Australia in June 2016

In brief

  • Australia's second-wettest June on record
  • Wetter than average in most areas except southwest Western Australia
  • Warm nights except in southern Western Australia
  • Fourth-warmest mean minimum on record
  • Days warmer than average in tropics, near the east coast and in Tasmania; cooler than average elsewhere

Temperatures

Australia’s mean daytime maximum temperature during June was close to average (0.38 °C above average). However, this concealed some marked geographic variations, with very warm conditions in the northern tropics, and cooler-than-average conditions in much of southern Australia away from the east coast.

Mean maximum temperatures for June were three to four degrees above average over most of the Top End of the Northern Territory and the Kimberley in Western Australia, and most tropical areas of Australia were at least 1 °C above average. It was the warmest June on record over almost all of this region. Kalumburu, in the far north of Western Australia, had an average maximum for the month of 35.3 °C, which was 1.3 °C higher than the previous highest June average maximum recorded at any Australian station, whilst Darwin (33.2 °C) was 0.8 °C above its previous record. The first week of the month, when Bradshaw (west of Katherine) set an Australian June record with 37.9 °C on the 7th and numerous locations in northwestern Australia also set records, was especially hot, but above average maximum temperatures persisted for almost the entire month. Darwin set a June record (34.6 °C) on the 27th.

In contrast, most of southern mainland Australia, except for areas within 150 kilometres of the east coast, had below average maximum temperatures for June. Temperatures were up to two degrees below average over large areas, especially in inland New South Wales and southern Queensland, outback South Australia and the southern half of Western Australia. New South Wales and South Australia both had their coolest June since 2007. The cool conditions were most pronounced in parts of southern Western Australia, where Kalgoorlie and Norseman both had their coolest average maximum temperature for any month since July 1998. In southeastern Australia, the last week was especially cool. New South Wales had its coldest June day on record on the 26th with a statewide average maximum of 9.56 °C. Tasmania was slightly warmer than normal, as was the east coast south of the tropics.

Minimum temperatures were above average through most of the country, except for southwest Western Australia, with the national mean for the month being 2.22 °C above average, the fourth-highest on record. Increased cloud cover associated with the very wet conditions contributed to the high minimum temperatures.

As with maximum temperatures, minimum temperatures were furthest above normal in the tropics. They were at least three degrees above average in most of the Northern Territory, large parts of inland Queensland, and the Kimberley and northern Interior of Western Australia, locally reaching 4 °C above average in the Kimberley and western Northern Territory. However, records in this region were not as extensive as they were for maximum temperature, being mostly confined to the western Top End and parts of the Kimberley.

Above average sea surface temperatures continued to contribute to very high minimum temperatures on offshore islands. For the second month in succession, new monthly record high minimum temperatures were set for all three tropical States/Territories. Troughton Island (Western Australia) set a new State and national high minimum temperature record with 28.8 °C on the 6th, whilst new records were also set for the Northern Territory (27.6 °C at McCluer Island on the 4th) and equalled for Queensland (27.0 °C at Coconut Island on the 2nd). Tasmania also had a State record with 15.9 °C at Flinders Island Airport on the 5th, and most sites in the eastern half of Tasmania set new June high minimum temperature records between the 5th and 7th.

Whilst conditions were less extreme elsewhere, minimum temperatures were still at least 1 °C above average over most other areas of the country, except for Victoria, coastal South Australia, and the southern half of Western Australia. Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory all had their warmest June nights since 1996, with Queensland being third-highest on record. The only regions with below average minimum temperatures were Western Australia south of a Carnarvon-Kalgoorlie-Eucla line, and a few coastal locations in South Australia.

Mean monthly temperatures for June for Australia were 1.30 °C above average, the sixth-highest on record. Every month of 2016 has had temperatures well above average and the first six months of the year have been 1.38 °C above average, 0.22 °C above the previous record set in 2005. The 12 months from July 2015 to June 2016 (1.28 °C above average) were also the warmest on record.


Areal average temperatures
Maximum Temperature Minimum Temperature Mean Temperature
Rank
(of 107)
Anomaly
(°C)
Comment Rank
(of 107)
Anomaly
(°C)
Comment Rank
(of 107)
Anomaly
(°C)
Comment
Australia 74 +0.38 104 +2.22 4th highest (record +2.69 °C in 1996) 102 +1.30 6th highest
Queensland 68 +0.50 105 +3.12 3rd highest (record +3.69 °C in 1921) 101 +1.81 7th highest
New South Wales 38 −0.55 101 +2.02 7th highest 87 +0.74
Victoria 58 −0.07 73 +0.69 = 71 +0.31
Tasmania = 83 +0.43 103 +1.57 5th highest; highest since 2003 98 +1.00 10th highest
South Australia 46 −0.50 99 +1.92 9th highest; highest since 1996 84 +0.71
Western Australia = 64 +0.26 99 +1.49 9th highest; highest since 1996 = 91 +0.88
Northern Territory 104 +1.78 4th highest (record +3.50 °C in 1996) 103 +3.08 5th highest; highest since 1996 104 +2.43 4th highest (record +3.51 °C in 1996)

Rank ranges from 1 (lowest) to 107 (highest). A rank marked with ’=‘ indicates the value is tied for that rank. Anomaly is the departure from the long-term (1961–1990) average.



Temperature maps
MeanAnomalyDeciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of mean daily maximum temperature Map of mean daily maximum temperature anomalies Map of mean daily maximum temperature deciles
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of mean daily minimum temperature Map of mean daily minimum temperature anomalies Map of mean daily minimum temperature deciles
Mean
daily
temperatures
Map of mean daily temperature Map of mean daily temperature anomalies Map of mean daily temperature deciles

Rainfall

June 2016 was a very wet month over most parts of Australia. It was the second-wettest June on record nationally, with a national average of 49.9 mm (116% above average); only 1923 surpassed it. New South Wales (185% above average) had its third-wettest June on record, whilst Queensland (210% above average) ranked sixth. Tasmania (77% above average) also had a top-ten wettest month for the second month in succession.

Two major events during June, one in the first week and one in the third, provided a large proportion of the month’s rain. Both initially produced widespread rain in the interior of Australia before becoming major rain events on the east coast. The early June event was especially significant, producing major flooding in Tasmania and in parts of coastal New South Wales (further details in Special Climate Statement 57), whilst the second event produced daily totals exceeding 100 mm in severely drought-affected areas south of Longreach. Northwest cloudband activity also contributed to significant rainfall in interior Western Australia and outback South Australia.

June rainfall was very much above average (in the wettest 10% of historical records) over many regions. These included most of New South Wales except for the far west and the Hunter Valley; the eastern half of Tasmania; most of Queensland south of the tropics except for an area extending from the Darling Downs north to Rockhampton; the central and western outback of South Australia; the southern Northern Territory; and a band extending across Western Australia from Port Hedland to the Northern Territory/South Australia border. It was the wettest June on record in a number of regions, including parts of central west Queensland centred on Longreach, a north-south band through central New South Wales from West Wyalong north to Walgett, and an area centred on Giles in the far east of Western Australia.

The only substantial region with below-average rainfall was the southwest of Western Australia, with regions around and east of Perth receiving only about half their average June rainfall. The northern tropics (except for the western half of Cape York Peninsula) were seasonally dry, whilst rainfall was average to slightly above average in most of central and western Victoria, and South Australia south and east of Adelaide.


Area-average rainfall
Rank
(of 117)
Average
(mm)
Departure
from mean
Comment
Australia 116 50.0 +116% 2nd highest (record 57.2 mm in 1923)
Queensland 112 57.8 +210% 6th highest
New South Wales 115 110.4 +185% 3rd highest (record 114.3 mm in 1950)
Victoria 81 77.7 +31%
Tasmania 110 226.5 +77% 8th highest; highest since 2004
South Australia 106 43.5 +129%
Western Australia 92 37.3 +47%
Northern Territory 101 17.6 +156%
Murray-Darling Basin 114 85.8 +156% 4th highest (record 105.9 mm in 2005)

Rank ranges from 1 (lowest) to 117 (highest). A rank marked with ’=‘ indicates the value is tied for that rank. Departure from mean is relative to the long-term (1961–1990) average.


Rainfall maps
TotalsPercentagesDeciles
Total
rainfall
Map of total rainfall Map of percentage of normal rain Map of rainfall deciles


Australian weather extremes during June 2016
Hottest day 37.9 °C at Bradshaw (NT) on the 7th
Coldest day −4.9 °C at Thredbo AWS (NSW) on the 25th
Coldest night −9.0 °C at Liawenee (Tas) on the 1st
Warmest night 28.8 °C at Troughton Island (WA) on the 6th
Wettest day 365.0 mm at Robertson (Caalong Street) (NSW) on the 6th


Notes

The Monthly Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.

Climate Summaries are usually published on the first working day of each month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 1 pm EST on Friday 1 July 2016. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available, especially for rainfall where much more data becomes available as returns are received from volunteers.

Long-term averages in this statement and associated tables are for the period 1961 to 1990 unless otherwise specified.

The system used for calculating areal averages of rainfall was changed in August 2009; the main effect was that current and historical values for Tasmania were increased. Since August 2012, ACORN-SAT has been used for calculating areal averages of temperature; the major change from earlier datasets is that the ACORN-SAT dataset commences in 1910, and hence rankings are calculated using a larger set of years.


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