Australia in November 2022

In brief

  • For Australia as a whole, November rainfall was the 10th-highest on record.
  • Rainfall was above or very much above average for most of Australia, and in the highest 10% of historical observations for much of the northern tropics and large parts of the southern mainland.
  • Area-averaged rainfall was amongst the five highest on record for November (compared with all Novembers since 1900) for Victoria, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory.
  • Rainfall was close to average or below average in the west of Western Australia and the northern half of the New South Wales coast and the south-eastern quadrant of Queensland.
  • Significant flooding affected large areas of eastern Australia in November, following on from major floods earlier in spring.
  • Australia's national area-average mean temperature was 1.17 °C below average for November.
  • Area-average mean maximum temperature for November was 1.65 °C below average nationally, the eighth-lowest on record for November (compared with all Novembers since 1910). The national mean minimum temperature was 0.71 °C below average.
  • Both mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures were below or very much below average across much of mainland Australia, and above to very much above average for the far northern tropics. Tasmania saw close to average mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures for November.

Further discussion and tables of records for each state and the Northern Territory can be found in the individual regional climate summaries, to be released on 5 December 2022.

Temperatures

The national mean temperature for November was 1.17 °C cooler than the 1961–1990 average for Australia as a whole.

Area-average mean maximum temperature for November was 1.65 °C below average nationally, the eighth-lowest on record for November (compared with all Novembers since 1910), while the mean minimum temperature was 0.71 °C below average.

The mean maximum temperature for November was below or very much below average across nearly all of mainland Australia except for the far northern tropics. The mean maximum temperature for the month was above average for the northern tip and east coast of Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, and for the eastern Top End in the Northern Territory. The mean maximum temperature was amongst the ten lowest on record for November for Victoria, New South Wales, and Western Australia.

Mean minimum temperatures were below or very much below average for much of the mainland, covering the south-eastern half of Queensland, New South Wales, northern border regions of Victoria, much of the eastern half of South Australia's pastoral districts, the south-west of the Northern Territory, and most of Western Australia except the northern Kimberley, southern coastal fringe, and south-east. Mean minimum temperatures were above or very much above average for the Top End, the Gulf of Carpentaria coast, and far northern Queensland, as well as some small pockets in the northern Kimberley coast, south-west Victoria, and South Australian coast near Ceduna.

Tasmania saw close to average mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures for November.

Some stations had their coolest November days (mean maximum temperature) or nights (mean minimum temperature) in each of South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia. Some stations in Queensland also had their coolest November days on record, or coolest November on record overall (mean temperature) - but mostly at stations with less than 30 years of observations.

The start of the month saw particularly cool conditions lead to low temperature records in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, and Western Australia, while Queensland also saw some cold days at the end of the month that set station records. 

Later in the month some stations in Western Australia observed record-cool days for November around the 18th.

See significant weather section and individual regional climate summaries (to be published next week) for more detail.

1-month temperature table ending November 2022
Areal average temperatures
  Maximum Temperature Minimum Temperature Mean Temperature
  Rank
(of 113)
Anomaly
(°C)
Comment Rank
(of 113)
Anomaly
(°C)
Comment Rank
(of 113)
Anomaly
(°C)
Comment
Australia 8 −1.65 8th lowest; lowest since 1999 26 −0.71   13 −1.17  
Queensland 11 −1.33   57 −0.01   26 −0.66  
New South Wales = 2 −2.87 equal 2nd lowest (record -4.06 °C in 1916) = 16 −1.35   6 −2.10 6th lowest; lowest since 1999
Victoria 5 −2.36 5th lowest; lowest since 1992 61 +0.12   21 −1.11  
Tasmania = 41 −0.49   44 −0.60   46 −0.54  
South Australia 20 −1.86   38 −0.62   24 −1.23  
Western Australia 11 −1.45   = 12 −1.33   8 −1.38 8th lowest; lowest since 1981
Northern Territory 18 −1.50   55 −0.28   = 30 −0.88  

Rank ranges from 1 (lowest) to 113 (highest). A rank marked with ’=‘ indicates the value is tied for that rank. Anomaly is the departure from the long-term (1961–1990) average.

Rainfall

November rainfall was the 10th-highest on record for Australia as a whole, with the national area-average 76% above the 1961–1990 average.

November rainfall was below average for areas in inland north-western Western Australia and an area extending along the northern half of the New South Wales coast and across south-east Queensland.

Rainfall was above or very much above average for most of Australia, and in the highest 10% of historical observations compared to all Novembers since 1900 for the west of Cape York Peninsula and parts of Queensland's Gulf Country, most of the north and west of the Northern Territory, much of the Kimberley, northern Pilbara, and northern Interior District in Western Australia. Rainfall was also in the highest 10% of observations for central and southern New South Wales inland of the ranges, much of Victoria, and along the south coast of South Australia and Western Australia.

Area-averaged rainfall was amongst the five highest on record for November (compared with all Novembers since 1900) for Victoria, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory. A large number of stations in Victoria and southern and central New South Wales inland of the ranges observed their highest November rainfall total on record, including some stations with more than 100 years of observations. Similarly, some stations in the Kimberley in Western Australia also had their wettest November on record.

During November a large number of stations set daily rainfall records across south-eastern Australia, particularly in New South Wales on the tablelands and inland slopes on the western side of the Great Dividing Range. Most of these station records were observed for totals during the 24 hours to 9 am on the 1st, 13th, or 14th. A number of stations in the north also set daily rainfall records for November, including in the western and central Kimberley, the north and west of the Northern Territory, and along the east coast of Queensland.

Significant flooding affected large areas of eastern Australia in November, following on from major floods earlier in spring. Details of some of these events are provided below.

 

Significant weather and records

Ongoing significant flooding affecting eastern Australia

Significant flooding continued to affect much of eastern Australia in November, following on from major floods earlier in spring. Floodwaters continued to move downstream in the Murray–Darling Basin during the month, with renewed rises in river levels from rain during the month.

At the start of the month, a cold front interacted with moist tropical air to bring widespread rain to inland New South Wales and eastern Queensland. A number of sites around Oberon and Canberra set November daily rainfall records for the 24 hours to 9 am on the 1st. The rain resulted in major flooding along the Lachlan and Murrumbidgee rivers, with evacuations ordered for Forbes and parts of Wagga Wagga. Further north, major flood levels were reached at this time along parts of the Namoi, Barwon, and Darling rivers.

On the 13th, thunderstorms in a cloudband affected much of the Central West of New South Wales. Forbes Airport AWS recorded 110.2 mm of rain in 6 hours on the 13th. The Forbes Airport AWS daily total of 118.0 mm to 9 am 14 November was a record for any month at Forbes, with observations starting in 1875. Many other sites in the region also set November daily rainfall records. The storms caused flash flooding across the Central West. In Eugowra, two people died and at least 225 homes were damaged, along with many businesses.

Floodwaters continued downstream in the Murray–Darling Basin. By the end of the month, towns affected by major flooding included Brewarrina, Bourke, Condobolin, Euabalong, Hillston, Hay, Balranald, and Wentworth.

A Special Climate Statement on the ongoing floods is being prepared and will be published in due course.

 

Severe thunderstorms in South Australia, also Alice Springs and Victoria

On the 12th, severe thunderstorms, embedded in a cloudband, struck southern South Australia with up to 423,000 lightning strikes and wind gusts up to 109 km/h. A number of sites in the Mount Lofty Ranges and on the Fleurieu Peninsula set daily rainfall records for November with totals for the 24 hours to 9 am on the 13th. The storms left up to 160,000 customers without power, affecting some premises in metropolitan Adelaide for several days. An interstate transmission line was also damaged. The South Australia State Emergency Service attended 1,000 calls for assistance.

The same system brought thunderstorms to the north-west of South Australia on the 11th, and a severe thunderstorm struck Alice Springs on the 12th. On the 13th there were strong winds, heavy rain and localised flash flooding in parts of Victoria, including the Mornington Peninsula. A few sites west of Melbourne received record-high daily rainfall totals for November.

 

Cold outbreaks over south-eastern Australia

During the month, there were several outbreaks of cold air over south-eastern Australia. On the 1st a particularly cool air mass brought more than 30 cm of snow to the Victorian Alps, while there were reports of dustings of snow at non-alpine sites in Victoria near Ballarat and the Grampians (Gariwerd), at Mount Bryan in South Australia, and in Tasmania on Mount Mawson and kunyani (Mount Wellington pinnacle). Snow was reported on the 2nd in New South Wales around Bathurst and Lithgow. A number of sites across Victoria, New South Wales, and eastern South Australia had record-low daily maximum temperatures for November.

A second cold air outbreak moved northwards up the east coast on the 15th and 16th, with reports of snow at Vinces Saddle in Tasmania, on alpine peaks in Victoria, and near Cooma and Orange in New South Wales.

A third cold air outbreak occurred between the 19th and 21st, with wind gusts over 100 km/h at a number of locations and over 15 cm of snow at alpine peaks.

The cold air outbreaks contributed to many sites in south-eastern Australia having record-low mean maximum temperatures for November. New South Wales and Victoria had their third- and fifth-lowest area-averaged mean maximum temperature on record for November. For Australia as a whole the November mean maximum temperature was the eighth-lowest on record and the lowest since 1999.

 

Thunderstorms across the tropics

Towards the end of the month monsoon-like conditions started to develop across tropical regions. This resulted in increased thunderstorm activity from the Kimberley in Western Australia, across the Top End of the Northern Territory, and into northern Queensland. In the Kimberley, daily rainfall totals of 50 to 100 mm were reported for the 24 hours to 9 am on the 23rd, setting daily rainfall records for November at some sites. Maximum temperatures on the 22nd were more than 8 degrees below the November average under the cloudband.

The highest daily rainfall from storms around Darwin were observed during the 24 hours to 9 am on the 28th, with some sites receiving 100 to 150 mm. Daily totals of 50 to 100 mm were reported across northern Queensland from 28th to the 30th, although only a few sites set November records.

 

1-month rainfall table ending November 2022
Area-average rainfall
  Rank
(of 123)
Average
(mm)
Departure
from mean
Comment
Australia 114 57.1 +76% 10th highest
Queensland 99 61.7 +35%  
New South Wales 111 74.2 +66%  
Victoria 119 101.9 +96% 5th highest; highest since 1954
Tasmania 106 132.1 +31%  
South Australia 102 27.2 +78%  
Western Australia 120 39.5 +121% 4th highest (record 58.9 mm in 1914)
Northern Territory 119 85.1 +108% 5th highest; highest since 2011
Murray-Darling Basin 110 72.0 +79%  

Rank ranges from 1 (lowest) to 123 (highest). A rank marked with ’=‘ indicates the value is tied for that rank. Departure from mean is relative to the long-term (1961–1990) average.

Australian weather extremes during November 2022
Hottest day 43.8 °C Fitzroy Crossing Aero (WA) on the 4th
Coldest day −2.0 °C Falls Creek (Vic.) on the 21st
Coldest night −7.0 °C Mount Hotham (Vic.) on the 16th
Warmest night 31.2 °C Ngukurr Airport (NT) on the 1st
Wettest day 240.0 mm Whyanbeel Valley (Qld.) on the 5th

 

Creative Commons By Attribution logo Unless otherwise noted, all maps, graphs and diagrams in this page are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence

Climate