Melbourne in 2014: Another warm year with below average rainfall

2014 was Melbourne's equal warmest year on record for mean temperatures; Rainfall was below average.

  • Equal warmest year on record for mean temperatures
  • Warmest year on record for minimum temperatures in many suburbs
  • Maximum temperatures very much warmer than normal
  • Rainfall below to very much below average across the city

The 2014 mean temperature was the equal warmest on record at the Melbourne Regional Office site. Both the mean minimum and mean maximum temperatures ranked second highest, 0.1 °C shy of their respective 2007 records. Many other stations in the Melbourne area also recorded their highest mean minimum temperature, and several their highest annual mean temperature. Generally, stations reported annual maximum and minimum temperatures about one degree warmer than their long-term averages. Every month of 2014 was warmer at Melbourne Regional Office than the corresponding long-term monthly average. The last time Melbourne Regional Office recorded a cooler than normal month for maximum temperatures was March 2012, and for minimum temperatures it was July 2006.

Rainfall totals for 2014 were lower than normal across the greater Melbourne area. Most stations only recorded around 75% of their long-term averages. April and June were the only months of 2014 when Melbourne Regional Office recorded more than its monthly long-term average, although there were some quite wet days in spring. Melbourne Regional Office had its wettest day of the year on 16 November, with 40.6 mm observed in the 24 hours to 9am.

Notable events in 2014

  • Four consecutive days above 41 °C from 14 January, part of one of southeast Australia's most significant heatwaves.
  • Very warm at the start of April, with several sites having their warmest April morning on record
  • Below-average rain in most months, with only April markedly above average
  • Thirteen consecutive days above 20 °C in the city from 11 May, part of an exceptionally prolonged autumn warm spell over much of Australia
  • Warmest winter overnight minimum temperatures on record for many outer suburbs, with July especially mild
  • Extensive fog and low cloud across the city on 28 and 29 August
  • Thunderstorms on the afternoon of 9 September brought damaging winds, hail and flash flooding to parts of Melbourne. The largest rainfall totals, around 25 mm, were observed in northern suburbs. Flash flooding was reported in some inner northern and eastern suburbs.
  • Warmest October on record for Melbourne Regional Office and many suburban sites, part of Australia's warmest spring on record.
  • Melbourne CBD's wettest day in 17 months on 16 November

Further information

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Extremes in 2014
Hottest day 46.3 °C at Avalon Airport on 17 Jan
Warmest days on average 21.7 °C at Melbourne Regional Office and Viewbank
Coolest days on average 17.4 °C at Ferny Creek
Coldest day 4.1 °C at Ferny Creek on 1 Aug
Coldest night -3.7 °C at Coldstream on 3 Aug
Coolest nights on average 7.9 °C at Coldstream
Warmest nights on average 12.4 °C at Melbourne Regional Office
Warmest night 28.8 °C at Bundoora (Latrobe University)
and Essendon Airport on 15 Jan
Warmest on average overall 17.1 °C at Melbourne Regional Office
Coolest on average overall 13.4 °C at Ferny Creek
Wettest overall 1113.8 mm at Ferny Creek
Driest overall 366.4 mm at Laverton RAAF
Wettest days 40.6 mm at Cerberus on 29 Jun
40.4 mm at Ferny Creek on 30 Apr
40.4 mm at Coldstream on 16 Nov
Strongest wind gust 104 km/h at Avalon Airport on 24 Jun and 30 Sep

Record lowest daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Coldstream 6.6 on 22 Jul 6.8 on 5 Sep 1995 21 20.3



Record highest annual mean daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Bundoora (Latrobe University) 21.5 21.4 in 2007 28 20.1



Record highest daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Essendon Airport 28.8 on 15 Jan 26.7 on 29 Jan 1943 46 9.2
Moorabbin Airport 28.6 on 15 Jan 28.0 on 21 Jan 1997 44 10.1
Bundoora (Latrobe University) 28.8 on 15 Jan 28.5 on 1 Jan 2008 34 9.6



Record highest annual mean daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Laverton RAAF 10.5 = 10.5 in 2007 70 9.3
Melbourne Airport 10.4 = 10.4 in 2007 43 9.5
Essendon Airport 10.8 10.7 in 2007 42 9.2
Moorabbin Airport 11.1 10.9 in 2007 41 10.1
Cerberus 10.4 10.3 in 2010 22 9.8
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens 10.3 = 10.3 in 1993 22 9.7

Highest annual mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Years since
higher
Annual
average
Scoresby Research Institute 10.4 10.9 in 1988* 21 9.5

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.




Record highest annual mean temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Melbourne Regional Office 17.1 = 17.1 in 2007 158 15.1
Melbourne Airport 15.8 = 15.8 in 2007 43 14.7
Moorabbin Airport 16.0 = 16.0 in 2007 41 14.9



Summary statistics for 2014
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean
for
2014
Diff
from
average
Highest
for
2014
Mean
for
2014
Diff
from
average
Lowest
for
2014
Total
for
2014
Average
annual
total
Rank
of
2014
Fraction
of annual
average
Avalon Airport 21.3 +1.0 46.3 17 Jan 9.8 +0.5 -3.2 3 Aug 397.4 460.1 low 86%
Bundoora (Latrobe University) 21.5 +1.4 44.2 17 Jan     -1.8 3 Aug 473.5 668.3 v low 71%
Cerberus 19.9 +0.9 42.9 17 Jan 10.4 +0.6 -0.8 3 Aug 658.8 734.5 low 90%
Coldstream 21.4 +1.1 42.0 17 Jan 7.9 +0.5 -3.7 3 Aug 650.8 737.3 low 88%
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens 20.3 +1.0 42.0 17 Jan 10.3 +0.6 1.5 8 May 755.3 831.5 average 91%
Essendon Airport 21.2 +1.6 43.9 17 Jan 10.8 +1.6 -1.7 3 Aug 440.2 589.6 low 75%
Ferny Creek 17.4   38.6 17 Jan 9.4   1.3 2 Aug 1113.8
Laverton RAAF 20.9 +1.2 44.7 17 Jan 10.5 +1.2 -0.8 3 Aug 366.4 539.0 v low 68%
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 20.9   43.4 16 Jan 12.1   1.2 3 Aug 432.0
Melbourne Airport 21.2 +1.4 43.9 17 Jan 10.4 +0.9 -0.4 23 Jul 400.4 543.9 low 74%
Melbourne Regional Office 21.7 +1.8 43.9 17 Jan 12.4 +2.1 1.4 3 Aug 475.2 648.3 low 73%
Moorabbin Airport 21.0 +1.3 43.7 17 Jan 11.1 +1.0 1.4 3 Aug 543.8 712.8 low 76%
Scoresby Research Institute     42.4 16 Jan 10.4 +0.9 0.1 4 Aug 683.4 862.8 low 79%
Viewbank 21.7 +0.9 43.9 16 Jan 10.4 +0.5 -1.2 3 Aug 481.8 665.0 v low 72%

Notes

The annual climate summary lists the main features of the weather in Melbourne using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.

A Climate Summary is generally published on the first working day of each month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 9 am on Tuesday 6 January 2015. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

The ACORN-SAT dataset is used for temperature area averages.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
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