Victoria in 2019: warmer and drier than average

Victorian rainfall in 2019 was below average, with most months drier than average. Rainfall totals were much below average in large parts of the State's north and east, and lowest on record in the far northwest. Days were warmer than average across all areas of the State, while nights were warmer than average in much of the State's south and east.

Below average rainfall

  • Total rainfall for the year was below the long-term average across most of Victoria
  • Most of Gippsland, the Mallee, northern and northeastern districts, and parts of the Wimmera and central districts had annual rainfall totals in the driest 10 per cent of records (decile 1)
  • Victoria's rainfall in 2019 was about 28% below average, drier than 2018 and much drier than 2017
  • Rainfall was less than average in all months except May and June, with January, April, October and December being particularly dry in large parts of Victoria
  • Victoria's rainfall in May was above average, with an area of highest on record May rainfall totals west of Ballarat, and around Geelong
  • The wettest day during the year saw 126.0 mm at Falls Creek (Rocky Valley) on 3 May, and on the same day Dederang had its highest daily rainfall on record
  • Some sites had their lowest total rainfall on record, or their lowest total rainfall for at least 20 years, including Gabo Island Lighthouse, where measurements of rainfall started in 1878

Fifth-warmest year on record

  • 2019 was Victoria's fifth-warmest year on record overall, with the State's mean temperature 1.05 °C above average
  • Days were very much warmer than average in all areas except the southwest of the State, where the mean maximum temperature was still above average
  • The State's mean maximum temperature was 1.37 °C above the average, the fourth-highest on record
  • The year started with Victoria's warmest January on record; high temperatures in January were a consequence of a widespread heatwave, as detailed in the Special Climate Statement "Widespread heatwaves during December 2018 and January 2019"
  • In December, the State experienced another severe heatwave and many new maximum temperature records were set
  • The highest temperature in Victoria in 2019 was 47.9 °C, recorded at Hopetoun Airport and Horsham Aerodrome on 20th December; this was also a new December temperature record for the State
  • Many sites had their highest temperature on record
  • Some sites had their highest mean daily maximum temperature on record
  • There were many cool nights in August, September and November, particularly in the west of the State, but the mean minimum temperature was warmer than average in most months and for the year as a whole
  • The State's mean minimum temperature was 0.72 °C above average, though cooler than 2018
  • Some sites had their warmest night (highest daily minimum temperature) on record

Further information

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Extremes in 2019
Hottest day 47.9 °C at Hopetoun Airport on 20 Dec
47.9 °C at Horsham Aerodrome on 20 Dec
Warmest days on average 25.8 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest days on average 10.2 °C at Mount Buller
Coldest day -4.4 °C at Mount Hotham on 13 Jul
-4.4 °C at Mount Hotham on 10 Aug
Coldest night -8.1 °C at Falls Creek on 20 Jun
Coolest nights on average 3.3 °C at Mount Buller
Warmest nights on average 12.3 °C at Point Hicks (Lighthouse)
Warmest night 29.3 °C at Rutherglen Research on 25 Jan
Warmest on average overall 18.3 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest on average overall 6.7 °C at Mount Buller
Wettest overall 1813.9 mm at Falls Creek (Rocky Valley)
Wettest day 126.0 mm at Falls Creek (Rocky Valley) on 3 May
Strongest wind gust 148 km/h at Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse on 14 Jul

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Monthly maps
Rainfall rankMaximum temperature rankMinimum temperature rank
January Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
February Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
March Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
April Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
May Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
June Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
July Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
August Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
September Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
October Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
November Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
December Map of Rainfall deciles Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record highest daily rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Dederang 120.0 on 3 May 116.0 on 12 Nov 1998 54



Record lowest annual total rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Cheltenham Kingston Centre 378.8 442.5 in 1967 89 748.6
Mildura Airport 116.5 121.6 in 1982 73 285.8
Mallacoota 595.2 657.2 in 1980 41 925.6
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 443.2 457.2 in 2006 24 674.9

Lowest annual total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
lower
Annual
average
Gabo Island Lighthouse 535.3 508.4 in 1878* 936.4
Briagolong 346.8 309.7 in 1972* 649.1
Rockbank (Melton) 343.8 329.0 in 1982* 503.1
Mincha 200.2 149.4 in 1982* 364.4
Darriman (Tarralangi) 460.4 456.4 in 1982* 663.4
Wodonga 358.3 296.9 in 1967* 710.7
Ensay 471.8 449.7 in 1997* 700.8

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported




Record highest temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Cape Otway Lighthouse 43.4 on 20 Dec 43.3 on 24 Jan 1982 156 17.3
Kerang 47.6 on 25 Jan 46.9 on 7 Feb 2009 108 22.9
East Sale 44.6 on 25 Jan = 44.6 on 24 Jan 1982 75 19.7
Echuca Aerodrome 46.9 on 25 Jan 46.8 on 7 Feb 2009 63 22.3
Ouyen (Post Office) 47.3 on 20 Dec 46.8 on 7 Feb 2009 63 23.8
Mangalore Airport 46.3 on 25 Jan 46.1 on 7 Feb 2009 61 21.1
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 44.8 on 25 Jan = 44.8 on 7 Feb 2009 55 21.4
Kyabram 47.1 on 25 Jan 46.6 on 7 Feb 2009 54 21.8
Point Hicks (Lighthouse) 43.4 on 21 Nov 42.7 on 9 Jan 1979 53 19.1
Castlemaine Prison 45.0 on 25 Jan 43.9 on 7 Feb 2009 52 19.9
Portland (Cashmore Airport) 43.6 on 20 Dec 43.1 on 16 Feb 1983 38 17.7
Hamilton Airport 45.0 on 20 Dec 44.5 on 7 Feb 2009 37 19.2
Mount Hotham 28.1 on 16 Jan = 28.1 on 16 Jan 2014 30 8.0
Bendigo Airport 45.9 on 25 Jan 45.4 on 7 Feb 2009 29 21.2
Port Fairy AWS 45.2 on 20 Dec 44.3 on 11 Jan 2010 29 18.6
Hunters Hill 38.3 on 16 Jan 37.4 on 30 Jan 2009 27 16.5
Mount Moornapa 43.7 on 25 Jan 43.5 on 17 Jan 2014 27 18.7
Redesdale 46.1 on 25 Jan 45.0 on 7 Feb 2009 27 20.6
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 43.2 on 25 Jan 42.7 on 7 Feb 2009 27 16.9
Cape Nelson Lighthouse 45.1 on 20 Dec 42.4 on 11 Jan 2010 25 17.7
Mount Nowa Nowa 44.5 on 25 Jan 43.4 on 17 Jan 2014 25 19.0
Shepparton Airport 46.2 on 25 Jan 46.1 on 7 Feb 2009 24 22.4
Swan Hill Aerodrome 47.5 on 25 Jan 46.9 on 7 Feb 2009 24 24.0
Horsham Aerodrome 47.9 on 20 Dec 47.4 on 7 Feb 2009 23 22.2



Record lowest daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Viewbank 7.8 on 23 Jun 8.1 on 3 Aug 2017 21 20.9



Record highest annual mean daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
East Sale 21.1 21.0 in 2018 73 19.7
Mildura Airport 25.8 = 25.8 in 2014 72 23.9
Scoresby Research Institute 21.2 = 21.2 in 2014 57 19.7
Melbourne Airport 21.3 = 21.3 in 2007 48 19.9
Strathbogie 19.8 19.7 in 2018 40 18.6
Aireys Inlet 19.8 19.5 in 2018 27 18.4
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 18.4 18.3 in 2014 25 16.9
Coldstream 21.4 = 21.4 in 2014 24 20.5
Shepparton Airport 23.5 23.4 in 2007 22 22.4

Highest annual mean daily maximum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Annual
average
Kerang 24.7 24.9 in 1914* 22.9

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported




Record highest daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Rutherglen Research 29.3 on 25 Jan 29.2 on 24 Dec 1942 103 7.3
Dartmouth Reservoir 25.1 on 26 Jan 24.4 on 25 Jan 1982 42 7.6
Edi Upper 26.2 on 31 Dec 24.5 on 17 Jan 2007 34 8.2



Record highest annual mean temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Annual
average
Kerang 17.5 = 17.5 in 2014 103 16.2
East Sale 15.0 14.8 in 2018 73 13.9
Bairnsdale Airport 15.0 = 15.0 in 2014 35 14.3
Shepparton Airport 16.4 = 16.4 in 2007 22 15.6



Summary statistics for 2019
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean
for
2019
Diff
from
average
Highest
for
2019
Mean
for
2019
Diff
from
average
Lowest
for
2019
Total
for
2019
Average
annual
total
Rank
of
2019
Fraction
of annual
average
North Mallee (district 76)
Mildura Airport 25.8 +1.9 46.8 20 Dec 10.9 +0.5 -1.9 24 Jun 116.5 285.8 lowest 41%
Ouyen (Post Office) 25.4 +1.6 47.3 20 Dec 10.3 +0.6 -0.8 24 Jun 193.8 328.3 v low 59%
Walpeup Research 25.2 +1.9 47.7 20 Dec 10.2 +0.3 -1.0 28 Sep 106.8 331.3 lowest 32%
South Mallee (district 77)
Hopetoun Airport 24.4 +0.4 47.9 20 Dec 8.7 -0.1 -2.9 10 Sep 202.0 292.9 low 69%
Swan Hill Aerodrome 24.8 +0.8 47.5 25 Jan 9.5 +0.2 -1.9 24 Jun 187.2 300.1 low 62%
North Wimmera (district 78)
Kellalac (Warracknabeal Airport) 23.4   46.9 20 Dec 8.2   -1.4 25 Aug 274.6
Nhill Aerodrome 22.8 +0.2 47.1 20 Dec 8.7 0.0 -1.6 17 Sep 288.4 332.9 average 87%
South Wimmera (district 79)
Edenhope Airport 21.4 +0.3 46.5 20 Dec     -1.9 19 Jun
Grampians (Mount William) 13.3 +0.5 36.1 20 Dec 5.4 +0.2 -2.7 17 Sep 1019.4 1155.2 low 88%
Horsham Aerodrome 22.8 +0.6 47.9 20 Dec 7.2 -0.1 -3.1 24 Jun 273.0 363.9 low 75%
Kanagulk 21.3 +0.2 46.8 20 Dec 7.5 -0.6 -3.0 24 Jun 447.6 472.8 average 95%
Longerenong 22.7 +1.1 46.8 20 Dec 7.7 -0.2 -2.3 17 Sep 310.4 414.8 low 75%
Pyrenees (Ben Nevis) 16.8 +0.9 39.8 20 Dec 7.3 +0.1 -1.6 11 Aug 586.6 709.9 low 83%
Stawell Aerodrome 21.1 +0.4 44.7 20 Dec 8.4 -0.1 -2.6 24 Jun 384.6 469.1 average 82%
Lower North (district 80)
Charlton 23.5 +0.3 45.5 20 Dec 8.9 -0.1 -2.2 24 Jun 342.8 360.1 average 95%
Echuca Aerodrome 24.0 +1.7 46.9 25 Jan 9.3 0.0 -2.5 24 Jun 243.2 425.1 v low 57%
Kerang 24.7 +1.8 47.6 25 Jan 10.2 +0.8 -0.8 23 Aug 192.6 371.6 v low 52%
Kyabram 23.5 +1.7 47.1 25 Jan 9.1 +0.5 -2.6 24 Jun
Upper North (district 81)
Bendigo Airport 22.6 +1.4 45.9 25 Jan 8.4 +0.4 -1.9 23 Aug 318.8 503.4 v low 63%
Shepparton Airport 23.5 +1.1 46.2 25 Jan 9.4 +0.7 -2.3 24 Jun 230.8 432.8 v low 53%
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 22.6 +1.2 44.8 25 Jan 9.0 +0.6 -2.0 24 Jun 252.2 478.1 v low 53%
Yarrawonga 24.0 +1.0 45.8 25 Jan 9.4 +0.4 -2.7 23 Jun 256.2 461.0 v low 56%
Lower Northeast (district 82)
Dartmouth Reservoir 21.7 +1.1 40.9 25 Jan 7.9 +0.3 -2.0 26 Jun 749.0 1004.6 v low 75%
Rutherglen Research 23.6 +1.8 45.9 16 Jan 7.6 +0.3 -3.8 22 Jun 343.6 582.5 v low 59%
Strathbogie 19.8 +1.2 41.9 16 Jan 6.4 +0.2 -4.5 24 Jun 647.8 959.8 low 67%
Wangaratta Aero 23.3 +1.1 45.4 25 Jan 7.7 +0.1 -3.6 24 Jun 343.4 605.3 v low 57%
Upper Northeast (district 83)
Mount Buller 10.2 +0.9 29.3 16 Jan 3.3 +0.4 -7.6 20 Jun 1422.6 1547.3 low 92%
Omeo 19.6 +0.9 38.9 25 Jan 5.7 +0.1 -4.6 25 Jun 496.6 637.6 low 78%
East Gippsland (district 84)
Combienbar AWS 19.3 +1.1 40.5 30 Dec 9.4 +0.4 0.4 23 Aug 735.4 981.1 v low 75%
Gabo Island Lighthouse 18.9 +1.0 33.0 12 Feb     6.1 18 Sep 535.3 936.4 v low 57%
Mallacoota 20.2 +0.7 40.7 21 Nov 11.2 +0.3 1.3 27 Aug 595.2 925.6 lowest 64%
Mount Nowa Nowa 19.9 +0.9 44.5 25 Jan 10.3 +0.3 2.4 17 Sep 523.0 802.7 v low 65%
Point Hicks (Lighthouse) 19.8 +0.7 43.4 21 Nov 12.3 +0.3 5.5 25 Jun 758.5 960.2 low 79%
West Gippsland (district 85)
Bairnsdale Airport 21.2 +0.9 45.8 25 Jan 8.7 +0.4 -1.8 26 Jun 408.4 636.9 v low 64%
Corner Inlet (Yanakie) 19.0   43.7 25 Jan 10.0   -0.7 25 Jun 780.4
East Sale 21.1 +1.4 44.6 25 Jan 8.8 +0.6 -3.0 25 Jun 366.2 589.6 v low 62%
East Sale Airport 21.4   45.5 25 Jan 9.0   -3.2 27 Jun 377.6
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) 21.1 +1.0 45.4 25 Jan 8.5 +0.2 -2.5 24 Jun 668.8 733.3 average 91%
Mount Moornapa 20.1 +1.4 43.7 25 Jan 9.4 +0.2 1.6 23 Aug 500.8 823.7 v low 61%
Nilma North (Warragul) 20.2   43.1 25 Jan 8.8   -2.8 25 Jun 972.4
Pound Creek 19.6 +0.1 41.9 25 Jan 9.5 +0.2 -2.3 25 Jun
Yarram Airport 20.4 +0.4 45.7 25 Jan 8.4 -0.1 -3.4 27 Jun 482.8 601.1 low 80%
East Central (district 86)
Coldstream 21.4 +0.9 43.8 25 Jan 7.8 +0.3 -2.0 26 Jun 677.8 732.3 average 93%
Essendon Airport 21.3 +1.5 45.2 25 Jan 10.6 +1.2 1.1 25 Jun 406.0 583.1 v low 70%
Ferny Creek 17.4   39.5 25 Jan 8.8   0.2 10 Aug
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 20.8   43.5 20 Dec 11.7   2.3 30 Aug 374.4
Melbourne Airport 21.3 +1.4 46.0 25 Jan 9.9 +0.3 0.2 30 Aug 359.0 531.3 v low 68%
Moorabbin Airport 20.8 +1.0 44.2 20 Dec 11.0 +0.8 0.3 25 Jun 509.0 702.3 v low 72%
Rhyll 19.4 +0.7 37.7 20 Dec 11.9 +0.1 3.7 24 Jun 642.6 692.6 average 93%
Scoresby Research Institute 21.2 +1.5 43.5 25 Jan 10.1 +0.5 0.0 31 Jul 696.6 851.8 low 82%
Viewbank 21.6 +0.7 44.8 25 Jan 10.2 +0.2 -0.1 30 Aug 506.2 647.9 low 78%
West Central (district 87)
Avalon Airport 21.2 +0.8 45.8 20 Dec 9.7 +0.3 -0.5 24 Jun 379.8 454.8 low 84%
Breakwater (Geelong Racecourse) 20.7   45.1 20 Dec 10.1   0.3 24 Jun 426.8
Laverton RAAF 21.0 +1.3 45.2 20 Dec 10.3 +0.9 0.3 30 Aug 352.8 531.9 v low 66%
North Central (district 88)
Castlemaine Prison 20.9 +1.0 45.0 25 Jan 8.0 +0.3 -3.0 23 Jun 460.0 585.5 low 79%
Eildon Fire Tower 18.6 +0.7 40.7 25 Jan 8.6 +0.1 -0.6 11 Aug
Lake Eildon 21.6 +1.1 43.3 25 Jan     -1.5 24 Jun 612.6 846.9 v low 72%
Mangalore Airport 22.4 +1.3 46.3 25 Jan 8.4 0.0 -2.7 31 Aug 328.6 560.0 v low 59%
Maryborough 21.8 +1.3 44.8 25 Jan 8.4 +0.3 -1.4 24 Jun 348.6 525.3 v low 66%
Puckapunyal Lyon Hill (Defence) 22.0   45.6 25 Jan 9.8   -0.5 19 Jun 312.0
Puckapunyal West (Defence) 21.4   44.8 25 Jan 9.2   0.4 23 Aug 372.2
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 18.4 +1.5 43.2 25 Jan 8.4 +0.3 0.2 11 Aug 443.2 674.9 lowest 66%
Western Plains (district 89)
Ballarat Aerodrome 18.8 +1.4 43.5 20 Dec 7.4 +0.3 -2.5 24 Jun 551.0 686.9 low 80%
Westmere 20.1 +0.1 45.2 20 Dec 7.2 -0.2 -2.7 30 Aug 482.0 512.6 average 94%
West Coast (district 90)
Aireys Inlet 19.8 +1.4 44.7 20 Dec 10.5 -0.1 3.7 11 Aug 525.4 623.7 average 84%
Cape Nelson Lighthouse 17.9 +0.2 45.1 20 Dec 11.4 -0.1 3.2 17 Sep 687.0 706.3 average 97%
Cape Otway Lighthouse 17.6 +0.3 43.4 20 Dec 11.2 +0.6 4.8 10 Aug 883.2 894.8 average 99%
Casterton 20.3 +0.2 44.5 20 Dec 7.8 -0.5 -3.3 24 Jun 581.0 633.8 average 92%
Colac (Mount Gellibrand) 19.0 +0.6 43.8 20 Dec 8.9 0.0 0.9 10 Aug 517.8 538.7 average 96%
Dartmoor 20.0   46.9 20 Dec 8.5   -2.8 24 Jun 640.8 741.9 low 86%
Hamilton Airport 19.8 +0.6 45.0 20 Dec 7.8 +0.1 -2.4 24 Jun 510.6 614.3 low 83%
Mortlake Racecourse 20.3 +1.0 44.0 20 Dec 7.6 0.0 -3.0 24 Jun 615.6 576.4 average 107%
Port Fairy AWS 18.9 +0.3 45.2 20 Dec 10.3 -0.1 0.4 24 Jun 537.0 678.2 v low 79%
Portland (Cashmore Airport) 18.2 +0.5 43.6 20 Dec 9.2 -0.1 -0.7 24 Jun 754.8 839.5 average 90%
Warrnambool Airport NDB 19.0 -0.1 44.3 24 Jan 8.6 0.0 -1.9 24 Jun 724.6 726.1 average 100%

Notes

The Annual climate summary, generally published on the second working day of the year, lists the main features of the weather in Victoria using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 10 am on Monday 6 January 2020. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the rainfall is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries