Remote Islands and Antarctica in October 2019

Australia's Indian Ocean islands

  • There was very little rain on the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, with the airport reporting just 0.8 mm in total for the month, its lowest total October precipitation since 1946
  • The mean maximum temperature was a little below average at Cocos Islands Airport, but the mean minimum temperature was half a degree above average
  • Christmas Island Airport reported only 0.4 mm of rainfall for the month, one of the driest Octobers on record
  • Both daytime and night-time temperatures were about 0.3 °C above average on Christmas Island
  • Low October rainfall has often been recorded on the Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Christmas Island when a positive Indian Ocean Dipole is in place, as is the case this year

Australia's Pacific Ocean islands

  • Lord Howe Island had a cold month with many chilly mornings, including an October record of four mornings below 10 °C
  • Lord Howe Island had its lowest October mean daily minimum temperature on record at 1.4 °C below average
  • Rainfall on Lord Howe Island was about two-thirds of the October average, and total rainfall so far this year is very much below average
  • The mean maximum temperature for the first ten months of the year have been record warm at Lord Howe Island
  • Norfolk Island Airport's 97.2 mm was the wettest October since 1998, but total rainfall over the last ten months is still below average
  • Temperatures were a little below average on Norfolk Island during October, but the first ten months of the year have been warmer than average

Australia's Antarctic and sub-Antarctic territories

  • Mawson's mean daily maximum temperature was 2.9 °C above average and its equal-second warmest October; the mean minimum temperature was 2.0 °C above average
  • Maximum temperatures at Davis were almost a degree above average, but minimum temperatures were close to average
  • A run of cold weather early in the month ensured Casey was a little cooler than average overall
  • Typical of the time of year, the second half of the month was much warmer than the first half at Mawson, Davis and Casey
  • The first ten months of the year have been warmer than average at Mawson, close to average at Davis and cooler than average at Casey
  • Temperatures at Macquarie Island were slightly warmer than average
  • Macquarie Island recorded about two-thirds of its average October precipitation
  • The year so far has been warmer and much wetter than average on Macquarie Island, although not as warm or wet as the first ten months of 2018

Further information

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Highest October total precipitation for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
higher
Average for
October
Norfolk Island Aero 97.2 333.2 in 1998 83.5



Lowest October total precipitation for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
lower
Average for
October
Cocos Island Airport 0.8 0.6 in 1946 80.7



Highest October mean daily maximum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Average for
October
Mawson -7.0 =-7.0 in 1988 -9.9



Record lowest October mean daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
October
Lord Howe Island Aero 14.3 14.4 in 1992 30 15.7



Lowest October mean temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
lower
Average for
October
Lord Howe Island Aero 17.5 =17.5 in 1994 18.4



Summary statistics for October 2019
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Precipitation
(millimetres)
Mean for
October
2019
Diff
from
average
Highest for
October
2019
Mean for
October
2019
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
October
2019
Total for
October
2019
Average
for
October
Rank of
October
2019
Fraction of
October
average
Offshore Islands (district 200)
Christmas Island Aero 27.3 +0.4 28.6 30th 23.0 +0.3 22.4 9th 0.4 73.8 v low 1%
Cocos Island Airport 28.6 -0.1 29.4 31st 24.8 +0.5 23.6 8th 0.8 80.7 v low 1%
Lord Howe Island Aero 20.9 -0.1 23.8 27th 14.3 -1.4 9.2 12th 68.6 99.2 low 69%
Norfolk Island Aero 20.0 -0.2 22.5 19th 14.6 -0.2 12.1 3rd 97.2 83.5 average 116%
Antarctica and Macquarie Island (district 300)
Casey -7.8 +0.2 -2.5 30th -15.4 -0.4 -24.1 1st 7.8 15.5 low 50%
Davis -8.0 +1.0 1.3 19th -15.4 0.0 -24.7 1st 0.8 4.4 v low 18%
Macquarie Island 6.0 +0.2 7.8 26th 2.3 +0.3 -0.4 27th 53.8 78.1 low 69%
Mawson -7.0 +2.9 0.2 21st -14.0 +2.4 -22.6 12th
Note: Precipitation values from Casey and Davis should be used with caution.

Daily maximum temperatures for October 2019
Offshore Islands (200)12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Christmas Island Aero26.526.726.927.326.626.327.026.826.627.427.527.327.427.727.426.826.827.627.327.527.527.227.127.527.828.027.527.827.728.627.7
Cocos Island Airport28.529.428.528.028.328.028.328.428.428.828.728.929.028.528.528.728.428.328.728.328.728.928.628.628.828.729.229.028.729.4
Lord Howe Island Aero19.719.620.121.522.219.721.122.019.619.419.520.019.119.420.221.322.520.321.221.320.220.720.821.922.722.923.821.021.8
Norfolk Island Aero19.818.218.419.518.720.020.520.620.720.418.919.818.918.819.819.720.221.822.522.318.919.820.218.520.420.420.621.920.219.720.2
Antarctica and Macquarie Island (300)12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Casey-12.8-10.6-8.3-9.4-12.8-13.5-12.9-16.2-13.6-12.4-6.8-8.0-4.9-3.8-9.8-8.4-11.0-5.5-7.9-4.5-4.4-2.5-3.4-4.9-6.1-5.6-5.4-6.0-3.3-2.5-3.9
Davis-14.7-12.4-11.7-11.8-13.4-12.4-15.4-15.1-18.2-13.5-12.1-15.6-15.6-15.1-17.3-7.3-4.9-0.81.3-1.0-2.9-0.5-2.0-2.90.3-0.2-1.4-4.1-4.6-0.8-2.4
Macquarie Island5.65.75.95.35.56.06.06.35.64.96.67.57.46.17.77.77.47.86.66.64.04.95.25.27.17.83.85.36.03.95.1
Mawson-10.8-5.7-6.3-7.4-12.8-13.3-9.3-10.5-4.6-12.8-14.5-14.3-13.9-16.1-10.1-10.1-6.4-5.9-1.0-1.40.2-2.6-4.1-5.2-4.9-2.6-2.0-1.2-5.1-2.7-0.4
Values are the maximum temperature, usually in the 24 hours from 9 am on the day indicated,
and typically occurred in the afternoon of that day.
Temperatures coloured according to their difference
from the long-term average for the period
-10.0 -9.0 -8.0 -7.0 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 +1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0 +6.0 +7.0 +8.0 +9.0 +10.0 °C Grey outline marks highest
and lowest for the period

Daily minimum temperatures for October 2019
Offshore Islands (200)12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Christmas Island Aero22.622.522.823.023.122.522.622.622.422.722.723.123.123.123.223.223.022.422.623.023.423.523.923.623.523.122.623.222.823.223.4
Cocos Island Airport24.724.825.025.224.125.024.723.624.724.725.024.825.225.124.824.724.624.524.725.425.525.525.324.924.224.825.124.9
Lord Howe Island Aero15.212.311.79.416.814.915.818.316.515.011.69.214.214.214.79.218.616.59.915.215.413.313.710.812.518.317.616.817.2
Norfolk Island Aero15.513.612.113.612.112.914.515.315.817.515.014.715.515.715.414.512.414.118.017.715.614.215.113.513.915.212.712.814.715.314.6
Antarctica and Macquarie Island (300)12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Casey-24.1-19.5-15.5-12.4-17.0-19.2-21.1-19.3-22.4-18.9-21.1-17.9-13.6-10.1-10.9-15.0-17.8-21.2-15.2-19.8-11.0-7.1-5.4-9.2-13.1-9.5-12.0-12.8-17.1-14.5-13.8
Davis-24.7-22.9-19.8-20.0-22.3-18.7-19.1-24.0-23.9-23.8-20.1-18.2-20.5-20.7-24.0-23.1-17.5-8.9-5.9-8.3-14.1-12.2-7.5-9.5-6.8-4.1-5.4-6.4-11.4-8.2-5.6
Macquarie Island-0.21.32.31.12.83.12.41.60.62.42.83.74.54.83.73.13.95.42.81.11.01.91.61.84.2-0.4-0.41.52.01.4
Mawson-20.4-17.4-12.3-13.5-16.7-17.7-19.2-19.2-18.4-18.1-20.5-22.6-19.7-22.2-20.6-18.3-12.9-11.1-8.9-6.6-7.8-10.6-9.9-9.0-12.3-10.1-6.6-6.5-7.8-7.8-8.0
Values are the minimum temperature, usually in the 24 hours to 9 am on the day indicated,
and typically occurred that morning.
Temperatures coloured according to their difference
from the long-term average for the period
-10.0 -9.0 -8.0 -7.0 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 +1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0 +6.0 +7.0 +8.0 +9.0 +10.0 °C Grey outline marks highest
and lowest for the period

Daily precipitation for October 2019
Offshore Islands (200)12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Christmas Island Aero - - - - - - - - - - - 0.2 0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Cocos Island Airport - - - -
0.2 - 0.4 0.2 - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - -
-
- -
Lord Howe Island (Milky Way) 0.6 - - - - 29.6 0.8 - 4.4 0.4 2.0 - 9.2 13.6 - - - 4.0 - - - 0.4 - - - - 2.0 6.4 - - -
Lord Howe Island Aero 0.6 - - - - 30.4 0.8 0.2 5.4 0.4 0.2 - 9.8 9.6 - - - 6.2 0.4 - - 0.2
- - - 1.6 2.6 0.2

Norfolk Island Aero 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.2 -
3.8 - - - 28.4 5.8 - 33.0 - 0.4 0.4 - - - 15.2 1.4 - - - - - - 7.2 0.2 -
Antarctica and Macquarie Island (300)12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Casey 0.2 - - 2.2 3.4 - 0.2 - - 0.6 - - - 0.4 0.6 0.2 - - - - - - - - - -
-
- -
Davis - - - - - 0.2 0.4 - - - - - - - 0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Macquarie Island 4.0 1.6 0.2
2.0 0.2 - - 2.0 0.8 - 0.4 - - 6.4 0.8 0.2 - - 3.8 7.0 6.0 3.6 0.2 4.0 1.2 1.0 1.2 3.8 2.0
Most values are the precipitation in the 24 hours to 9 am on the day indicated. Days marked with → are part of a longer accumulation, which is shown on the final day.
Values over 100 mm have been rounded to the nearest whole millimetre.
Days marked with - have a precipitation report of zero; days left blank have no precipitation report (which often indicates no precipitation fell).
Precipitations coloured
according to the amount
0 1.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 25.0 50.0 100 150 200 300 400 600 millimetres

Map of the areas covered by this summary

Notes

The Monthly climate summary, generally published on the first working day of each month, lists the main features of the weather in Remote Islands and Antarctica using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 2 pm on Friday 1 November 2019. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the precipitation is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average precipitation.

The Rank indicates how precipitation this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low precipitation is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much precipitation has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries