Greater Melbourne in 2019: warmer and drier than average

Rainfall in Greater Melbourne during 2019 was generally below average; most months were drier than average, but May, June and August were wetter than average. Both maximum and minimum temperatures were warmer than average throughout Greater Melbourne.

Mostly below average rainfall

  • Rainfall in 2019 was generally below average across Greater Melbourne
  • Annual rainfall totals ranged from 66% of average at Wallan (Kilmore Gap) and Laverton RAAF to 93% of average at Coldstream
  • For Melbourne city, it was the third-driest year on record
  • Some sites had their lowest annual total rainfall on record
  • The year began with a drier than average January; averaged across all reporting sites in Greater Melbourne, it was the driest January since 2013
  • Most months during the year were drier than average, but May and June were wetter than average in most of suburbs
  • The wettest place was Monbulk (Spring Road), in Melbourne's east, with 1076.8 mm recorded during the year; in contrast, Rockbank (Melton) had an annual rainfall total of only 343.8 mm

Warmer than average

  • Mean maximum temperatures for the year ranged from 0.7 °C above average at Viewbank to 1.5 °C above average at Essendon Airport and Wallan (Kilmore Gap)
  • Daytime temperatures were warmer than average in most months during the year, but January was exceptionally warm and most reporting sites in Greater Melbourne had mean maximum temperatures more than 3 °C warmer than the January average
  • The highest daytime temperature in Greater Melbourne during the year was 46.0 °C at Melbourne Airport on 25 January; most reporting sites had their highest daytime temperature for the year on this day
  • Wallan (Kilmore Gap) had its highest temperature on record also on 25 January
  • Mean minimum temperatures for the year were generally close to average, although Essendon Airport had nights that were 1.2 °C warmer than average for the year
  • In most months during the year, mean minimum temperatures were generally warmer than average across Greater Melbourne, but were close to or below average in August, September and November
  • The coldest night-time temperature during the year in Greater Melbourne was −2.0 °C at Coldstream on 26 June, at the end of a week-long cold spell with clear skies and light winds under a high pressure system

Melbourne (Olympic Park)

  • Total rainfall for Melbourne (Olympic Park) was 374.4 mm
  • The mean daily maximum temperature for Melbourne (Olympic Park) was 20.8 °C. The warmest day was 43.5 °C on 20 Dec, and the coolest day was on 23 Jun when the temperature reached 9.6 °C
  • The mean daily minimum temperature for Melbourne (Olympic Park) was 11.7 °C. The coldest morning was 2.3 °C on 30 Aug, and the warmest morning was on 3 Mar when the minimum temperature was 25.1 °C

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries

Extremes in 2019
Hottest day 46.0 °C at Melbourne Airport on 25 Jan
Warmest days on average 21.6 °C at Viewbank
Coolest days on average 17.4 °C at Ferny Creek
Coldest day 4.3 °C at Ferny Creek on 9 Aug
Coldest night -2.0 °C at Coldstream on 26 Jun
Coolest nights on average 7.8 °C at Coldstream
Warmest nights on average 11.7 °C at Melbourne (Olympic Park)
Warmest night 26.3 °C at Laverton RAAF on 1 Mar
Warmest on average overall 16.2 °C at Melbourne (Olympic Park)
Coolest on average overall 13.1 °C at Ferny Creek
Wettest overall 1076.8 mm at Monbulk (Spring Road)
Driest overall 343.8 mm at Rockbank (Melton)
Wettest day 42.0 mm at Montrose on 31 Mar
Strongest wind gust 117 km/h at Fawkner Beacon on 21 Nov
117 km/h at Wallan (Kilmore Gap) on 21 Nov

Record lowest annual total rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Cheltenham Kingston Centre 378.8 442.5 in 1967 89 748.6
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 443.2 457.2 in 2006 24 674.9

Lowest annual total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
lower
Annual
average
Rockbank (Melton) 343.8 329.0 in 1982* 503.1

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported




Record highest temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 43.2 on 25 Jan 42.7 on 7 Feb 2009 27 16.9



Record lowest daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Viewbank 7.8 on 23 Jun 8.1 on 3 Aug 2017 21 20.9



Record highest annual mean daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Scoresby Research Institute 21.2 = 21.2 in 2014 57 19.7
Melbourne Airport 21.3 = 21.3 in 2007 48 19.9
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 18.4 18.3 in 2014 25 16.9
Coldstream 21.4 = 21.4 in 2014 24 20.5



Summary statistics for 2019
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean
for
2019
Diff
from
average
Highest
for
2019
Mean
for
2019
Diff
from
average
Lowest
for
2019
Total
for
2019
Average
annual
total
Rank
of
2019
Fraction
of annual
average
Coldstream 21.4 +0.9 43.8 25 Jan 7.8 +0.3 -2.0 26 Jun 677.8 732.3 average 93%
Essendon Airport 21.3 +1.5 45.2 25 Jan 10.6 +1.2 1.1 25 Jun 406.0 583.1 v low 70%
Ferny Creek 17.4   39.5 25 Jan 8.8   0.2 10 Aug
Laverton RAAF 21.0 +1.3 45.2 20 Dec 10.3 +0.9 0.3 30 Aug 352.8 531.9 v low 66%
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 20.8   43.5 20 Dec 11.7   2.3 30 Aug 374.4
Melbourne Airport 21.3 +1.4 46.0 25 Jan 9.9 +0.3 0.2 30 Aug 359.0 531.3 v low 68%
Moorabbin Airport 20.8 +1.0 44.2 20 Dec 11.0 +0.8 0.3 25 Jun 509.0 702.3 v low 72%
Scoresby Research Institute 21.2 +1.5 43.5 25 Jan 10.1 +0.5 0.0 31 Jul 696.6 851.8 low 82%
Viewbank 21.6 +0.7 44.8 25 Jan 10.2 +0.2 -0.1 30 Aug 506.2 647.9 low 78%
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 18.4 +1.5 43.2 25 Jan 8.4 +0.3 0.2 11 Aug 443.2 674.9 lowest 66%

Notes

The Annual climate summary, generally published on the second working day of the year, lists the main features of the weather in Greater Melbourne using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This summary includes data from observing sites in or near the Greater Melbourne “Greater Capital City Statistical Area” (GCCSA). The Australian Bureau of Statistics designed the GCCSAs to “include the population within the urban area of the city, as well as people who regularly socialise, shop or work within the city, and live in small towns and rural areas surrounding the city. It is important to note that GCCSAs do not define the built up edge of the city. They provide a stable definition for these cities and are designed for the output of a range of social and economic survey data.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 10 am on Monday 6 January 2020. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the rainfall is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries