Remote Islands and Antarctica in January 2019

Australia's Indian Ocean islands

  • Temperatures on the Cocos (Keeling) Islands were above average for most of the month, but the 28th was relatively cool, as were the mornings of the 21st, 27th and 28th
  • Overall, daytime temperatures at Cocos Islands Airport were almost a degree warmer than average, whilst night-time temperatures were half a degree warmer than average
  • Several bursts of monsoonal rain from the 20th onward, including 73.8 mm in the 24 hours to 9 am on the 28th, ensured that Cocos Islands Airport had more rainfall than usual for the month
  • Christmas Island Airport had its highest January temperature on record with 31.6 °C on the 19th, with the 18th (30.9 °C) and 20th (31.4 °C) also exceeding the previous record January record set in 2016
  • Observing equipment at Christmas Island Airport was not working for the first half of the month, so total rainfall and average temperatures cannot be reliably calculated

Australia's Pacific Ocean islands

  • Lord Howe Island Airport had its driest January on record with just 1 mm of rainfall for the whole month, well below the previous record from 2014 and less than 1% of the long-term average; this follows the driest December on record
  • It was also the warmest January on record for Lord Howe Island, with the mean daily maximum at the airport 2.6 °C above average and more than half a degree warmer than the previous record from 2010, and the mean daily minimum equalling the record from 2017 at 1.5 °C above average
  • Lord Howe Island's overall mean temperature was a record 25.1 °C, which is 2.1 °C above average, 0.6 °C warmer than the previous January record set in 2017, and the warmest month for any time of year (edging out February 2017)
  • Norfolk Island's rainfall of 4.4 mm for the month was the second-driest January (behind 1946), and follows the second-driest December on record
  • The mean daily maximum temperature on Norfolk Island was more than a degree above the January average, and the mean daily minimum was almost a degree warmer than average

Australia's Antarctic and sub-Antarctic territories

  • Temperatures were relatively mild at Mawson in the middle of the month, but a spate of cold weather in the final weeks meant the mean maximum temperature was only 0.3 °C warmer than average and the mean minimum temperature was 0.1 °C cooler than average
  • Cold weather from the 20th onwards meant temperatures at Davis were a little below average overall
  • Most days were relatively mild at Casey and the mean maximum temperature was half a degree above average, but cold nights in the first fortnight of the month gave a mean minimum temperature a little below average
  • Macquarie Island was a little warmer than average by day, and close to average by night
  • Rainfall on Macquarie Island was well above average, with precipitation on every day of the month

Further information

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Record lowest January total precipitation
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
January
Lord Howe Island Aero 1.0 12.8 in 2014 31 107.6

Lowest January total precipitation for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
lower
Average for
January
Norfolk Island Aero 4.4 3.7 in 1946 87.3



Record highest January temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
January
Christmas Island Aero 31.6 on the 19th 30.7 on the 26th in 2016 46 28.0



Record highest January mean daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
January
Lord Howe Island Aero 27.9 27.3 in 2010 30 25.3



Record highest January mean daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
January
Lord Howe Island Aero 22.2 = 22.2 in 2017 30 20.7



Record highest January mean temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
January
Lord Howe Island Aero 25.1 24.5 in 2017 30 23.0



Summary statistics for January 2019
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Precipitation
(millimetres)
Mean for
January
2019
Diff
from
average
Highest for
January
2019
Mean for
January
2019
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
January
2019
Total for
January
2019
Average
for
January
Rank of
January
2019
Fraction of
January
average
Offshore Islands (district 200)
Cocos Island Airport 30.5 +0.8 31.8 19th 25.4 +0.5 22.6 21st 221.2 164.5 high 134%
Lord Howe Island Aero 27.9 +2.6 29.8 21st 22.2 +1.5 18.9 20th 1.0 107.6 lowest 1%
Norfolk Island Aero 25.8 +1.2 28.0 30th 20.0 +0.8 18.4 2nd 4.4 87.3 v low 5%
Antarctica and Macquarie Island (district 300)
Casey 2.7 +0.4 6.0 28th -2.7 -0.2 -7.5 11th 49.8 11.0 highest 453%
Davis 3.1 -0.1 7.7 10th -1.4 -0.2 -6.8 29th 0.2 1.9 low 11%
Macquarie Island 9.0 +0.2 11.7 16th 5.3 0.0 2.4 23rd 134.2 88.1 v high 152%
Mawson 2.7 +0.2 5.6 17th -2.8 -0.1 -7.2 26th
Note: Precipitation values from Casey and Davis should be used with caution.
Observing equipment at Christmas Island Airport was not working for the first half of the month, so total rainfall and average temperatures cannot be reliably calculated

Daily maximum temperatures for January 2019
Offshore Islands (200)12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Christmas Island Aero30.129.830.931.631.430.728.625.830.328.626.827.528.927.828.428.9
Cocos Island Airport30.530.630.729.230.431.130.329.830.531.131.531.331.031.130.831.030.930.631.829.630.829.731.031.031.229.129.727.930.030.430.7
Lord Howe Island Aero25.926.226.827.427.027.527.327.128.127.127.227.327.128.326.127.127.428.228.928.429.828.229.528.529.029.229.627.928.728.828.7
Norfolk Island Aero24.224.724.725.126.225.925.425.425.625.826.224.925.925.725.625.125.625.826.326.526.726.025.625.925.825.226.226.426.728.026.5
Antarctica and Macquarie Island (300)12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Casey0.62.63.92.84.52.81.41.61.12.84.55.03.72.23.43.71.92.61.0-1.11.63.43.02.32.73.96.04.81.8-0.9
Davis5.33.03.42.52.30.71.82.54.67.74.55.86.04.06.05.35.83.43.22.32.03.80.70.62.1-0.40.31.31.52.42.3
Macquarie Island10.29.57.98.49.69.18.48.89.37.39.310.810.18.48.911.710.58.98.27.39.07.99.88.56.98.79.59.69.79.0
Mawson1.93.01.23.13.01.93.12.13.13.85.53.15.33.64.05.05.64.02.40.32.84.32.22.20.41.32.72.5-0.22.2-0.3
Values are the maximum temperature, usually in the 24 hours from 9 am on the day indicated,
and typically occurred in the afternoon of that day.
Temperatures coloured according to their difference
from the long-term average for the period
-10.0 -9.0 -8.0 -7.0 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 +1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0 +6.0 +7.0 +8.0 +9.0 +10.0 °C Grey outline marks highest
and lowest for the period

Daily minimum temperatures for January 2019
Offshore Islands (200)12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Christmas Island Aero22.022.823.323.523.721.422.222.822.323.323.123.122.523.9
Cocos Island Airport25.825.625.723.524.424.725.824.526.427.026.526.626.926.626.325.726.326.126.324.622.626.025.225.825.225.123.222.924.326.024.7
Lord Howe Island Aero21.721.822.322.522.522.522.222.723.023.121.522.821.222.120.921.120.821.923.018.921.323.622.719.421.223.824.123.523.923.523.9
Norfolk Island Aero18.918.419.019.119.520.319.919.719.420.020.921.020.520.719.619.118.720.619.319.820.121.520.219.620.020.818.820.520.621.821.5
Antarctica and Macquarie Island (300)12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Casey-5.5-3.8-2.8-4.0-0.3-1.9-2.6-5.5-6.9-7.5-2.5-1.1-1.1-2.3-1.3-1.0-1.6-1.2-2.4-3.7-3.1-2.9-1.4-0.7-2.8-4.4-1.3-2.2-1.1-2.4
Davis-2.7-1.6-2.5-1.6-0.7-2.1-1.6-1.80.71.70.20.00.80.7-1.0-0.30.70.3-1.6-0.7-0.7-0.4-1.1-2.8-4.2-2.0-2.2-5.0-6.8-3.7-1.8
Macquarie Island7.15.84.73.95.56.74.94.67.34.82.84.17.86.46.35.85.96.66.43.42.84.02.44.45.96.04.46.36.95.46.2
Mawson-1.3-1.5-3.1-2.7-5.4-4.8-3.3-3.8-0.50.11.0-0.4-0.1-2.80.0-0.4-0.6-2.9-2.7-5.3-2.6-4.0-3.5-3.6-5.2-7.2-4.6-6.0-2.9-3.5-3.4
Values are the minimum temperature, usually in the 24 hours to 9 am on the day indicated,
and typically occurred that morning.
Temperatures coloured according to their difference
from the long-term average for the period
-10.0 -9.0 -8.0 -7.0 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 +1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0 +6.0 +7.0 +8.0 +9.0 +10.0 °C Grey outline marks highest
and lowest for the period

Daily precipitation for January 2019
Offshore Islands (200)12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Christmas Island Aero - - 8.8 23.4 22.2 4.8 27.4 12.6 12.4 11.6 27.8 11.4
Cocos Island Airport - -
1.0 1.8 1.2 - 5.6 - 0.4 - - - - - 0.2
- - 14.4 57.8 9.4 9.4 10.4 18.6
11.2 73.8 4.6 0.2 1.2
Lord Howe Island (Milky Way) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lord Howe Island Aero - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1.0 - - - - - -
Norfolk Island Aero - - - - - - - - - - - - 1.2 - 2.8 - - - - - - - - - - 0.4 - - - - -
Antarctica and Macquarie Island (300)12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Casey - 0.6 - - - - - -
- - 0.4 - - - - 0.6 - - - - - - - - 4.0 - 2.2 - - 42.0
Davis
- - - - - 0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Macquarie Island 10.4 3.8 5.8 2.6 2.4 1.2 1.4 4.6 2.4 0.4 10.0 0.6 9.2 0.2 6.0 0.2 0.6 3.2 0.6 2.8 7.6 8.6 7.2 4.8 3.2 6.4 0.2 5.2 5.2 5.0 12.4
Most values are the precipitation in the 24 hours to 9 am on the day indicated. Days marked with → are part of a longer accumulation, which is shown on the final day.
Values over 100 mm have been rounded to the nearest whole millimetre.
Days marked with - have a precipitation report of zero; days left blank have no precipitation report (which often indicates no precipitation fell).
Precipitations coloured
according to the amount
0 1.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 25.0 50.0 100 150 200 300 400 600 millimetres

Map of the areas covered by this summary

Notes

The Monthly climate summary, generally published on the first working day of each month, lists the main features of the weather in Remote Islands and Antarctica using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 2 pm on Friday 1 February 2019. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the precipitation is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average precipitation.

The Rank indicates how precipitation this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low precipitation is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much precipitation has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries