South Australia in September 2010

Coldest and wettest September since 1992

  • Above average rainfall across South Australia.
  • The Pastoral Districts received 2 to 6 times their September mean rainfall, with the first half of the month being particularly wet.
  • 40 locations set new highest daily rainfall records for September, most of those on September the 4th.
  • A handful of sites set new monthly rainfall records for September.
  • Maximum temperatures were well below average, with some sites setting new lowest mean daily maximum temperature records for September.
  • Maximum temperatures were the second coldest on record for September for the State as a whole.

Rainfall

The first week of September saw a rainfall event that extended over central Australia, combined with an intense low pressure system that developed over southern Australia. This produced widespread rainfall through this period over central and southern Australia. This is the main contributor to September 2010 being the wettest September since 1992 for the State as a whole. The wettest September across the whole State was in 1979, September 2010 being the 3rd wettest September on record.

For the year as a whole, SA has already exceeded its average annual rainfall, making 2010 the first above-normal year for rainfall since 2003.

Pastoral Districts

Rainfall totals were well above average across the Pastoral Districts, with most areas receiving 2 to 6 times their monthly September average. Several locations also had new daily rainfall records for September. Rainfall totals ranged from about 20 mm to 80 mm. Leigh Creek received 112.8 mm for the month, with is almost 6 times its monthly September average of 19.7 mm.

Agricultural Districts

Rainfall totals were above average across the Agricultural areas, with locations receiving 1 to 3 times the monthly average for September. About 30 locations set new daily rainfall records for the month, with most set on the 4th.

Rainfall totals were generally between 40 and 100 mm across south-eastern parts of the agricultural districts, increasing up to 70 to 200 mm in the Mount Lofty Ranges. West Central districts had totals around 80 mm to 120 mm, and the Western Agricultural District had totals ranging from 30 mm up to 100 mm.

Across the longer term, rainfall totals for the growing season to date (April to September) are generally average to above average across all of the Agricultural Districts. Year to date rainfall totals are generally average to above average, increasing to well above average across the northeast half of South Australia, and in the southwest.

Some sites had their highest total September rainfall on record.
Some sites had their highest total September rainfall for at least 25 years.
Some sites had their highest September daily rainfall on record.
See a map of rainfall deciles.

Temperature

The monthly mean September temperature (the average of the maximum and minimum temperatures) was 15.1C, which is 1.1C below the long-term average for South Australia.

Maximum

The area-averaged mean maximum temperature of 21.0C was 2.7C below the long-term September average for South Australia. This is the second coldest mean maximum temperature recorded for South Australia in September. The coldest September on record was in 1958. This month is also the first September since 1992 to record a below average mean maximum temperature. All September's since 1992 had been warmer than average for South Australia until this year.

Mean maximum temperatures at individual locations varied, but were well below average for September, with temperatures up to 3C below average in the east, grading to more than 4C below average in the west. Kyancutta, Ceduna and Whyalla on the northern Eyre Peninsula recorded coldest on record mean maximum temperatures for September.

In the Pastoral districts mean maximum temperatures ranged from 18.0C at Yunta Airstrip to 23.9C at Moomba Airport and Marree Comparison. The highest recorded maximum temperature in the Pastorals for September was 33.4C at Marla Police Station on the 1st. The lowest was 11C at Ernabella (Pukatja) on the 18th. Marla Police Station recorded its lowest September maximum temperature on record with 14.2C on the 15th.

Mean maximum temperatures over the Agricultural districts ranged from 10.9C at Mount Lofty to 19.8C at Port Augusta Aero. The highest maximum recorded during September was 27.0C at Hawker on the 1st. The lowest was 8.3C at Mount Lofty on the 5th.

Some sites had their coldest September day (lowest maximum temperature) on record.
Some sites had their lowest September mean daily maximum temperature on record.
Some sites had their lowest September mean daily maximum temperature for at least 25 years.

Minimum

Mean minimum temperatures were generally within 1C of the long-term average this September.

Mean minimum temperatures in the pastoral areas ranged from 6.7C at Nonning and Yunta Airstrip to 11.8C at Moomba Airport. The lowest minimum temperature recorded in the Pastorals was -0.5C at Gluepot on the 30th. The highest minimum temperature was 19.1C at Moomba Airport on the 3rd.

Over the Agricultural districts mean monthly minimum temperatures ranged from 4.2C at Yongala to 11.2C at Neptune Island. The lowest minimum temperature recorded during September was -1.4C at Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) on the 30th. The highest minimum temperature was 14.2C at Whyalla Aero on the 13th.

Further information

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Extremes in September 2010
Hottest day 33.4 °C at Marla Police Station on the 1st
Warmest days on average 23.9 °C at Marree Comparison
23.9 °C at Moomba Airport
Coolest days on average 10.9 °C at Mount Lofty
Coldest day 8.3 °C at Mount Lofty on the 5th
Coldest night -1.4 °C at Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) on the 30th
Coolest nights on average 4.2 °C at Yongala
Warmest nights on average 11.8 °C at Moomba Airport
Warmest night 19.1 °C at Moomba Airport on the 3rd
Wettest overall 200.2 mm at Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS)
Highest wind gust 117 km/h at Cape Willoughby on the 4th

Record highest September daily rainfall
Highest daily rainfall
in September 2010 (mm)
Previous highest
for September
Years of
record
Blinman 117.0 on the 4th 86.1 on the 6th in 1892 128
Curnomona (Curnamona) 51.0 on the 4th 47.5 on the 10th in 1881 128
Hamley Bridge 56.6 on the 4th 35.6 on the 19th in 1913 127
Hawker 53.8 on the 4th 46.7 on the 6th in 1892 127
Milang 36.0 on the 4th 34.2 on the 23rd in 1998 127
Port Broughton 35.0 on the 4th 34.4 on the 27th in 1979 127
Port Wakefield 45.2 on the 4th 35.3 on the 27th in 1906 127
Warooka 64.0 on the 4th 44.0 on the 24th in 1995 127
Adelaide (Salisbury Bowling Club) 45.0 on the 4th 41.7 on the 22nd in 1923 126
Callington 39.2 on the 4th 35.3 on the 10th in 1884 126
Gumeracha 53.6 on the 4th 52.6 on the 7th in 1886 126
Wallaroo 51.2 on the 4th 36.8 on the 2nd in 1997 126
Two Wells 50.2 on the 4th 34.2 on the 23rd in 1998 125
Corny Point 44.2 on the 4th 34.0 on the 19th in 1997 120
Manna Hill 48.4 on the 4th 33.8 on the 17th in 1903 120
Paskeville 43.0 on the 4th 36.6 on the 12th in 1917 120
Koonamore 62.0 on the 4th 42.4 on the 23rd in 1916 118
Palmer 41.2 on the 4th 40.1 on the 14th in 1960 110
American River 45.2 on the 4th 42.7 on the 24th in 1884 106
Erudina 57.8 on the 4th 38.1 on the 25th in 1926 98
Mount Hope (Fairview) 37.6 on the 4th 32.2 on the 25th in 1979 98
Cudlee Creek (Millbrook) 58.8 on the 4th 52.6 on the 9th in 1941 97
Finniss 37.4 on the 4th 33.0 on the 18th in 1921 95
Adelaide (Torrens Island) 34.6 on the 4th 33.0 on the 30th in 1928 82
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 44.6 on the 4th 40.0 on the 2nd in 1997 78
Parafield Airport 37.0 on the 4th 26.7 on the 3rd in 1931 63
Mount Bold Reservoir 42.2 on the 4th 35.6 on the 12th in 1988 60
Nullarbor 25.8 on the 3rd 23.0 on the 27th in 1974 58
Stockport (Clifton) 55.0 on the 4th 48.4 on the 24th in 1995 52
Williamstown (South Para Reservoir) 52.2 on the 4th 35.0 on the 8th in 2004 43
Parachilna (Motpena) 39.0 on the 4th 35.0 on the 3rd in 2005 42
Cowell (Winter Springs) 59.6 on the 4th 41.0 on the 28th in 1979 41
Bolivar Treatment Works 31.0 on the 4th 30.1 on the 23rd in 1998 38
Edinburgh RAAF 53.4 on the 4th 25.8 on the 23rd in 1998 38
Kensington Upper (Burnside) 36.8 on the 4th 35.6 on the 12th in 1917 33
Parndana 33.2 on the 4th 32.0 on the 10th in 1985 31
Loxton Research Centre 50.6 on the 4th 32.8 on the 2nd in 1997 27
Beltana Roadhouse 66.2 on the 4th 33.0 on the 3rd in 2005 25
Leigh Creek Airport 97.6 on the 4th 33.8 on the 3rd in 2005 25
Mungeranie (Kalamurina) 20.8 on the 9th 15.5 on the 15th in 1998 25



Record highest total September rainfall
Total rainfall
for September 2010 (mm)
Previous highest
for September
Years of
record
Average for
September
Port Wakefield 105.4 91.0 in 1992 137 33.4
Ardrossan 95.4 87.4 in 1997 131 36.4
Callington 99.4 87.9 in 1903 128 41.4
Cowell 99.9 78.0 in 1979 124 28.7
Price 96.9 93.8 in 1992 67 34.7
Beltana Roadhouse 78.8 55.2 in 2005 25 18.9
Leigh Creek Airport 112.8 55.8 in 2005 25 19.7

Highest total September rainfall for at least 25 years
Total rainfall
for September 2010 (mm)
Most recent higher
for September
Years since
higher
Average for
September
Blinman 137.4 158.3 in 1892 118 26.8
Langhorne Creek 86.6 103.5 in 1893 117 39.6
Murray Bridge Comparison 88.3 93.0 in 1893 117 36.8
Marree Comparison 71.5 83.7 in 1904 106 10.7
Finniss 110.8 110.9 in 1917 78 53.6
Curnomona (Curnamona) 58.5 69.9 in 1964 46 13.3
Erudina 59.6 64.7 in 1964 46 11.5
Koonamore 70.4 94.9 in 1964 46 16.6
Oodnadatta Airport 52.4 66.5 in 1964 36 10.2
Todmorden 45.4 53.0 in 1975 35 10.8
Mount Dare 49.2 73.2 in 1975 32 7.4
Arkaroola 41.7 96.3 in 1979 31 15.6
Cleve Aerodrome 89.6 110.0 in 1979 31 37.5
Cowell (Winter Springs) 108.2 128.0 in 1979 31 38.5
Warooka 121.1 122.5 in 1979 31 46.3
Maitland 95.6 97.4 in 1958 29 51.5
Tumby Bay 100.0 101.0 in 1979 29 36.4
Sutherlands 89.0 116.4 in 1979 28 30.5
Tarcoola (Mobella) 40.4 110.8 in 1979 28 14.6
Nullarbor 60.2 71.2 in 1974 27 17.9



Record lowest September daily maximum temperature
Lowest daily maximum
temperature
in September 2010 (°C)
Previous lowest
for September
Years of
record
Average for
September
Marla Police Station 14.2 on the 15th 15.1 on the 1st in 1995 25 26.9



Record lowest September mean daily maximum temperature
Mean daily maximum
temperature
for September 2010 (°C)
Previous lowest
for September
Years of
record
Average for
September
Streaky Bay 17.5 = 17.5 in 1956 83 20.2
Kyancutta 17.9 18.1 in 1956 80 21.8
Ceduna AMO 17.9 18.1 in 1992 69 21.4
Kimba 16.0 16.2 in 1984 42 20.3
Whyalla Aero 17.5 18.1 in 1984 25 21.6

Lowest September mean daily maximum temperature for at least 25 years
Mean daily maximum
temperature
for September 2010 (°C)
Most recent lower
for September
Years since
lower
Average for
September
Cleve 16.0 15.8 in 1958 51 19.4
Warooka 15.5 15.4 in 1970 40 17.8
Oodnadatta Airport 23.4 23.2 in 1969 31 26.6



Summary statistics for September 2010
Maximum temperatures
for September
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
for September
(°C)
Rainfall
for September
(millimetres)
Mean for
September
2010
Diff
from
average
Highest for
September
2010
Mean for
September
2010
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
September
2010
Total for
September
2010
Average
for
September
Rank of
September
2010
Fraction of
September
average
Northwest (district 16)
Andamooka 22.1 -2.5 30.8 1st 10.5 +0.1 6.5 30th 32.8 13.4 v high 245%
Coober Pedy Airport 21.3   29.5 1st 10.3   6.0 5th 16.2
Ernabella (Pukatja) 20.9   31.5 2nd 9.0   4.7 5th 76.4
Marla Police Station 22.6 -4.3 33.4 1st 9.5 -1.3 4.7 6th 50.9 11.2 v high 454%
Nonning 18.6 -3.0 24.4 24th 6.7 -0.2 3.2 24th 43.2 24.8 high 174%
Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome) 21.7   29.5 1st 9.0   1.8 30th 31.0
Tarcoola Aero 21.9   28.6 25th 7.9   2.9 11th 2.8
Woomera Aerodrome 20.5 -2.1 27.3 1st 9.3 -0.1 5.8 6th 23.6 15.1 high 156%
Far North (district 17)
Arkaroola 20.4 -2.9 28.1 1st 8.7 +0.6 3.0 7th 41.7 15.6 v high 267%
Leigh Creek Airport 20.7 -2.5 28.8 1st 9.1 -0.2 2.6 30th 112.8 19.7 highest 573%
Marree Aero 22.8   30.5 2nd 10.5   4.5 30th 64.6
Marree Comparison 23.9 -1.7 31.7 1st 10.9 +1.2 7.5 18th 71.5 10.7 v high 668%
Moomba Airport 23.9   32.5 1st 11.8   7.6 6th 75.2
Oodnadatta Airport 23.4 -3.2 33.1 1st 11.3 -0.1 7.2 21st 52.4 10.2 v high 514%
Western Agricultural (district 18)
Ceduna AMO 17.9 -3.5 26.5 8th 7.5 -0.3 1.6 24th 27.2 27.9 average 97%
Cleve 16.0 -3.4 22.0 24th 8.5 0.0 5.0 6th 101.0 42.8 v high 236%
Cleve Aerodrome 15.8   21.1 24th 8.1   4.4 30th 89.6 37.5 v high 239%
Coulta (Coles Point) 15.5   20.2 8th 8.5   3.4 24th 78.6
Cummins Aero 16.1   21.2 8th 7.0   1.3 24th 69.6
Elliston 16.9 -2.3 24.2 8th 9.3 -0.1 5.6 26th 68.7 39.8 v high 173%
Kimba 16.0 -4.3 23.0 24th 6.4 -0.6 3.0 6th 100.2 37.4 v high 268%
Kyancutta 17.9 -3.9 23.8 24th 7.0 +0.7 1.8 24th 56.8 31.8 high 179%
Minnipa DPI 17.1   23.4 24th 6.9   2.7 18th 44.2
Neptune Island 14.9 -1.3 17.3 8th 11.2 -0.3 9.1 10th 125.0 46.5 v high 269%
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 16.3   21.8 8th 8.4   3.5 30th 87.8
Nullarbor 17.3 -5.3 25.4 24th 8.3 +0.4 3.3 26th 60.2 17.9 v high 336%
Port Augusta Aero 19.8   26.4 24th 8.7   3.1 30th 40.6
Streaky Bay 17.5 -2.7 22.8 12th 9.7 -0.2 6.0 17th 44.6 35.5 high 126%
Whyalla Aero 17.5 -4.1 23.0 9th 8.8 +0.7 2.9 30th 70.2 28.8 v high 244%
Wudinna Aero 17.9   24.0 24th 6.5   0.3 29th 56.2
Upper North (district 19)
Hawker 18.2 -3.4 27.0 1st 6.4 -0.4 1.3 30th 75.0 28.1 v high 267%
Yongala 15.2 -2.7 20.5 24th 4.2 +0.2 -1.2 18th 49.5 38.6 high 128%
Northeast (district 20)
Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) 18.9   24.9 24th 7.2   -0.5 30th 72.3
Yunta Airstrip 18.0   25.0 1st 6.7   0.9 7th 52.0
Lower North (district 21)
Clare High School 14.3   18.1 13th 6.2   0.6 29th 101.8
Port Pirie Aerodrome 18.2   23.4 24th 7.1   1.2 24th 42.1
Port Pirie Nyrstar Comparison 18.5 -2.9 24.0 24th 9.2 -0.6 5.0 7th 51.9 35.6 high 146%
Snowtown (Rayville Park) 16.4   20.0 24th 6.0   -0.1 7th 60.2
Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)
Edithburgh 15.5   18.8 12th 8.5   3.2 7th 92.0
Kadina AWS 16.6   19.6 12th 6.4   -0.1 7th 80.4
Maitland 15.4 -2.6 19.2 12th 8.3 -0.1 5.2 29th 95.6 51.5 v high 186%
Minlaton Aero 15.8   19.2 13th 7.3   1.9 29th 93.6
Stenhouse Bay 15.5   19.2 12th 9.8   5.1 30th 92.8
Warooka 15.5 -2.3 19.1 25th 8.3 -0.3 5.4 6th 121.1 46.3 v high 262%
Kangaroo Island (district 22B)
Cape Borda 14.1   17.7 13th 8.7   5.8 30th 92.8
Cape Willoughby 14.2 -1.7 17.3 25th 10.0 -0.3 7.4 28th 92.2 56.4 v high 163%
Kingscote Aero 16.2   20.4 25th 7.2   1.5 24th 88.4
Adelaide Plains (district 23A)
Adelaide (Kent Town) 16.9 -2.1 20.5 13th 9.2 -0.5 4.1 7th 72.2 60.3 high 120%
Adelaide Airport 16.0 -2.1 19.2 12th 9.0 +0.1 3.7 30th 55.4 46.2 average 120%
Edinburgh RAAF 16.5 -2.4 21.0 13th 7.8 -0.3 2.3 29th 94.2 48.8 v high 193%
Parafield Airport 17.3 -1.5 21.1 13th 7.4 -0.8 1.7 29th 67.4 44.3 high 152%
Roseworthy AWS 16.4   20.5 13th 5.7   0.2 24th 81.4
County Light (district 23B)
Nuriootpa Viticultural 14.6   18.1 13th 6.5   2.1 24th 89.6
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 16.0 -2.3 19.9 13th 6.4 -0.2 -0.4 29th 96.4 53.7 v high 180%
Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)
Hindmarsh Island AWS 15.4   19.5 12th 9.7   6.2 30th 91.4
Kuitpo Forest Reserve 13.1   16.8 13th 7.0   4.0 30th 108.2
Mount Barker 15.1 -1.4 20.0 13th 6.1 +0.3 0.5 30th 129.6 85.5 high 152%
Mount Crawford (Mt Crawford AWS) 12.3   16.8 13th 6.0   2.9 30th 125.6
Mount Lofty 10.9   16.3 13th 5.0   2.3 7th 141.2
Noarlunga 15.6   19.2 3rd 9.2   5.2 29th 71.8
Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) 12.2   15.4 25th 7.3   4.7 30th 200.2
Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay) 15.6   19.2 12th 8.8   3.0 30th 86.6
Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)
Loxton Research Centre 17.8 -2.9 21.8 27th 6.4 +0.1 0.9 24th 60.0 27.4 v high 219%
Renmark Aero 18.2   22.8 27th 6.6   0.5 24th 46.6
Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)
Eudunda 14.6 -2.4 18.8 12th 5.9 -0.5 1.7 30th 100.4 49.0 v high 205%
Meningie 16.1 -2.0 20.3 13th 8.4 +0.1 3.8 30th 81.5 48.4 v high 168%
Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) 16.2   20.7 26th 6.4   -1.4 30th 71.8
Murray Bridge Comparison 17.3 -2.5 21.8 26th 7.7 +0.5 1.5 30th 88.3 36.8 v high 240%
Strathalbyn Racecourse 15.5   18.9 24th 8.0   3.4 30th 87.8
Murray Mallee (district 25A)
Karoonda 16.4   20.8 13th 6.2   0.0 29th 60.7 35.6 high 171%
Upper Southeast (district 25B)
Keith 16.1 -2.5 20.0 9th 7.1 +0.1 1.0 30th 57.0 51.0 average 112%
Keith (Munkora) 15.7   19.5 9th 5.6   -1.0 30th 56.6
Lameroo (Austin Plains) 16.2   20.4 9th 5.4   -0.3 30th 34.6
Lameroo Comparison 16.9 -2.5 21.0 13th 6.6 +0.6 1.6 30th 48.9 42.1 average 116%
Lower Southeast (district 26)
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 14.5   17.2 25th 8.8   5.0 14th 61.6
Coonawarra 15.2 -1.6 19.5 25th 6.5 +0.1 1.1 29th 63.8 63.8 average 100%
Mount Gambier Aero 14.4 -1.4 17.8 25th 7.0 +0.7 1.7 14th 77.4 73.0 average 106%
Naracoorte Aerodrome 15.4   18.8 9th 6.4   0.5 3rd 56.8
Padthaway South 15.5   18.8 9th 6.9   1.1 30th 56.2
Robe Airfield 14.8   17.0 25th 8.5   2.0 2nd 70.4
Robe Comparison 14.7 -1.0 17.0 9th 9.6 +0.4 5.6 14th 73.8 59.3 high 124%

Notes

A Monthly Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 9 am on Friday 1 October 2010. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 20 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries