Greater Adelaide in October 2019: drier than average with warm days

Rainfall in October was below average across most of Adelaide and the Hills and particularly dry in the city's northern suburbs. Despite some cooler than average days through the middle of the month, several very hot days resulted in above average mean maximum temperatures for the month as a whole. Night-time temperatures were also warmer than average.

Drier than average

  • Driest October for the Greater Adelaide region since 2015
  • Sites across Adelaide and the Hills had generally below average rainfall for the month
  • Adelaide (West Terrace / ngayirdapira) had eight rain days during October 2019, three fewer than the site's long-term average for October
  • Rainfall totals ranged from 24% of average at Edinburgh to 80% of average at Mount Lofty

Warmer than average days

  • Daytime temperatures were warmer than average in Adelaide and the Hills
  • The mean maximum temperature at Adelaide (West Terrace / ngayirdapira) was cooler than October 2018, but still 2.4 °C above the long-term average
  • The hottest day in the city was on the 31st, when Edinburgh RAAF and Parafield Airport reached 38.9 °C and many sites around the city exceeded 35 °C
  • Mean maximum temperatures ranged from 1.7 °C above average at Kuitpo Forest Reserve to 3.7 °C above average at Mount Lofty
  • Night-time temperatures were also warmer than average overall
  • There were particularly warm nights on the 2nd, 24th and 31st, when minimum temperatures at several sites didn't drop below 20 °C
  • Mean minimum temperatures ranged from 0.5 °C above average at Parafield to 1.9 °C above average at Rosedale

Adelaide (West Terrace / ngayirdapira)

  • Total rainfall for Adelaide (West Terrace / ngayirdapira) was 15.6 mm, which is 35% of the long-term average
  • The mean daily maximum temperature for Adelaide (West Terrace / ngayirdapira) was 23.8 °C, which is 2.4 °C above the long-term average
  • The warmest day was 37.2 °C on the 31st, and the coolest day was on the 8th when the temperature reached 16.8 °C
  • The mean daily minimum temperature for Adelaide (West Terrace / ngayirdapira) was 12.3 °C, which is 1.2 °C above the long-term average
  • The coldest morning was 6.4 °C on the 10th, and the warmest morning was on the 31st when the minimum temperature was 23.6 °C

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries

Extremes in October 2019
Hottest day 38.9 °C at Edinburgh RAAF and Parafield Airport on the 31st
Warmest days on average 25.7 °C at Parafield Airport
Coolest days on average 18.7 °C at Mount Lofty
Coldest day 10.2 °C at Mount Lofty on the 8th
Coldest night 1.0 °C at Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) on the 9th
Coolest nights on average 8.4 °C at Mount Barker
Warmest nights on average 12.5 °C at Noarlunga
Warmest night 23.6 °C at Adelaide (West Terrace / ngayirdapira) on the 31st
Warmest on average overall 18.4 °C at Adelaide (Kent Town)
Coolest on average overall 13.7 °C at Mount Lofty
Wettest overall 47.0 mm at Mount Lofty
Driest overall 4.4 mm at Harrogate (Mount Beevor South)
Wettest day 18.0 mm at Willunga on the 16th
Strongest wind gust 96 km/h at Mount Crawford AWS on the 25th

Summary statistics for October 2019
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
October
2019
Diff
from
average
Highest for
October
2019
Mean for
October
2019
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
October
2019
Total for
October
2019
Average
for
October
Rank of
October
2019
Fraction of
October
average
Adelaide (Kent Town) 24.6 +2.4 37.6 31st 12.3 +0.7 7.1 18th 18.6 40.9 low 45%
Adelaide (West Terrace / ngayirdapira) 23.8 +2.4 37.2 31st 12.3 +1.2 6.4 10th 15.6 44.0 low 35%
Adelaide Airport 23.4 +2.2 36.1 24th 11.8 +1.1 5.9 10th 15.6 35.7 low 44%
Edinburgh RAAF 25.2 +2.8 38.9 31st 11.4 +1.3 4.0 10th 8.6 36.2 low 24%
Kuitpo Forest Reserve 20.6 +1.7 33.8 31st 10.2 +1.0 4.9 8th 36.0 50.5 low 71%
Mount Barker 22.6 +3.1 33.4 31st 8.4 +1.1 3.4 21st 32.8 65.5 low 50%
Mount Crawford AWS 20.6 +2.3 32.9 24th 9.2 +0.7 2.5 9th 17.6 44.0 low 40%
Mount Lofty 18.7 +3.7 31.1 31st 8.8 +1.4 2.5 9th 47.0 58.7 average 80%
Noarlunga 23.3 +1.8 36.0 24th 12.5 +0.9 7.7 15th 22.8 30.6 average 75%
Parafield Airport 25.7 +3.6 38.9 31st 10.7 +0.5 3.2 15th 18.8 39.6 low 47%
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 25.0 +2.9 38.0 24th 10.2 +1.9 1.0 9th 17.8 42.8 low 42%

Daily maximum temperatures for October 2019
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Adelaide (Kent Town)28.928.621.231.832.817.618.516.518.321.822.225.124.020.320.618.117.321.017.619.325.930.833.936.920.519.220.325.333.236.237.6
Adelaide (West Terrace / ngayirdapira)28.627.419.831.833.817.317.016.817.521.521.825.623.919.118.917.717.220.616.818.324.833.636.619.718.419.525.432.735.537.2
Adelaide Airport27.926.719.933.434.217.416.116.917.319.221.525.123.917.917.117.416.519.516.917.523.528.533.036.119.717.919.023.531.934.634.7
Edinburgh RAAF30.129.521.633.637.518.117.517.218.522.522.626.825.919.521.018.717.721.418.119.626.630.934.138.520.719.120.225.533.136.238.9
Kuitpo Forest Reserve25.423.519.027.131.513.314.111.914.317.516.521.421.316.517.414.514.316.413.616.822.626.529.932.515.914.716.221.628.531.533.8
Mount Barker25.924.028.831.715.615.513.717.120.419.622.023.219.421.417.516.517.916.220.125.429.032.033.417.618.019.023.329.631.733.4
Mount Crawford AWS22.725.222.027.131.411.912.211.714.518.217.420.620.516.217.414.213.416.013.218.523.226.630.232.915.114.916.722.729.131.932.1
Mount Lofty22.522.420.026.529.611.110.710.213.915.916.019.718.614.216.212.011.613.610.315.721.024.727.730.412.812.314.019.626.429.031.1
Noarlunga27.924.318.030.435.516.816.716.818.919.821.124.423.818.017.617.216.719.816.817.424.129.533.536.019.017.818.624.331.835.734.0
Parafield Airport30.129.122.333.437.018.119.218.819.323.223.226.925.120.522.319.318.221.918.620.027.631.534.838.120.920.221.726.233.936.438.9
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre)28.130.524.831.236.818.217.316.419.122.221.626.926.619.622.118.217.817.821.031.235.038.021.518.519.626.937.237.0
Values are the maximum temperature, usually in the 24 hours from 9 am on the day indicated,
and typically occurred in the afternoon of that day.
Temperatures coloured according to their difference
from the long-term average for the period
-10.0 -9.0 -8.0 -7.0 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 +1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0 +6.0 +7.0 +8.0 +9.0 +10.0 °C Grey outline marks highest
and lowest for the period

Daily minimum temperatures for October 2019
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Adelaide (Kent Town)13.419.313.313.516.615.912.08.67.98.39.711.117.813.77.812.89.37.19.77.28.011.515.115.114.611.911.68.811.615.322.5
Adelaide (West Terrace / ngayirdapira)13.120.712.812.615.615.811.98.57.86.49.110.317.513.16.912.69.87.59.46.87.810.915.120.314.411.712.08.114.214.823.6
Adelaide Airport11.120.413.512.214.815.912.59.39.45.97.78.216.613.87.412.89.58.210.07.17.39.313.416.014.812.113.17.911.413.920.5
Edinburgh RAAF13.315.811.311.315.114.511.78.54.54.010.411.717.613.05.711.710.85.810.95.76.09.112.916.914.511.811.46.813.114.721.9
Kuitpo Forest Reserve8.317.99.59.411.912.08.74.96.06.86.27.912.810.17.510.16.87.57.26.66.412.716.318.510.88.87.37.312.017.421.5
Mount Barker4.69.611.113.39.04.65.57.04.14.310.410.06.210.76.76.27.25.03.46.89.412.011.38.56.77.98.712.421.3
Mount Crawford AWS8.115.38.07.912.611.38.34.02.55.04.46.011.79.66.49.65.36.35.65.75.212.116.319.79.67.47.06.58.517.221.0
Mount Lofty6.716.68.38.615.510.27.02.92.54.94.55.911.48.35.38.44.55.44.44.95.312.015.519.18.56.35.85.89.917.720.5
Noarlunga11.521.412.712.315.715.011.18.68.49.09.011.216.112.47.712.310.39.411.08.19.413.515.916.713.911.711.99.013.615.321.9
Parafield Airport13.216.310.89.313.915.611.87.23.46.210.612.018.211.83.212.38.75.29.34.45.57.712.418.214.211.010.65.510.710.522.9
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre)11.415.88.310.615.413.911.87.91.07.19.910.015.512.24.911.18.57.52.55.412.415.013.27.54.49.313.218.9
Values are the minimum temperature, usually in the 24 hours to 9 am on the day indicated,
and typically occurred that morning.
Temperatures coloured according to their difference
from the long-term average for the period
-10.0 -9.0 -8.0 -7.0 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 +1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0 +6.0 +7.0 +8.0 +9.0 +10.0 °C Grey outline marks highest
and lowest for the period

Daily rainfall for October 2019
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Adelaide (Brighton) - - - - - - - 0.8 - - - - 3.0 - 11.6 1.5 - - 2.4 - - - - 3.6
Adelaide (Glen Osmond) - - - - - 5.6 - - - 2.0 7.8 2.8 - 0.4 - - - - - - 4.6 - - - - -
Adelaide (Hope Valley Reservoir) - - - - - - 1.6 1.4 - - - - - 0.4 - 7.2 5.0













Adelaide (Kent Town) - - - - - - 0.6 1.0 - - - - - 1.4 - 7.8 5.2 - 1.2 0.4 - - - - - 1.0 - - - - -
Adelaide (Keswick) - - - - - - 1.0 0.6 - - - - - 2.4 0.2 7.8 4.0 - 0.2 0.2 - - - - - 1.4 - - - - -
Adelaide (Morphett Vale) - - - - - - 1.6 0.8 - - - - - 2.8 - 13.2 4.0 - - - - - - - - 6.8




Adelaide (Salisbury Bowling Club)





5.0






3.0








5.2




Adelaide (Seaton)






1.8




1.4
7.6 3.4
1.2





1.2




Adelaide (West Terrace / ngayirdapira) - - - - - - 0.2 1.0 - - - - - 3.0 - 5.8 2.6 - 1.0 0.2 - -
- - 1.8 - - - - -
Adelaide Airport - - - - - - - 1.0 - - - - - 2.0 - 5.4 5.2 - 0.6 0.2 - - - - - 1.2 - - - - -
Aldgate - - - - - 0.4 8.2 1.8 - - - - - 2.0 - 12.0 7.2 - 1.4 - - - - - - 13.8 - - - - -
Ashton - - - - - 0.2 14.2 3.6 - - - - - 1.4 - 5.8 8.0 - 1.6 0.6 0.2 - - - - 9.2 - - - - -
Ashton Co-op - - - - - - - 14.4 - - - - 1.6 - 6.0 6.4 - 1.0 0.8









Athelstone (Black Hill Alert) - - - - - - 2.6 3.2 - - - - - 0.6 - 6.8 5.4 - 2.0 0.2 - - - - - 7.2 - - - - -
Balhannah (Gumbooya) - - - - - - 2.4 1.6 - - - 0.2 - 0.2 0.2 10.8 3.0 - 0.6 - - - - - - 3.2 0.2 - - - -
Belair - - - - - - 7.6 1.0 0.2 - - - - 3.6 0.2 7.8 4.4 - 0.8 0.4 - - - - - 5.4 - 0.4 - - -
Belair (St Johns) - - - - - - 6.4 1.6 0.2 - - - - 3.2 - 8.0 5.4 - 0.4 0.6 - - - - - 5.6 - - - - -
Belair (State Flora Nursery) - - - - - - 7.8 1.2 - - - - - 3.8 - 7.4 4.4 - 1.0 0.8 - - - - 7.2 0.6


Bellevue Heights - - - - - - 2.0 1.8 - - - - - 2.0 - 13.0 1.0 - 1.2 0.2 - - - - - 4.4 - - - - -
Birdwood - - - - - - 1.8 1.0 - - - - - - - 1.4 5.4 - 0.6 - - - - - 0.2 2.6 - - - - -
Birdwood (McVittie's Hill Rndsup) - - - - - - 2.2 1.0 - - - - - - - 1.0 3.8 - 0.6 - - - - - 0.2 2.0 - - - - -
Bridgewater - - - - - 7.0 2.0 - - - - - - - 9.0














Brownhill Creek (Scotch College) - - - - - - 3.2 1.2 0.2 - - - - 2.8 - 7.8 4.0 - - 0.2 - - - - - 3.4 - - - - -
Burnside - - - - - - 3.6 1.6 - - - - - 1.2 - 9.0 3.6 0.2 0.2 - - - - - - 3.6 - - - - -
Clarendon





6.0



4.0
21.4 1.0




6.4




Crafers West - - - - - - 10.6 1.4 0.2 - 0.2 - 0.2 2.2 0.2 8.2 7.8 - 1.2 0.8 0.2 - - - - 9.2 - 0.4 - 0.2 -
Cromer Road - - - - - - 1.8 0.8 - - - 0.2 - - - 1.2 4.2 - 0.4 0.2 - - - - - 2.2 0.2 - - - -
Cudlee Creek (Millbrook Reservoir) - - - - - 0.2 4.0 2.4 - - - - - 0.2 - 2.4 10.0 - 8.6











Cudlee Creek (Odea Road) - - - - - - 5.8 1.6 - - - - - 0.2 - 2.4 8.4 - 0.6 - - - - - - 4.6 - 0.2 - - -
Edinburgh RAAF - - - - - - 1.6 1.6 - - - - - - - 3.4 0.8 - - - - - - - - 1.2 - - - - -
Felixstow (Payneham) - - - - 0.2 - 0.6 2.0 - 0.2 - 0.2 - 1.0 - 4.6 7.4 0.2 2.0 0.4 - - - - - 4.8 0.2 - - - -
Gawler - - - - - - 2.2 3.2 - - - - - - - 0.4 0.8 - - - - - - - - 4.8 - - - - -
Gould Creek (Hermitage) - - - - - - 3.0 1.0 0.2 - - - - - - 2.8 5.8 0.2 0.6 - - - - - - 5.2 - - - - -
Greenacres - - - - - - 0.6 1.2 0.2 - - - - 0.4 - 4.6 4.6 0.2 1.4 - - - - - - 6.4 - - - - -
Hahndorf - - - - - - 4.7 - 0.6 - - - - 0.4 - 10.1 5.2 - 0.8 0.1 - - - - - 6.8 - - - - -
Halbury Road Salisbury (Halbury Road) - - - - - - 0.4 3.2 - - - - - 0.2 - 2.4 1.0 - 0.6 - - - - 0.2 - 2.4 0.2 - - - -
Happy Valley Reservoir - - - - - - 1.4 2.0 - - - - - 3.2 - 12.2 3.4 - 1.2 0.6 - - - - - 5.4 - 0.4


Harrogate (Mount Beevor South) - - - - - - 0.2 0.2 - - 0.2 - 0.2 - - 1.6 0.8 - - - - - - - - 1.2 - - - - -
Heathfield Works Depot - - - - - - - - - - - - - 22.6 7.0













Inglewood - - - - - 0.2 4.8 3.4 0.2 - - - - 0.2 - 2.0 7.8 - 2.4 0.4 - - - - - 6.4 - - - - -
Ironstone Road - - - 0.2 - - 4.2 2.2 - - - - - - - 1.6 9.6 0.2 0.8 - - - - - - 4.0 - - - - -
Kangarilla (Saddlebags Rndsup) - 0.2 - - - - 3.2 2.8 - - 0.2 0.2 - 2.2 0.2 15.8 5.4 - 0.6 0.2 - - - - - 6.0 - - - - -
Kanmantoo (Millbrae) - - - 0.2 - - 0.8 1.0 - - - 0.2 - - - 4.0 0.8 - 0.2 0.8 - - - - - 0.8 - - - - -
Kersbrook - - - 0.2 - - 2.6 3.0 - - - - - - - 2.0 10.2 - 1.0 - - - - - 0.2 7.6 - - - - -
Kilburn - - - - - - 0.2 1.4 0.2 - - - - 0.4 - 4.0 2.2 - 0.6 - - - - - - 4.8 0.2 - - - -
Kuitpo Forest Reserve - - 0.2 - - - 3.6 2.6 - 0.2 0.2 0.2 - 2.6 0.2 12.4 6.4 - 1.4 - - - - - - 5.8 - - 0.2 - -
Lenswood - - - - - - 6.6 1.8 0.2 - - - - 0.2 - 4.8 11.0 - 0.8 - - - - - - 8.2 - - - - -
Lenswood (Stringybark) - - - - - 0.2 7.2 2.8 - - 0.2 - - - - 4.6 12.8 - 1.4 0.2 - - - - - 5.2 - - - - -
Lobethal (Graeber) - - - - - - 2.2 1.0 - - - - - - - 4.4 11.4 - 0.4 - - - - - - 5.0 - - - - -
Lobethal (Maidment Road) - - - - - - 4.4 1.6 - - - - - - - 2.2 10.6 - 0.8 - - - - - - 3.6 - - - - -
Long Ridge (Greenhill) - - - - - - 7.6 1.2 0.2 - - - - 1.2 - 10.4 3.6 - 0.4 0.4 - - - - - 6.4 - - - 0.2 -
Longwood Alert - - - - - - 7.2 1.4 0.2 - - - - 2.8 0.2 9.0 7.6 - 1.4 0.2 - - - - - 8.4 - - - - -
Macclesfield - - - - - - 1.8 - - - 1.4 - 15.2 - - 2.4 - - - - 4.2


McLaren Vale (Pirramimma Winery) - - - - - - - 1.8 - - - 4.8 - 16.0 4.0 - 1.6 - - - - 5.4


Meadows - - - - - 0.2 2.8 2.4 - - - - - 2.0 - 15.8 2.8 - 1.2 - 0.6









Mitchell Park (Marion) - - - - - - 0.6 0.2 0.2 - - - - 1.8 - 12.2 1.8 - 0.2 1.0 - - - - - 3.8 0.2 - - - -
Montacute - - - - - - 4.2 2.2 - - - - - - - 7.8 5.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 - - - - 4.2 - - - - -
Morphettville - - - - - - 0.2 0.2 - - - - - 1.4 - 5.2 1.2 - - - - - - - - 3.0 - - - - -
Mount Barker - - - - - 0.2 4.0 3.0 - - - 0.2 - 0.6 - 13.6 5.4 - 0.4 0.4 - - - - 0.2 4.8 - - - - -
Mount Bold Reservoir - - - - - - 1.4 3.6 0.4 - - - - 2.4 - 16.0 6.6 - 0.6 - - - - - - 7.6




Mount Crawford AWS - - - - - - 4.6 2.0 - 0.2 - - - - - 1.4 6.4 - 0.8 - - - - - - 2.0 - 0.2 - - -
Mount Lofty - - - - - 0.2 13.6 2.4 - - - - - 2.0 0.2 9.0 11.0 0.2 1.6 0.6 0.2 - - - - 5.8 - 0.2 - - -
Mt Bold (Scott Creek Alert) - - - - - - 3.8 2.2 0.2 - 0.2 - - 1.6 - 13.8 7.0 0.2 0.2 - - - - - - 9.8 - - - - -
Mt Torrens - - - - - - 1.2 0.6 0.2 - 0.2 0.2 - - - 2.2 5.2 - 0.2 0.2 - - - - - 1.8 - - - - -
Mylor (Biggs Flat) - 0.2 - - - 0.2 3.2 1.2 - - - - 0.2 2.0 - 7.4 7.0 - 1.4 - - - - - - 8.2 - - - - -
Nairne - - - - - 3.6 - - - - - - - 8.6 3.0 - 0.8 - - - - - - 2.2




Noarlunga - - - - - - 0.6 0.2 - - - - - 2.4 - 12.4 1.6 - 1.2 0.4 - - - - - 4.0 - - - - -
North Adelaide - - - - 0.4 - - - - 2.6 - 7.2 2.8 - 1.8 - - - - 1.6


Parafield Airport - - - - - - - 1.8 - - - - - - - 5.2 6.8 - 0.4 - - - - - - 4.6 - - - - -
Prospect Hill - - - - - - 3.8 1.6 - - - - - 2.2 - 12.8 8.6 - 1.4 - - - - - - 10.0 0.2



Red Creek (Burwood) - - - 0.2 - - 0.6 0.4 - - - 0.2 - - - 9.2 0.6 - - 0.2 0.2 - - - - 0.2 - - - - -
Regency Park - - - - - - - 1.2 - - - - - 1.0 - 3.4 2.4 - 0.8 0.2 - - - - - 4.2 - - - - -
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) - - - - - - 2.6 4.6 - - - - - 0.2 - 0.4 1.8 -
- -
- - - 8.2 - - - - -
Rosslyn Park (Seaview) - - - - - - 3.0 1.6 0.2 - - - - 0.6 0.2 5.8 6.2 - 0.6 - 0.2 - - - - 3.0 - - - - -
Sellicks Beach






1.0




5.4
13.6 2.4







3.6




Uraidla





11.0 3.0






7.4 10.0
2.0





7.4




Uraidla (Sutton Creek) - - - - - - 6.8 1.6 0.2 - - - - 0.6 - 8.8 10.6 - 0.4 0.2 - - - - - 4.8 - 0.2 - - -
Verdun - - - - - - 4.2 1.0 0.2 - - - 0.2 0.8 0.2 9.4 4.2 - 0.6 - - - - - - 8.2 - - - - -
Williamstown - - - - - 0.2 2.8 1.4 - - - - - - - 0.6 5.8 - - - - - - - - 3.6


Williamstown (South Para Reservoir) - - - - - - 3.4 1.4 - - - - - - - 1.0 6.4 - 0.6 - - - - - - 4.4




Willunga - - - - 1.4 - - - 6.2 - 18.0 3.2 - 1.0 - - - - 6.4


Woodside (Inverbrackie) - - - - - - 2.2 0.4 0.2 - - - 0.2 - - 5.4 2.2 0.2 0.4 - - - - - - 2.8 - - - - -
Woodside (Wicks Estate) - - - - - - 2.2 0.6 - - - - - - - 6.0 3.6 - 0.2 - - - - - - 6.2 0.2 - - - -
Most values are the precipitation in the 24 hours to 9 am on the day indicated. Days marked with → are part of a longer accumulation, which is shown on the final day.
Values over 100 mm have been rounded to the nearest whole millimetre.
Days marked with - have a rainfall report of zero; days left blank have no rainfall report (which often indicates no rain fell).
Rainfalls coloured
according to the amount
0 1.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 25.0 50.0 100 150 200 300 400 600 millimetres

Notes

The Monthly climate summary, generally published on the first working day of each month, lists the main features of the weather in Greater Adelaide using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This summary includes data from observing sites in or near the Greater Adelaide “Greater Capital City Statistical Area” (GCCSA). The Australian Bureau of Statistics designed the GCCSAs to “include the population within the urban area of the city, as well as people who regularly socialise, shop or work within the city, and live in small towns and rural areas surrounding the city. It is important to note that GCCSAs do not define the built up edge of the city. They provide a stable definition for these cities and are designed for the output of a range of social and economic survey data.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 11 am on Friday 1 November 2019. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the rainfall is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

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