Monday, 31 October 2011 - Monthly Climate Summary for South Australia - Product code IDCKGC13R0
South Australia in October 2011: Warm nights, Cool days with above average Rainfall.
- Minimum temperatures up to 2°C above average over the western agricultural and pastorals, with record warmest October minimum temperatures at Nonning and Elliston, but within 1°C of average elsewhere.
- Maximum temperatures up to 2°C below average on the Eyre Peninsula.
- Whilst the rainfall across most of the agricultural areas was above average for October, the growing season (April to October) rainfall has been below average in many locations.
Rainfall in South Australia was mostly above average during October. Averaged across the state as a whole, rainfall was 54% higher than the long term October average of 18.4 mm. Most of the month's rainfall was associated with the passage of upper level troughs and weak cold fronts that crossed the State during the first and second week of October. An upper level prefrontal trough brought high rainfall totals for much of the northwest and central districts at the end of the month.
South Australian average total rainfall for 2011 (January to October) is ranked as fourth wettest on record. The years where similar rainfall totals are higher than 2011, all occurred during the La Nina years of 2010 and 1973-74. Despite a wet first 3 months of 2011, growing season rainfall (April to October) was below average, particularly in relation with a dry spell during late August through September that resulted in low accumulations for many locations through this period.
Rainfall totals for October 2011 over the pastoral districts were mostly above average to very much above average in the far northwest, with the wettest periods being between the 4th and 6th of October following the passage of a low pressure trough. Yardea recorded 45.6 mm of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 5th of October. Another trough that developed over the Northwest of the State at the end of the month resulted in Marla recording a record highest 35.2 mm of rain in the 24hrs to 9am on the 29th. Monthly totals generally ranged from about 20 to 50 mm, with some locations receiving greater than 60 mm. The wettest overall was Marla Police Station with 71.6 mm for the month.
Western agricultural and parts of the upper north saw mainly above average rainfall totals during October, although a large part of north-eastern Eyre Peninsula received very much above average rainfall. Below average totals were recorded over the lower southeast district, while the central districts and the Murray Valley regions received near average totals.
The Murray Valley, Southeast districts, Kangaroo Island, Yorke Peninsula, and the Adelaide Plains generally received between 20 to 50 mm of rainfall while the Mount Lofty Ranges received rainfall totals of between 40 to 60 mm. Rainfall totals of more than 70 mm were recorded over parts of the Western agricultural area. The wettest overall was at Kimba where 81.2 mm was recorded for the month.Some sites had their highest total October rainfall for at least 25 years. Some sites had their highest October daily rainfall on record. See a map of rainfall deciles.
The mean temperature (the average of the daily maximum and daily minimum temperatures) for South Australia as a whole in October 2011 was 20.8 °C, which is 0.9 °C warmer than the long-term average.
The area-averaged mean maximum temperature of 28.1°C was 0.4°C above the long-term October average for South Australia as a whole.
Mean maximum temperatures averaged over South Australia were up to 2°C below average across parts of the central Eyre Peninsula and up to 1°C below the long-term average over the rest of the western agricultural and northwest pastoral districts when averaged across the whole month. Temperatures across parts of the far northeast were up to 1°C warmer than average.
The coldest period was between the 1st though to the 10th of October when conditions were cloudy and wet following the passage of a low pressure trough and weak cold fronts which then cleared under a high pressure system in the Great Australian Bight. Mount Lofty recorded the coldest day of the month in these conditions when its maximum temperature only reached 10.7°C on the 10th.
The warmest period was from the 19th to the 23rd of October in the northerly air stream ahead of trough that crossed the State on the 20th. Maximum temperatures reached 37.7 °C at Marree (Comparison) on the 23rd of October.
Average daily maximum temperatures ranged from 16.2 °C at Mount Lofty to 31.7°C at Moomba Airport in the Far North district. The highest recorded maximum temperature for October was 38.8°C at Moomba Airport on the 28th of the month.
The area-averaged mean minimum temperature of 13.6°C was 1.4°C above the long-term October average for South Australia as a whole.
Mean minimum temperatures were up to 2°C above average across much of the western agricultural district, and above 1°C average across most of the northwest pastoral districts when averaged across the whole of October. Nonning and Elliston on the Eyre Peninsula both had record warmest October minimum temperatures. Average minimum temperatures across the State ranged from 6.9°C at Keith (Munkora) in the State's southeast to 16.6 °C at Oodnadatta airport in the Northeast District.
The coldest nights were between the 1st and 3rd, when winds were generally light as a high pressure system moved across the south of the State. Another cold period, under the influence of another high pressure system, brought minimum temperatures down across southeast districts on the 17th when the coldest night was recorded at Keith (Munkora) with a minimum of -1.6 °C
The warmest nights were around the 19th and 20th of October associated with warmer northerly winds. Oodnadatta Airport recorded the warmest night of the month on the 20th with 25.5°C.Some sites had their highest October mean daily minimum temperature on record. Some sites had their highest October mean daily minimum temperature for at least 25 years.
|Extremes in October 2011|
|Hottest day||38.8 °C at Moomba Airport on the 28th|
|Warmest days on average||31.7 °C at Moomba Airport|
|Coolest days on average||16.2 °C at Mount Lofty|
|Coldest day||10.7 °C at Mount Lofty on the 10th|
|Coldest night||-1.6 °C at Keith (Munkora) on the 17th|
|Coolest nights on average||6.9 °C at Keith (Munkora)|
|Warmest nights on average||16.6 °C at Oodnadatta Airport|
|Warmest night||25.5 °C at Oodnadatta Airport on the 20th|
|Warmest on average overall||23.5 °C at Moomba Airport|
|Coolest on average overall||12.3 °C at Mount Lofty|
|Wettest overall||81.2 mm at Kimba|
|Highest wind gust||
89 km/h at Parafield Airport on the 14th|
89 km/h at Port Augusta Aero on the 20th
|Record highest October daily rainfall|
Highest daily rainfall
in October 2011 (mm)
|Marla Police Station||35.2||on the 29th||33.0||on the 2nd in 1992||27|
|Highest total October rainfall for at least 25 years|
for October 2011 (mm)
Most recent October
at least this wet
|Cowell (Winter Springs)||78.0||80.6||in 1974||37||30.4|
|Record highest October mean daily minimum temperature|
Mean daily minimum
for October 2011 (°C)
|Adelaide Airport||12.5||= 12.5||in 1999||56||10.6|
|Edinburgh RAAF||11.7||11.5||in 1977||38||10.0|
|Adelaide (Kent Town)||13.0||12.8||in 1999||34||11.4|
|Highest October mean daily minimum temperature for at least 25 years|
Mean daily minimum
for October 2011 (°C)
Most recent October
at least this warm
|Ceduna AMO||12.2||12.4||in 1965||46||9.9|
|Lameroo Comparison||9.5||=9.5||in 1973||38||7.8|
|Mount Gambier Aero||8.6||8.9||in 1975||36||7.1|
|Summary statistics for October 2011|
|Northwest (district 16)|
|Coober Pedy Airport||27.5||36.1||19th||14.6||6.5||1st||17.0|
|Marla Police Station||29.0||-0.8||38.5||9th||15.2||+0.9||8.0||1st||71.6||21.1||high||339%|
|Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome)||27.6||36.4||23rd||13.4||3.5||3rd||14.6|
|Far North (district 17)|
|Leigh Creek Airport||27.5||+0.9||35.9||23rd||13.6||+1.2||5.4||3rd||17.0||19.2||average||89%|
|Western Agricultural (district 18)|
|Coulta (Coles Point)||20.3||33.9||19th||11.0||5.1||2nd||46.4|
|North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS)||19.7||35.3||19th||11.0||6.1||18th||27.2|
|Port Augusta Aero||26.4||38.1||23rd||12.6||4.2||2nd||25.4|
|Upper North (district 19)|
|Northeast (district 20)|
|Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot)||25.2||35.2||23rd||9.3||-1.0||5th||46.9|
|Lower North (district 21)|
|Clare High School||20.5||31.4||23rd||9.7||4.8||1st||61.6|
|Port Pirie Aerodrome||24.3||35.5||23rd||11.2||2.6||1st||49.3|
|Port Pirie Nyrstar Comparison||24.5||0.0||35.0||23rd||12.7||+0.8||6.5||2nd||50.5||33.3||high||152%|
|Snowtown (Rayville Park)||23.8||35.4||19th||8.4||1.4||3rd||31.2|
|Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)|
|Kangaroo Island (district 22B)|
|Parndana Cfs AWS||17.7||28.4||19th||8.7||3.7||10th||37.4|
|Adelaide Plains (district 23A)|
|Adelaide (Kent Town)||22.2||+0.4||34.5||19th||13.0||+1.6||7.1||1st||42.6||43.8||average||97%|
|County Light (district 23B)|
|Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre)||33.2||19th||9.5||+1.2||3.0||12th||39.0||44.2||average||88%|
|Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)|
|Hindmarsh Island AWS||20.2||34.7||19th||11.3||5.8||3rd||21.4|
|Kuitpo Forest Reserve||18.0||29.9||19th||9.9||5.1||2nd||45.6|
|Mount Crawford (Mt Crawford AWS)||17.9||28.0||19th||9.0||3.3||2nd||48.2|
|Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS)||16.8||28.8||19th||9.5||4.8||2nd||55.2|
|Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay)||19.4||33.4||19th||9.7||1.9||3rd||32.8|
|Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)|
|Loxton Research Centre||24.4||+0.4||34.9||23rd||9.9||+1.6||3.5||10th||28.0||26.7||average||105%|
|Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)|
|Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome)||21.8||34.5||19th||8.5||0.8||17th||33.6|
|Murray Bridge Comparison||22.4||-0.3||35.1||19th||9.9||+0.9||3.8||3rd||36.5||34.0||average||107%|
|Murray Mallee (district 25A)|
|Upper Southeast (district 25B)|
|Lameroo (Austin Plains)||23.3||34.4||19th||8.4||2.2||2nd||35.4|
|Lower Southeast (district 26)|
|Cape Jaffa (The Limestone)||19.2||30.6||19th||10.0||5.2||26th||30.6|
|Mount Gambier Aero||19.1||+1.2||31.4||19th||8.6||+1.5||1.3||3rd||42.8||61.4||low||70%|
A Monthly Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.
This statement has been prepared based on information available at 2 pm on Monday 31 October 2011. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.
Averages are long-term means based on observations from
all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site.
They are not shown for sites with less than 20 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.
The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site,
based on the
(very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3,
average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9
and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.