Victoria in 2016: a wet and warm year

Victoria had its fifth-warmest year on record in 2016 and its warmest mean minimum temperatures on record. After a generally dry start, Victorian rainfall was above average, with 2016 the State's wettest year since 2011.

Wetter than average

  • Victoria's wettest year since 2011, with rainfall 19% above average
  • Areas of very much wetter than average in the west, north and east of the State
  • Close to average rainfall around Melbourne and central districts
  • There were areas of serious to severe rainfall deficiencies in western and central districts earlier in the year before May, June and July brought above average rainfall totals across the State
  • In early June, very heavy rainfall was recorded in far east Victoria; this resulted in moderate to major flooding along the Snowy River
  • Victoria had its second wettest September on record, with major flooding recorded in a number of catchments during September, including the Avoca, Glenelg, Wimmera and Loddon rivers
  • Flooding continued during October, with the Ovens River reaching major flood levels
  • Some sites had their highest daily rainfall on record
  • Several sites in the State's northeast had their wettest year on record

Much warmer than average

  • Victoria's fifth-warmest year on record, with the State mean temperature 0.90 °C above average
  • Mean minimum temperatures were warmest on record (1.06 °C above average) and mean maximum temperatures were 0.74 °C above average
  • Apart from the far west of the State, most of Victoria experienced mean temperatures that were very much above average
  • The much warmer than average temperatures at the end of 2015 for Victoria continued into 2016: each of the months from January to September were warmer than average overall and autumn 2016 was Victoria's warmest on record
  • Temperatures during October and November were cooler than average; October was the coolest for Victoria as a whole since 2003
  • A prolonged heatwave affected Victoria in March: persistent heat in northern Victoria exceeded any previous such event in March, with temperatures ten degrees or more above average in those northern areas from 5-9 March
  • In late December, Coldstream had its warmest night (highest daily minimum temperature) on record
  • Sites across the State had their warmest mean daily minimum temperatures on record
  • There were several significant bushfires around the State during the year

Thunderstorms and strong winds

Further information

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Extremes in 2016
Hottest day 45.6 °C at Echuca Aerodrome on 13 Jan
Warmest days on average 24.8 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest days on average 9.4 °C at Falls Creek
Coldest day -4.6 °C at Mount Hotham on 24 Jun
-4.6 °C at Mount Hotham on 13 Jul
Coldest night -8.0 °C at Mount Hotham on 13 Jul
-8.0 °C at Mount Hotham on 14 Jul
Coolest nights on average 3.1 °C at Falls Creek
Warmest nights on average 12.9 °C at Gabo Island Lighthouse
Warmest night 28.9 °C at Mildura Airport on 26 Dec
Warmest on average overall 18.0 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest on average overall 6.3 °C at Falls Creek
Wettest overall 2105.0 mm at Mount Buller
Driest overall 358.6 mm at Mildura Airport
Wettest day 158.6 mm at Mount Hotham on 30 Dec
Strongest wind gust 165 km/h at Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse on 18 Mar

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Monthly maps
Rainfall rankMaximum temperature rankMinimum temperature rank
January Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
February Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
March Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
April Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
May Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
June Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
July Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
August Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
September Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
October Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
November Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
December Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record highest daily rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Tarnagulla 76.6 on 14 Sep 76.2 on 18 Feb 1919 127
Manangatang 89.8 on 23 Jan 87.4 on 20 Jan 1979 102
Bullioh (Hindleton) 92.8 on 9 May 90.8 on 16 Oct 2010 49
Bundoora (Latrobe University) 108.0 on 30 Dec 104.8 on 3 Feb 2005 38
Mount Hotham 158.6 on 30 Dec 131.4 on 5 Sep 2010 24



Record highest annual total rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Dartmouth Reservoir 1406.0 1360.8 in 1931 60 1014.1
Mount Buller 2105.0 1971.4 in 1989 23 1548.6
Hunters Hill 1709.4 1691.0 in 2000 22 1209.6

Highest annual total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
higher
Annual
average
Balmoral (Post Office) 855.8 912.9 in 1889* 617.1
Coleraine (Melville Forest) 826.7 846.2 in 1964* 593.6
Mitta Mitta 1470.4 1532.4 in 1973 1046.4
Apsley (Post Office) 757.8 764.5 in 1973* 571.7
Murchison 745.0 840.4 in 1974* 548.8
Yackandandah 1299.4 1380.2 in 1981* 944.5
Cavendish (Post Office) 801.4 867.2 in 1992* 632.2
Hamilton Airport 839.2 886.6 in 1992* 616.9
Derrinallum (Craigmore) 745.0 912.8 in 1992* 569.1
Kaniva 593.2 612.8 in 1992* 450.1
Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse 1446.8 1490.4 in 1995 1055.3

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported




Highest annual mean daily maximum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Annual
average
Gabo Island Lighthouse 19.3 19.7 in 1895* 17.9

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported




Record highest daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Coldstream 24.7 on 29 Dec 24.4 on 12 Jan 2010 23 7.4



Record highest annual mean daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Kerang 10.6 10.5 in 1988 102 9.4
Ouyen (Post Office) 10.6 = 10.6 in 2009 78 9.7
Laverton RAAF 10.7 10.6 in 2014 72 9.3
Walpeup Research 10.8 = 10.8 in 2014 64 9.9
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 9.4 9.3 in 1981 51 8.4
Kyabram 9.9 9.7 in 2007 49 8.6
Ararat Prison 8.3 = 8.3 in 2011 46 7.0
Lake Eildon 9.0 8.8 in 2010 45 7.9
Melbourne Airport 10.4 = 10.4 in 2007 45 9.6
Essendon Airport 11.0 10.8 in 2014 44 9.3
Castlemaine Prison 9.7 8.7 in 2007 43 7.7
Moorabbin Airport 11.2 11.1 in 2014 43 10.1
Wonthaggi 10.9 10.7 in 2013 42 9.7
Strathbogie 7.2 = 7.2 in 2007 36 6.2
Dartmouth Reservoir 8.8 8.5 in 2011 35 7.6
Bairnsdale Airport 9.2 = 9.2 in 2007 32 8.3
Hamilton Airport 8.5 8.3 in 1988 31 7.6
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) 9.2 8.9 in 1988 31 8.2
Bundoora (Latrobe University) 10.5 = 10.5 in 2007 30 9.6
Wangaratta Aero 9.0 8.8 in 1988 27 7.5
Bendigo Airport 9.4 8.8 in 2014 24 7.9
Cerberus 10.5 10.4 in 2014 24 9.8
Sheoaks 9.2 = 9.2 in 2007 24 8.4
Gelantipy 7.5 = 7.5 in 2007 23 6.7
Coldstream 8.5 8.3 in 2011 21 7.4
Combienbar AWS 9.6 = 9.6 in 2014 21 9.0
Avalon Airport 10.1 = 10.1 in 2007 20 9.3

Highest annual mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Annual
average
Echuca Aerodrome 10.1 10.5 in 1973* 9.3
Ballarat Aerodrome 7.9 8.0 in 1978* 7.1
Mangalore Airport 9.4 9.5 in 1988 8.4
Maryborough 8.9 =8.9 in 1988 8.0
East Sale Airport 9.1 9.3 in 1990 8.2
Longerenong 8.5 8.8 in 1990* 7.9
Scoresby Research Institute 10.5 10.9 in 1988* 9.5

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported




Record highest annual mean temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
East Sale Airport 14.8 = 14.8 in 2014 70 13.9
Wangaratta Aero 15.7 = 15.7 in 2007 27 14.8



Summary statistics for 2016
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean
for
2016
Diff
from
average
Highest
for
2016
Mean
for
2016
Diff
from
average
Lowest
for
2016
Total
for
2016
Average
annual
total
Rank
of
2016
Fraction
of annual
average
North Mallee (district 76)
Mildura Airport 24.8 +1.0 44.5 13 Jan 11.1 +0.8 -1.7 13 Jun 358.6 290.6 high 123%
Ouyen (Post Office) 24.5 +0.8 44.5 23 Feb 10.6 +0.9 0.2 3 Sep 410.4 330.4 high 124%
Walpeup Research 24.2 +1.0 44.3 23 Feb 10.8 +0.9 0.7 25 Aug 394.0 334.0 high 118%
South Mallee (district 77)
Hopetoun Airport 23.5 -0.5 44.3 13 Jan 9.4 +0.7 -2.1 26 Aug 430.2 296.4 high 145%
Swan Hill Aerodrome 23.7 -0.2 45.2 13 Jan 10.1 +0.8 -1.3 26 Aug 362.2 302.1 high 120%
North Wimmera (district 78)
Nhill Aerodrome 22.0 -0.6 42.1 23 Feb 9.2 +0.6 -0.4 12 Jun 471.2 327.1 v high 144%
Warracknabeal Museum 22.5 +0.1 42.7 13 Jan 9.3 +0.6 -1.0 16 Jul 484.3 393.3 high 123%
South Wimmera (district 79)
Edenhope Airport 20.6 -0.6 41.2 8 Mar 9.2 +0.5 -0.5 25 Jun 680.2 485.3 high 140%
Horsham Aerodrome 21.7 -0.5 43.0 13 Jan 8.1 +0.9 -1.5 13 Jun 462.0 370.8 high 125%
Kanagulk 20.5 -0.6 40.8 13 Jan 8.7 +0.6 -0.7 25 Jun 693.8 458.7 v high 151%
Longerenong 21.9 +0.4 43.9 13 Jan 8.5 +0.6 -1.2 13 Jun 507.8 415.6 high 122%
Stawell Aerodrome 20.2 -0.4 40.7 23 Feb 9.2 +0.7 -0.4 12 Jun 641.2 478.2 v high 134%
Lower North (district 80)
Charlton 22.8 -0.3 44.1 13 Jan 9.6 +0.6 -0.8 26 Jun 553.0 366.7 high 151%
Echuca Aerodrome 23.1 +0.8 45.6 13 Jan 10.1 +0.8 -0.8 14 Jun 524.9 426.8 high 123%
Kerang 23.5 +0.6 45.0 13 Jan 10.6 +1.2 -0.7 13 Jun 472.1 373.8 high 126%
Kyabram 22.6 +0.9 44.8 13 Jan 9.9 +1.3 -0.8 26 Jun 627.0 448.0 high 140%
Upper North (district 81)
Bendigo Airport 21.5 +0.4 42.3 13 Jan 9.4 +1.5 -1.7 26 Jun 676.8 514.4 high 132%
Shepparton Airport 22.1 -0.3 44.0 13 Jan 10.0 +1.4 -1.0 26 Jun 640.8 451.6 v high 142%
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 21.8 +0.4 43.4 13 Jan 9.4 +1.0 -1.9 26 Jun 623.8 483.4 high 129%
Lower Northeast (district 82)
Benalla Airport 22.1   43.7 13 Jan 9.5   -1.8 17 Jul 811.1
Corryong Airport 21.8   41.3 13 Jan     -2.9 6 Aug 1088.0 854.9 high 127%
Dartmouth Reservoir 20.7 +0.2 39.1 13 Jan 8.8 +1.2 -2.6 16 Jun 1406.0 1014.1 highest 139%
Hunters Hill 16.6 +0.2 35.2 13 Jan 8.4 +0.5 -2.5 13 Jul 1709.4 1209.6 highest 141%
Strathbogie 18.8 +0.2 39.8 13 Jan 7.2 +1.0 -3.5 30 May 1164.8 964.5 high 121%
Wangaratta Aero 22.4 +0.3 42.7 13 Jan 9.0 +1.5 -2.0 26 Jun 780.8 615.0 high 127%
Upper Northeast (district 83)
Falls Creek 9.4 0.0 25.3 7 Mar 3.1 +0.5 -7.5 13 Jul 1612.6 1273.8 high 127%
Mount Buller 9.6 +0.3 27.7 13 Jan 3.2 +0.4 -7.2 13 Jul 2105.0 1548.6 highest 136%
Omeo 18.6 0.0 35.7 8 Mar 6.3 +0.7 -6.3 15 Jun 917.6 655.5 high 140%
East Gippsland (district 84)
Combienbar AWS 18.8 +0.7 37.6 13 Jan 9.6 +0.6 1.6 25 Jun 745.8 993.4 v low 75%
Gabo Island Lighthouse 19.3 +1.4 34.8 13 Dec 12.9 +0.7 6.2 17 Jul 1026.6 942.4 average 109%
Gelantipy 17.0 +0.5 35.4 13 Jan 7.5 +0.8 -1.4 24 Aug 988.4 796.4 high 124%
Mallacoota 20.3 +0.9 36.8 13 Dec 11.5 +0.7 2.4 16 Jun 1030.2 942.0 high 109%
Mount Nowa Nowa 19.2 +0.3 39.9 13 Jan 10.5 +0.5 2.3 24 Jun 1021.2 845.3 high 121%
Point Hicks (Lighthouse) 19.9 +0.9 35.7 13 Feb 12.4 +0.4 3.8 13 Jul 1121.2 970.2 high 116%
West Gippsland (district 85)
Bairnsdale Airport 20.6 +0.4 39.0 23 Feb 9.2 +0.9 -2.4 17 Jul 773.6 650.0 high 119%
Corner Inlet (Yanakie) 18.9   40.2 23 Feb 10.5   1.6 14 Jun 823.2
East Sale Airport 20.4 +0.8 39.7 23 Feb 9.1 +0.9 -2.5 14 Jun 613.4 598.4 average 103%
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) 20.7 +0.7 40.6 23 Feb 9.2 +1.0 -0.7 17 Jul 813.4 745.2 average 109%
Mount Baw Baw 9.7 +0.3 28.9 13 Jan 3.4 +0.4 -6.6 13 Jul 1696.8 1780.2 average 95%
Nilma North (Warragul) 19.8   42.3 13 Jan 9.4   -2.4 17 Jul 890.6
Pound Creek 19.6   41.2 23 Feb 9.9   -1.0 14 Jun
Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse 17.3 +0.9 33.5 8 Mar 12.6 +1.3 3.8 26 Jul 1446.8 1055.3 v high 137%
Yarram Airport 19.9   41.0 23 Feb 9.2   -2.2 14 Jun 700.2
East Central (district 86)
Bundoora (Latrobe University) 20.6 +0.5 43.1 13 Jan 10.5 +0.9 0.0 26 Jun 813.0 672.5 high 121%
Cerberus 19.6 +0.5 42.5 13 Jan 10.5 +0.7 0.7 17 Jul 646.2 722.9 low 89%
Coldstream 20.7 +0.3 42.6 13 Jan 8.5 +1.1 -3.6 17 Jul
Essendon Airport 20.5 +0.8 43.8 13 Jan 11.0 +1.7 1.1 31 May 615.6 587.9 average 105%
Ferny Creek 16.8   38.9 13 Jan 9.2   0.5 13 Jul 1483.0
Frankston AWS     38.4 13 Jan 12.1 +0.5 3.8 23 Jul
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 20.3   42.2 13 Jan 12.0   3.0 26 Jun 599.6
Melbourne Airport 20.4 +0.6 43.6 13 Jan 10.4 +0.8 1.0 31 May 600.8 542.0 average 111%
Moorabbin Airport 20.4 +0.6 42.9 13 Jan 11.2 +1.1 0.8 17 Jul 712.2 709.3 average 100%
Rhyll 19.2 +0.6 40.2 13 Jan 12.3 +0.6 4.4 13 Jul 681.8 691.8 average 99%
Scoresby Research Institute 20.6 +1.0 42.9 13 Jan 10.5 +1.0 0.6 24 Aug 876.8 859.2 average 102%
Viewbank 20.9 +0.1 43.8 13 Jan 10.7 +0.8 0.0 17 Jul 720.6 656.6 high 110%
Wonthaggi     39.5 23 Feb 10.9 +1.2 2.6 17 Jul
West Central (district 87)
Avalon Airport 20.5 +0.2 44.4 13 Jan 10.1 +0.8 -0.3 17 Jul 526.0 459.9 high 114%
Breakwater (Geelong Racecourse) 20.0   43.7 13 Jan 10.6   0.2 17 Jul 600.2
Laverton RAAF 20.3 +0.6 43.8 13 Jan 10.7 +1.4 0.3 31 May 534.8 536.5 average 100%
Sheoaks 19.3 +0.5 42.2 13 Jan 9.2 +0.8 -1.1 17 Jul 525.2 495.6 average 106%
North Central (district 88)
Castlemaine Prison     40.3 13 Jan 9.7 +2.0 -0.5 12 Jun
Eildon Fire Tower 17.7 -0.2 39.3 13 Jan 8.9 +0.4 0.3 13 Jul 861.8 645.6 high 133%
Lake Eildon 21.1 +0.6 42.5 13 Jan 9.0 +1.1 0.0 5 Aug 943.8 850.0 high 111%
Mangalore Airport 21.3 +0.2 43.2 13 Jan 9.4 +1.0 -2.0 25 Jun 685.0 568.3 high 121%
Maryborough 20.9 +0.4 41.7 13 Jan 8.9 +0.9 -1.9 26 Jun 660.7 528.1 high 125%
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 17.3 +0.5 39.7 13 Jan 8.6 +0.6 -0.5 24 Jul 855.2 688.0 high 124%
Western Plains (district 89)
Ararat Prison 20.0 +0.8 39.8 23 Feb 8.3 +1.3 -1.0 5 Aug 772.3 585.8 v high 132%
Ballarat Aerodrome 18.2 +0.8 39.5 13 Jan 7.9 +0.8 -2.0 26 Jun 740.6 689.9 average 107%
Westmere 19.6   41.9 13 Jan 8.1   -1.6 5 Aug 670.2 520.8 high 129%
West Coast (district 90)
Aireys Inlet 18.9 +0.6 38.6 23 Feb 11.0 +0.4 1.6 13 Jul 714.6 628.8 high 114%
Cape Nelson Lighthouse 17.8 +0.2 36.5 17 Mar 11.7 +0.2 4.6 13 Jul 867.0 709.5 high 122%
Cape Otway Lighthouse 17.5 +0.2 36.0 23 Feb 11.6 +1.0 3.9 13 Jul 982.8 894.2 high 110%
Casterton 19.6 -0.5 38.9 23 Feb 8.8 +0.5 -0.3 24 Aug 843.6 643.3 high 131%
Colac (Mount Gellibrand) 18.5 +0.1 42.0 13 Jan 9.3 +0.5 0.9 13 Jul 679.0 538.8 high 126%
Dartmoor 19.5   39.2 13 Jan 9.0   -0.7 23 Aug 864.2
Hamilton Airport 19.2 0.0 40.9 13 Jan 8.5 +0.9 0.2 24 Aug 839.2 616.9 v high 136%
Mortlake Racecourse 19.6 +0.4 42.0 13 Jan 8.2 +0.7 -1.4 5 Aug 729.2 576.0 v high 127%
Port Fairy AWS 18.4 -0.2 39.7 13 Jan     2.1 26 Jun 600.8 688.0 low 87%
Portland (Cashmore Airport) 17.9 +0.3 37.2 13 Jan 9.8 +0.5 0.4 30 May 1117.0 837.6 v high 133%
Warrnambool Airport NDB 18.8 -0.2 41.5 13 Jan 9.0 +0.5 0.1 5 Aug 907.2 729.2 high 124%

Notes

The Annual climate summary, generally published on the second working day of the year, lists the main features of the weather in Victoria using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 10 am on Wednesday 4 January 2017. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries