's average maximum temperature was 21.6 deg C (normal: 19.8 deg C), whilst the city's overnight minimum averaged 12.0 deg C (normal: 10.2 deg C). 459.6 mm of rain fell (normal: 647.7 mm).

The improved rainfall during the second half of the year may be explained in terms of the strengthening of the westerly flow to the south of the Australian continent as the year progressed.

To illustrate, during the first half of 2009, we saw a persistence of strong blocking high pressure systems to the south of Tasmania and the Tasman Sea, with Mean Sea Level pressure up to 3 hPa above normal, which prevented fronts in the westerlies from affecting Victoria.

By contrast, during the second half of 2009, we saw a persistence of low pressure systems to the south of the Australian continent, with Mean Sea Level pressure up to 3 hPa below normal, which facilitated the passage of fronts in the westerlies across Victoria.

Some sites had their highest temperature on record.

Some sites had their highest mean daily maximum temperature on record.

Some sites had their highest mean daily maximum temperature for at least 10 years.

Some sites had their warmest night (highest daily minimum temperature) on record.

Some sites had their highest mean daily minimum temperature on record.

Some sites had their highest mean daily minimum temperature for at least 10 years.

Is it possible to link the large number of temperature records to long term climate change?

A paper by Neville Nicholls, who is a Professorial Fellow in the School of Geography and Environmental Science at Monash University, nicely covers this issue. Neville joined Monash in February 2006 after 35 years of research on climate variability and change at the Bureau of Meteorology. He has published more than 145 refereed journal papers on scientific aspects of climate and climate change.

His paper, "Extremes, climate change and disasters", was presented at The Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research's "Modelling Workshop 2009: Modelling & Understanding High Impact Weather", which was held at the Bureau of Meteorology, several weeks ago.

The paper may be accessed via the link
http://www.cawcr.gov.au/events/modelling_workshops/workshop_2009/papers/NICHOLLS.pdf

The January-February heatwave

An exceptional heatwave affected south-eastern Australia during late January and early February 2009. The most extreme conditions occurred in northern and eastern Tasmania, most of Victoria and adjacent border areas of New South Wales, and southern South Australia, with many records set both for high day and night time temperatures as well as for the duration of extreme heat. There were two major episodes of exceptional high temperatures, from 28-31 January and 6-8 February, with slightly lower but still very high temperatures persisting in many inland areas through the period in between.

Widespread very hot conditions began to develop in the southeast from 27 January onwards. The presence of a slow-moving high pressure system in the Tasman Sea, combined with an intense tropical low off the northwest coast of Western Australia and an active monsoon trough, provided the ideal conditions for hot air of tropical origin to be directed over the southern parts of the continent. The initial acute phase of the heatwave extended from 28 to 30 January, with many individual-day records set on those days. A weak change brought some relief to southern coastal areas from 31 January onwards, but inland areas, as well as much of South Australia, remained very hot until 5 February. Extreme heat then returned throughout most of the region (except Tasmania), peaking on 7 February when record high temperatures were set across most of Victoria, before the Tasman Sea high finally moved away on the 8th.

Australia's warmest August on record, and Victoria's warmest winter on record

August 2009 was Australias warmest on record, whilst Victoria also had its warmest winters on record. Above-average daytime temperatures persisted over the Australian subtropics for almost all August, due to a lack of cold outbreaks (that would normally bring air of Southern Ocean origin northwards), as well as a lack of moisture and consequent persistent clear skies, allowing greater warming from the sun. This has had the greatest effect on the daytime temperatures; however, night-time temperatures were also well above average, most likely due to the very warm air-mass which accumulated over the period.  

The November heatwave

An exceptionally prolonged heatwave has affected large parts of central and south-eastern Australia during November 2009. Temperatures well above average began to influence much of the region on the weekend of 7-8 November. The hot spell continued largely unbroken, except in some southern and coastal areas, until 15 November. Slightly cooler conditions then prevailed on 16-17 November, particularly in Victoria and southern South Australia, before the heat returned from the 18th, with the highest temperatures of the whole event between November 18 and 20.

The first stage of the event, broadly from 7-15 November, was more exceptional for its duration than its intensity. Few records were set for individual high temperatures, but many were set, especially in South Australia, for the number of consecutive days above high temperature thresholds such as 35 or 40C. Prolonged hot spells are rare in November, compared with summer and early autumn, in southern Australia for a number of reasons; most significantly, that the subtropical high pressure belt is normally much further north in November than it is between December and March, allowing frontal systems to influence the southern continent on a regular basis instead of passing to the south as can occur later in the year.

Further information

Media
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Enquiries

Maps

Anomaly in mean maximum temperature for Victoria

Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature for Victoria

Mean maximum temperature for Victoria

Map of Mean maximum temperature for Victoria

Anomaly in mean minimum temperature for Victoria

Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature for Victoria

Mean minimum temperature for Victoria

Map of Mean minimum temperature for Victoria

Rainfall deciles

Map of Rainfall deciles

Rainfall totals

Map of Rainfall totals


Record highest annual temperature
Highest temperature
in 2009 (C)
Previous annual
highest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Melbourne Regional Office 46.4 on 7 Feb 45.6 on 13 Jan 1939 155 19.8
Laverton RAAF 47.5 on 7 Feb 45.0 on 25 Jan 2003 67 19.6
Ballarat Aerodrome 44.1 on 7 Feb 42.0 on 25 Jan 2003 53 17.3
Echuca Aerodrome 46.8 on 7 Feb 45.3 on 3 Jan 1990 53 22.2
Omeo Comparison 40.2 on 30 Jan 40.0 on 1 Feb 1968 53 18.3
Ouyen (Post Office) 46.8 on 7 Feb 46.7 on 14 Feb 2004 53 23.6
Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse 42.0 on 7 Feb 41.1 on 18 Jan 1959 53 16.3
Horsham Polkemmet Rd 47.6 on 7 Feb 45.7 on 31 Jan 1968 51 21.5
Mangalore Airport 46.1 on 7 Feb 44.4 on 24 Jan 1982 51 21.0
Kerang 46.9 on 7 Feb 45.6 on 31 Jan 1968 48 22.8
Longerenong 47.6 on 7 Feb 46.4 on 31 Jan 1968 45 21.4
Maryborough 45.4 on 7 Feb 43.7 on 31 Dec 2005 45 20.4
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 44.8 on 7 Feb 43.3 on 24 Jan 1982 45 21.3
Kyabram DPI 46.6 on 7 Feb 44.7 on 24 Jan 1982 44 21.5
Scoresby Research Institute 46.1 on 7 Feb 42.8 on 25 Jan 2003 44 19.5
Walpeup Research 48.1 on 7 Feb 46.6 on 31 Jan 1968 43 23.1
Castlemaine Prison 43.9 on 7 Feb 43.7 on 31 Jan 1968 42 19.8
Wonthaggi 45.0 on 7 Feb 43.0 on 24 Jan 1982 42 18.8
Ararat Prison 44.7 on 7 Feb 42.9 on 25 Jan 2003 41 19.0
Essendon Airport 47.3 on 7 Feb 45.8 on 31 Jan 1968 41 19.5
Lake Eildon 45.4 on 7 Feb 42.3 on 24 Jan 1982 40 20.3
Melbourne Airport 46.8 on 7 Feb 44.6 on 25 Jan 2003 40 19.7
Warracknabeal Museum 46.8 on 7 Feb 46.0 on 24 Jan 1982 40 22.2
Moorabbin Airport 46.7 on 7 Feb 44.3 on 25 Jan 2003 39 19.7
Strathbogie 42.0 on 7 Feb 41.5 on 24 Jan 1982 34 18.5
Bairnsdale Airport 46.2 on 7 Feb 44.0 on 25 Jan 2003 30 20.1
Bundoora (Latrobe University) 46.5 on 7 Feb 43.8 on 25 Jan 2003 29 20.0
Noojee (Slivar) 43.2 on 7 Feb 41.8 on 24 Jan 1982 28 18.4
Hamilton Airport 44.5 on 7 Feb 43.3 on 31 Dec 2005 27 19.0
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) 46.3 on 7 Feb 43.2 on 25 Jan 2003 26 19.9
Phillip Island Penguin Reserve 41.5 on 29 Jan 39.2 on 13 Dec 1998 26 18.8
Mount Buller 30.7 on 7 Feb 28.0 on 15 Feb 2004 25 9.2
Edi Upper 43.8 on 7 Feb 41.2 on 15 Feb 2004 24 20.7
Wangaratta Aero 45.8 on 7 Feb = 45.8 on 3 Jan 1990 23 22.0
Willow Grove (Blue Rock Reservoir) 43.0 on 8 Feb 40.1 on 27 Jan 2003 23 19.4
Grovedale (Geelong Airport) 47.4 on 7 Feb 44.8 on 25 Jan 2003 22 19.3
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens 46.0 on 7 Feb 43.6 on 25 Jan 2003 20 19.2
Falls Creek 28.7 on 31 Jan 27.7 on 15 Feb 2004 20 9.3
Mount Hotham 28.1 on 7 Feb 26.7 on 23 Jan 2001 20 7.9
Aireys Inlet 45.3 on 7 Feb 43.2 on 22 Jan 2006 19 18.1
Bendigo Airport 45.4 on 7 Feb 43.1 on 31 Dec 2005 19 20.8
Cerberus 45.8 on 7 Feb 43.5 on 25 Jan 2003 19 18.9
Ferny Creek (Dunns Hill) 41.8 on 7 Feb 38.9 on 25 Jan 2003 19 15.6
Mortlake Racecourse 46.0 on 7 Feb 43.0 on 22 Jan 2006 19 19.0
Rhyll 42.1 on 7 Feb 39.4 on 24 Feb 1995 19 18.4
Sheoaks 45.2 on 7 Feb 43.1 on 25 Jan 2003 19 18.6
Frankston AWS 42.0 on 28 Jan 40.2 on 31 Dec 2005 18 18.5
Gelantipy 39.2 on 7 Feb 36.5 on 31 Dec 2005 18 16.4
Hunters Hill 37.4 on 30 Jan 36.2 on 23 Jan 2001 17 16.2
Mallacoota 41.6 on 17 Dec 40.6 on 26 Jan 2003 17 19.3
Mount Moornapa 43.2 on 7 Feb 42.2 on 22 Jan 2006 17 18.4
Redesdale 45.0 on 7 Feb 42.9 on 31 Dec 2005 17 20.1
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 42.7 on 7 Feb 40.2 on 25 Jan 2003 17 16.5
Yarrawonga 46.0 on 7 Feb 43.6 on 23 Jan 2001 17 22.8
Coldstream 44.8 on 7 Feb 42.5 on 25 Jan 2003 16 20.2
Combienbar AWS 41.0 on 7 Feb 40.2 on 11 Jan 2007 16 17.9
Avalon Airport 47.9 on 7 Feb 45.8 on 25 Jan 2003 15 20.2
Mount Nowa Nowa 43.3 on 7 Feb 42.3 on 22 Jan 2006 15 18.8
Eildon Fire Tower 41.7 on 7 Feb 38.2 on 5 Jan 1999 14 17.8
Shepparton Airport 46.1 on 7 Feb 43.3 on 15 Feb 2004 14 22.4
Stawell Aerodrome 45.4 on 7 Feb 43.6 on 25 Jan 2003 14 20.6
Swan Hill Aerodrome 46.9 on 7 Feb 46.2 on 14 Jan 2001 14 23.7
Horsham Aerodrome 47.4 on 7 Feb 46.0 on 31 Dec 2005 13 22.1
Warrnambool Airport NDB 44.8 on 7 Feb 43.0 on 22 Jan 2006 12 18.9



Record highest annual mean daily maximum temperature
Mean daily maximum
temperature
for 2009 (C)
Previous annual
highest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Ouyen (Post Office) 24.9 = 24.9 in 1982 71 23.6
East Sale Airport 20.9 20.7 in 1972 63 19.6
Mildura Airport 25.2 = 25.2 in 2007 62 23.7
Walpeup Research 24.6 24.4 in 1982 58 23.1
Casterton Showgrounds 21.1 21.0 in 2007 47 20.0
Kyabram DPI 23.5 23.3 in 2007 42 21.5
Ararat Prison 20.4 = 20.4 in 2007 39 19.0
Point Hicks (Lighthouse) 20.0 19.9 in 2007 37 18.9
Bairnsdale Airport 21.3 21.0 in 2005 25 20.1
Hamilton Airport 20.0 = 20.0 in 2007 24 19.0
Bendigo Airport 22.3 22.0 in 2007 17 20.8
Sheoaks 19.9 = 19.9 in 2007 17 18.6
Gelantipy 17.5 17.1 in 2007 16 16.4
Mallacoota 20.2 20.0 in 2005 15 19.3
Mount Moornapa 19.5 19.2 in 2005 15 18.4
Combienbar AWS 19.3 19.1 in 2007 14 17.9
Mount Nowa Nowa 19.7 = 19.7 in 2005 13 18.8
Stawell Aerodrome 21.3 = 21.3 in 2007 12 20.6
Swan Hill Aerodrome 24.6 24.4 in 2002 12 23.7
Warrnambool Airport NDB 19.5 19.4 in 2005 10 18.9

Highest annual mean daily maximum temperature for at least 10 years
Mean daily maximum
temperature
for 2009 (C)
Most recent higher
annual
Years since
higher
Annual
average
Gabo Island Lighthouse 19.1 19.7 in 1895 112 17.8
Kerang 24.4 24.9 in 1914 82 22.8
Orbost (Comparison) 21.6 21.6 in 1982 23 20.2



Record highest annual daily minimum temperature
Highest daily minimum
temperature
in 2009 (C)
Previous annual
highest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Longerenong 28.8 on 29 Jan 27.8 on 3 Jan 1991 45 7.9
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 27.2 on 24 Dec 26.2 on 7 Feb 1997 45 8.3
Scoresby Research Institute 29.2 on 29 Jan 27.2 on 25 Feb 1968 44 9.5
Castlemaine Prison 28.5 on 29 Jan 27.2 on 21 Jan 1997 42 7.6
Wonthaggi 25.0 on 29 Jan 23.5 on 12 Dec 1998 42 9.6
Melbourne Airport 30.5 on 29 Jan 27.3 on 1 Jan 2008 40 9.5
Weeaproinah 26.8 on 29 Jan 25.1 on 19 Feb 1997 29 7.8
Mount Buller 20.6 on 1 Feb 20.0 on 23 Jan 2006 25 2.7
Falls Creek 20.1 on 31 Jan 19.7 on 24 Jan 2001 20 2.5
Ferny Creek (Dunns Hill) 28.4 on 30 Jan 26.6 on 6 Feb 1997 19 8.4
Hunters Hill 26.3 on 8 Feb 25.0 on 1 Jan 2006 17 7.8
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 27.1 on 30 Jan 25.6 on 25 Jan 2003 17 7.9
Swan Hill Aerodrome 30.1 on 24 Dec 30.0 on 5 Feb 2000 14 9.1
Horsham Aerodrome 27.3 on 29 Jan 27.1 on 12 Dec 1998 13 7.0



Record highest annual mean daily minimum temperature
Mean daily minimum
temperature
for 2009 (C)
Previous annual
highest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Ouyen (Post Office) 10.6 10.5 in 1988 71 9.6
Mildura Airport 11.2 = 11.2 in 1973 62 10.3
Stawell Aerodrome 9.0 = 9.0 in 2007 12 8.2
Swan Hill Aerodrome 9.9 9.7 in 2007 12 9.1

Highest annual mean daily minimum temperature for at least 10 years
Mean daily minimum
temperature
for 2009 (C)
Most recent higher
annual
Years since
higher
Annual
average
Rutherglen Research 8.2 8.4 in 1983 26 7.3



Summary statistics for 2009
Maximum temperatures
(C)
Minimum temperatures
(C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean
for
2009
Diff
from
average
Highest
for
2009
Mean
for
2009
Diff
from
average
Lowest
for
2009
Total
for
2009
Average
annual
total
Rank
of
2009
Fraction
of annual
average
North Mallee (district 76)
Mildura Airport 25.2 +1.5 46.7 7 Feb 11.2 +0.9 -1.8 24 Jul 232.8 282.6 low 82%
Ouyen (Post Office) 24.9 +1.3 46.8 7 Feb 10.6 +1.0 -0.4 8 Aug 324.0 329.6 average 98%
Walpeup Research 24.6 +1.5 48.1 7 Feb 10.6 +0.8 0.3 8 Aug
South Mallee (district 77)
Hopetoun Airport 24.5   48.8 7 Feb 9.1   -3.2 8 Aug 316.0
Swan Hill Aerodrome 24.6 +0.9 46.9 7 Feb 9.9 +0.8 -2.2 8 Aug 294.0 283.1 average 104%
North Wimmera (district 78)
Nhill Aerodrome 23.2   47.1 7 Feb 9.0   -0.3 8 Aug 329.8
Warracknabeal Museum 23.4 +1.2 46.8 7 Feb 9.4 +0.8 -0.8 8 Aug 427.3 394.7 average 108%
South Wimmera (district 79)
Edenhope Airport 21.5   44.9 7 Feb 8.8   -0.8 10 Jun 447.4
Grampians (Mount William) 13.0   36.6 7 Feb 5.6   -2.5 10 Jun 1109.8
Horsham Aerodrome 22.7 +0.6 47.4 7 Feb 7.6 +0.6 -2.8 8 Aug 455.0 364.7 high 125%
Horsham Polkemmet Rd 22.9 +1.4 47.6 7 Feb 7.9 -0.3 -2.9 8 Aug 439.8 445.8 average 99%
Kanagulk 21.5   45.5 7 Feb 8.3   -0.7 24 Jul 429.0
Longerenong 22.6 +1.2 47.6 7 Feb 8.1 +0.2 -2.3 8 Aug 446.0 415.8 average 107%
Pyrenees (Ben Nevis) 16.0   40.5 7 Feb 7.7   -0.7 30 Aug 712.6
Stawell Aerodrome 21.3 +0.7 45.4 7 Feb 9.0 +0.8 -0.1 30 Apr 537.4 476.4 average 113%
Lower North (district 80)
Charlton 23.5   46.6 7 Feb 9.4   -1.6 8 Aug 393.4
Echuca Aerodrome 24.0 +1.8 46.8 7 Feb 9.4 +0.1 -1.9 8 Aug 263.0 424.6 v low 62%
Kerang 24.4 +1.6 46.9 7 Feb 10.2 +0.8 -1.3 8 Aug 309.5 372.0 average 83%
Kyabram DPI 23.5 +2.0 46.6 7 Feb 9.3 +0.8 -3.0 8 Aug 288.8 439.5 low 66%
Upper North (district 81)
Bendigo Airport 22.3 +1.5 45.4 7 Feb 8.4 +0.8 -3.4 8 Aug 418.0 476.1 average 88%
Shepparton Airport 23.3 +0.9 46.1 7 Feb 8.7 +0.3 -3.2 24 Jul 321.6 410.6 low 78%
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 22.8 +1.5 44.8 7 Feb 8.6 +0.3 -3.2 24 Jul 307.0 478.2 low 64%
Yarrawonga 24.0 +1.2 46.0 7 Feb 9.5 +0.7 -1.4 8 Aug 284.4 413.9 low 69%
Lower Northeast (district 82)
Benalla Airport 23.1   45.7 7 Feb 8.4   -2.6 22 Aug 424.8
Corryong Airport 22.5   43.6 7 Feb 6.8   -5.1 8 Jul 663.9
Dartmouth Reservoir 21.6 +1.1 41.8 7 Feb 7.9 +0.5 -4.1 11 Jun 824.8 1002.3 low 82%
Rutherglen Research 23.2 +1.5 44.9 7 Feb 8.2 +0.9 -2.2 8 Jul 433.2 581.5 low 74%
Strathbogie 19.4 +0.9 42.0 7 Feb 6.5 +0.4 -4.5 24 Jul 712.2 964.6 low 74%
Wangaratta Aero 23.2 +1.2 45.8 7 Feb 7.6 +0.1 -2.5 7 Jul 420.6 610.4 low 69%
Upper Northeast (district 83)
Dinner Plain (Mount Hotham Airport) 14.9   34.6 7 Feb 3.3   -6.9 8 Jul 692.4
Falls Creek 9.9 +0.6 28.7 31 Jan 2.9 +0.4 -7.0 11 Jun 1047.8 1161.9 low 90%
Mount Buller 9.9 +0.7 30.7 7 Feb 3.4 +0.7 -7.1 24 Jul 1624.4 1523.3 average 107%
Mount Hotham 8.4 +0.5 28.1 7 Feb 2.1 +0.2 -8.2 29 Apr 1385.8 1300.2 average 107%
Omeo 19.4   40.4 7 Feb 5.8   -5.9 8 Jul 532.2
East Gippsland (district 84)
Combienbar AWS 19.3 +1.4 41.0 7 Feb 9.4 +0.6 0.0 10 Jun 654.4 949.1 lowest 69%
Gabo Island Lighthouse 19.1 +1.3 33.3 17 Dec 12.9 +0.7 5.5 18 Jul 562.1 945.1 v low 59%
Gelantipy 17.5 +1.1 39.2 7 Feb 7.3 +0.7 -1.7 24 Jul 618.4 723.8 low 85%
Lakes Entrance (Eastern Beach Road) 20.1   46.4 7 Feb 10.2   -1.8 9 Jul 528.5
Mallacoota 20.2 +0.9 41.6 17 Dec 10.9 +0.2 1.5 25 Jul 695.0 928.9 v low 75%
Mount Nowa Nowa 19.7 +0.9 43.3 7 Feb 10.3 +0.4 2.6 10 Jun 606.0 785.0 v low 77%
Orbost 21.2   45.7 7 Feb 10.0   0.3 8 Jul 591.8
Orbost (Comparison) 21.6 +1.4 44.6 7 Feb 9.0 +0.2 -1.3 8 Jul 559.4 845.2 v low 66%
Point Hicks (Lighthouse) 20.0 +1.1 40.4 7 Feb     4.9 10 Jun 780.8 951.1 low 82%
West Gippsland (district 85)
Bairnsdale Airport 21.3 +1.2 46.2 7 Feb 8.5 +0.3 -3.5 8 Jul 419.2 642.0 v low 65%
East Sale Airport 20.9 +1.3 44.4 7 Feb 8.0 -0.1 -3.9 8 Jul 378.0 598.7 v low 63%
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) 21.1 +1.2 46.3 7 Feb 8.4 +0.3 -2.7 10 Jul 563.0 729.3 low 77%
Mount Moornapa 19.5 +1.1 43.2 7 Feb 9.5 +0.5 1.2 10 Jun 488.2 800.8 lowest 61%
Noojee (Slivar) 19.6 +1.2 43.2 7 Feb 7.5 +0.4 -1.9 8 Jul 955.2 1114.7 low 86%
Pound Creek 19.6   46.1 7 Feb 8.9   -1.9 8 Jul 771.2
Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse 17.3 +1.0 42.0 7 Feb 12.3 +1.0 6.0 28 Apr 1305.0 1051.5 v high 124%
Yarram Airport 20.3   46.0 7 Feb 8.4   -2.1 9 Jul 502.4
East Central (district 86)
Bundoora (Latrobe University) 21.1 +1.1 46.5 7 Feb 10.1 +0.6 -1.0 8 Jul 512.7 662.1 low 77%
Cerberus 19.6 +0.7 45.8 7 Feb 9.8 +0.1 -0.8 8 Jul 674.6 711.0 average 95%
Coldstream 21.0 +0.8 44.8 7 Feb 7.4 +0.2 -3.5 8 Jul 638.4 698.7 low 91%
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens 20.1 +0.9 46.0 7 Feb 9.7 +0.1 2.0 8 Jul 704.2 812.8 low 87%
Essendon Airport 21.1 +1.6 47.3 7 Feb 10.3 +1.2 -0.2 8 Jul 393.4 589.8 v low 67%
Ferny Creek (Dunns Hill) 16.6 +1.0 41.8 7 Feb 8.7 +0.3 0.8 10 Jun 949.8 1046.1 low 91%
Frankston AWS 19.3 +0.8 42.0 28 Jan 12.0 +0.5 3.7 8 Jul
Melbourne Airport 21.0 +1.3 46.8 7 Feb 10.0 +0.5 0.9 8 Jul 396.2 540.4 v low 73%
Melbourne Regional Office 21.6 +1.8 46.4 7 Feb 12.0 +1.8 2.9 30 Apr 459.6 647.7 low 71%
Moorabbin Airport 20.7 +1.0 46.7 7 Feb 10.4 +0.4 -0.8 8 Jul 528.6 710.8 low 74%
Rhyll 19.1 +0.7 42.1 7 Feb 12.0 +0.5 4.5 8 Jul 603.8 657.9 low 92%
Scoresby Research Institute 20.8 +1.3 46.1 7 Feb 9.7 +0.2 -0.6 8 Jul 685.2 860.7 low 80%
Viewbank (ARPANSA) 21.4   46.7 7 Feb 10.0   -0.5 8 Jul 607.0
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 17.8 +1.3 42.7 7 Feb 8.3 +0.4 0.4 22 Aug 517.2 652.2 low 79%
Wonthaggi 19.7 +0.9 45.0 7 Feb 10.0 +0.4 2.0 30 Apr 846.9 932.4 low 91%
West Central (district 87)
Avalon Airport 21.0 +0.8 47.9 7 Feb 9.5 +0.3 -1.9 8 Jul 382.0 447.3 low 85%
Grovedale (Geelong Airport) 20.1 +0.8 47.4 7 Feb 9.0 0.0 -1.4 8 Jul 406.4 521.4 low 78%
Laverton RAAF 20.9 +1.3 47.5 7 Feb 10.0 +0.8 -2.1 8 Jul 360.4 538.8 v low 67%
Sheoaks 19.9 +1.3 45.2 7 Feb 8.6 +0.3 -2.0 8 Jul 405.6 481.3 average 84%
North Central (district 88)
Castlemaine Prison 20.8 +1.0 43.9 7 Feb 8.3 +0.7 -2.4 11 Jun 507.2 593.4 low 85%
Eildon Fire Tower 18.6 +0.8 41.7 7 Feb 8.9 +0.5 -0.3 10 Jun 543.4 588.5 average 92%
Lake Eildon 21.8 +1.5 45.4 7 Feb 8.5 +0.7 -1.2 7 Jul 642.3 848.5 low 76%
Mangalore Airport 22.4 +1.4 46.1 7 Feb 8.9 +0.6 -2.7 8 Aug 321.6 564.8 v low 57%
Maryborough 21.7 +1.3 45.4 7 Feb 8.6 +0.6 -2.8 8 Aug 506.9 525.3 average 96%
Redesdale 21.3 +1.2 45.0 7 Feb 7.8 +0.6 -2.5 8 Aug 474.4 573.6 low 83%
Western Plains (district 89)
Ararat Prison 20.4 +1.4 44.7 7 Feb 7.6 +0.7 -1.8 24 Jul 524.7 586.9 average 89%
Ballarat Aerodrome 18.9 +1.6 44.1 7 Feb 7.3 +0.3 -2.4 30 Apr 553.0 692.8 low 80%
Westmere 20.3   45.5 7 Feb 7.4   -1.7 8 Jul 535.8
West Coast (district 90)
Aireys Inlet 18.7 +0.6 45.3 7 Feb 10.7 +0.2 3.5 18 Jun 627.8 615.1 average 102%
Cape Nelson Lighthouse 18.0 +0.6 40.1 31 Dec 11.6 +0.2 3.8 17 Jul 766.2 694.7 average 110%
Cape Otway Lighthouse 17.3 0.0 41.7 29 Jan 11.2 +0.6 4.1 8 Jul 887.0 894.8 average 99%
Casterton 20.4   44.5 29 Jan 8.3   -0.9 17 Jul 605.4
Casterton Showgrounds 21.1 +1.1 44.0 28 Jan 8.4 +0.1 -1.1 18 Jun 681.7 653.8 average 104%
Colac (Mount Gellibrand) 18.8   45.4 7 Feb 9.0   2.0 8 Aug 509.2
Hamilton Airport 20.0 +1.0 44.5 7 Feb 8.0 +0.5 -0.6 17 Jul 562.4 612.8 low 92%
Mortlake Racecourse 19.9 +0.9 46.0 7 Feb 7.7 +0.3 -1.5 17 Jul 532.4 558.2 average 95%
Port Fairy AWS 19.1 +0.6 42.8 29 Jan 10.3 0.0 1.1 8 Jul 868.2 664.6 high 131%
Portland (Cashmore Airport) 18.1 +0.6 39.3 29 Jan 9.2 0.0 -1.5 8 Jul 852.6 813.6 average 105%
Warrnambool Airport NDB 19.5 +0.6 44.8 7 Feb 8.5 +0.2 0.5 30 Apr 728.2 701.6 average 104%
Weeaproinah 15.3 +0.9 39.0 7 Feb 8.3 +0.5 1.3 10 Jun 1866.2 1932.4 average 97%

Notes

A Annual Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in Victoria using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 9 am on Tuesday 5 January 2010. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Further information

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