South Australia in October 2011: Warm nights, Cool days with above average Rainfall.

  • Minimum temperatures up to 2C above average over the western agricultural and pastorals, with record warmest October minimum temperatures at Nonning and Elliston, but within 1C of average elsewhere.
  • Maximum temperatures up to 2C below average on the Eyre Peninsula.
  • Whilst the rainfall across most of the agricultural areas was above average for October, the growing season (April to October) rainfall has been below average in many locations.

Rainfall

Rainfall in South Australia was mostly above average during October. Averaged across the state as a whole, rainfall was 54% higher than the long term October average of 18.4 mm. Most of the month's rainfall was associated with the passage of upper level troughs and weak cold fronts that crossed the State during the first and second week of October. An upper level prefrontal trough brought high rainfall totals for much of the northwest and central districts at the end of the month.

South Australian average total rainfall for 2011 (January to October) is ranked as fourth wettest on record. The years where similar rainfall totals are higher than 2011, all occurred during the La Nina years of 2010 and 1973-74. Despite a wet first 3 months of 2011, growing season rainfall (April to October) was below average, particularly in relation with a dry spell during late August through September that resulted in low accumulations for many locations through this period.

Pastoral Districts

Rainfall totals for October 2011 over the pastoral districts were mostly above average to very much above average in the far northwest, with the wettest periods being between the 4th and 6th of October following the passage of a low pressure trough. Yardea recorded 45.6 mm of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 5th of October. Another trough that developed over the Northwest of the State at the end of the month resulted in Marla recording a record highest 35.2 mm of rain in the 24hrs to 9am on the 29th. Monthly totals generally ranged from about 20 to 50 mm, with some locations receiving greater than 60 mm. The wettest overall was Marla Police Station with 71.6 mm for the month.

Agricultural Districts

Western agricultural and parts of the upper north saw mainly above average rainfall totals during October, although a large part of north-eastern Eyre Peninsula received very much above average rainfall. Below average totals were recorded over the lower southeast district, while the central districts and the Murray Valley regions received near average totals.

The Murray Valley, Southeast districts, Kangaroo Island, Yorke Peninsula, and the Adelaide Plains generally received between 20 to 50 mm of rainfall while the Mount Lofty Ranges received rainfall totals of between 40 to 60 mm. Rainfall totals of more than 70 mm were recorded over parts of the Western agricultural area. The wettest overall was at Kimba where 81.2 mm was recorded for the month.

Some sites had their highest total October rainfall for at least 25 years.
Some sites had their highest October daily rainfall on record.
See a map of rainfall deciles.

Temperature

The mean temperature (the average of the daily maximum and daily minimum temperatures) for South Australia as a whole in October 2011 was 20.8 C, which is 0.9 C warmer than the long-term average.

Maximum

The area-averaged mean maximum temperature of 28.1C was 0.4C above the long-term October average for South Australia as a whole.

Mean maximum temperatures averaged over South Australia were up to 2C below average across parts of the central Eyre Peninsula and up to 1C below the long-term average over the rest of the western agricultural and northwest pastoral districts when averaged across the whole month. Temperatures across parts of the far northeast were up to 1C warmer than average.

The coldest period was between the 1st though to the 10th of October when conditions were cloudy and wet following the passage of a low pressure trough and weak cold fronts which then cleared under a high pressure system in the Great Australian Bight. Mount Lofty recorded the coldest day of the month in these conditions when its maximum temperature only reached 10.7C on the 10th.

The warmest period was from the 19th to the 23rd of October in the northerly air stream ahead of trough that crossed the State on the 20th. Maximum temperatures reached 37.7 C at Marree (Comparison) on the 23rd of October.

Average daily maximum temperatures ranged from 16.2 C at Mount Lofty to 31.7C at Moomba Airport in the Far North district. The highest recorded maximum temperature for October was 38.8C at Moomba Airport on the 28th of the month.

Minimum

The area-averaged mean minimum temperature of 13.6C was 1.4C above the long-term October average for South Australia as a whole.

Mean minimum temperatures were up to 2C above average across much of the western agricultural district, and above 1C average across most of the northwest pastoral districts when averaged across the whole of October. Nonning and Elliston on the Eyre Peninsula both had record warmest October minimum temperatures. Average minimum temperatures across the State ranged from 6.9C at Keith (Munkora) in the State's southeast to 16.6 C at Oodnadatta airport in the Northeast District.

The coldest nights were between the 1st and 3rd, when winds were generally light as a high pressure system moved across the south of the State. Another cold period, under the influence of another high pressure system, brought minimum temperatures down across southeast districts on the 17th when the coldest night was recorded at Keith (Munkora) with a minimum of -1.6 C

The warmest nights were around the 19th and 20th of October associated with warmer northerly winds. Oodnadatta Airport recorded the warmest night of the month on the 20th with 25.5C.

Some sites had their highest October mean daily minimum temperature on record.
Some sites had their highest October mean daily minimum temperature for at least 25 years.

 

Further information

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Extremes in October 2011
Hottest day 38.8 °C at Moomba Airport on the 28th
Warmest days on average 31.7 °C at Moomba Airport
Coolest days on average 16.2 °C at Mount Lofty
Coldest day 10.7 °C at Mount Lofty on the 10th
Coldest night -1.6 °C at Keith (Munkora) on the 17th
Coolest nights on average 6.9 °C at Keith (Munkora)
Warmest nights on average 16.6 °C at Oodnadatta Airport
Warmest night 25.5 °C at Oodnadatta Airport on the 20th
Warmest on average overall 23.5 °C at Moomba Airport
Coolest on average overall 12.3 °C at Mount Lofty
Wettest overall 81.2 mm at Kimba
Highest wind gust 89 km/h at Parafield Airport on the 14th
89 km/h at Port Augusta Aero on the 20th

Record highest October daily rainfall
Highest daily rainfall
in October 2011 (mm)
Previous wettest
for October
Years of
record
Marla Police Station 35.2 on the 29th 33.0 on the 2nd in 1992 27



Highest total October rainfall for at least 25 years
Total rainfall
for October 2011 (mm)
Most recent October
at least this wet
Years since
wetter
Average for
October
Cowell (Winter Springs) 78.0 80.6 in 1974 37 30.4



Record highest October mean daily minimum temperature
Mean daily minimum
temperature
for October 2011 (°C)
Previous warmest
for October
Years of
record
Average for
October
Adelaide Airport 12.5 = 12.5 in 1999 56 10.6
Elliston 12.7 12.4 in 1977 49 11.1
Nonning 11.4 11.0 in 2008 40 9.5
Edinburgh RAAF 11.7 11.5 in 1977 38 10.0
Adelaide (Kent Town) 13.0 12.8 in 1999 34 11.4

Highest October mean daily minimum temperature for at least 25 years
Mean daily minimum
temperature
for October 2011 (°C)
Most recent October
at least this warm
Years since
warmer
Average for
October
Yongala 8.0 8.1 in 1957 52 6.0
Ceduna AMO 12.2 12.4 in 1965 46 9.9
Kyancutta 10.3 10.6 in 1965 46 8.2
Lameroo Comparison 9.5 =9.5 in 1973 38 7.8
Mount Gambier Aero 8.6 8.9 in 1975 36 7.1
Eudunda 9.2 9.3 in 1977 34 8.0



Summary statistics for October 2011
Maximum temperatures
for October
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
for October
(°C)
Rainfall
for October
(millimetres)
Mean for
October
2011
Diff
from
average
Highest for
October
2011
Mean for
October
2011
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
October
2011
Total for
October
2011
Average
for
October
Rank of
October
2011
Fraction of
October
average
Northwest (district 16)
Andamooka 27.9 -0.1 36.0 23rd 14.7 +1.3 7.0 3rd 11.4 19.6 average 58%
Coober Pedy Airport 27.5   36.1 19th 14.6   6.5 1st 17.0
Ernabella (Pukatja) 28.0   35.8 9th 13.9   7.9 1st 42.8
Marla Police Station 29.0 -0.8 38.5 9th 15.2 +0.9 8.0 1st 71.6 21.1 high 339%
Nonning 23.7 -1.3 34.4 19th 11.4 +1.9 4.8 2nd 65.4 23.3 v high 281%
Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome) 27.6   36.4 23rd 13.4   3.5 3rd 14.6
Tarcoola Aero 26.4   36.7 19th 13.2   2.5 1st 25.4
Woomera Aerodrome 26.2 0.0 37.1 23rd 13.4 +1.1 5.5 1st 16.2 16.0 average 101%
Far North (district 17)
Arkaroola 26.5 0.0 35.2 23rd 12.1 +0.5 2.6 3rd 28.2 19.6 high 144%
Leigh Creek Airport 27.5 +0.9 35.9 23rd 13.6 +1.2 5.4 3rd 17.0 19.2 average 89%
Marree Aero 29.7   37.0 23rd 14.5   5.2 3rd 9.2
Marree Comparison 30.4 +1.0 37.7 23rd 14.1 +0.7 5.7 4th 9.5 13.3 average 71%
Moomba Airport 31.7   38.8 28th 15.4   7.4 3rd 5.2
Oodnadatta Airport 29.5 -0.8 37.0 27th 16.6 +1.5 9.6 1st 20.4 14.1 high 145%
Western Agricultural (district 18)
Ceduna AMO 23.4 -0.4 37.3 19th 12.2 +2.3 5.3 8th 25.6 25.6 average 100%
Cleve 20.9 -1.3 33.6 19th 11.4 +1.3 5.7 1st 61.4 36.7 high 167%
Cleve Aerodrome 20.9   34.1 19th 10.7   5.2 3rd 49.8 29.8 high 167%
Coulta (Coles Point) 20.3   33.9 19th 11.0   5.1 2nd 46.4
Cummins Aero 21.0   34.8 19th 9.6   2.6 1st 33.6
Elliston 21.2 -0.3 34.7 19th 12.7 +1.6 7.0 8th 43.4 30.5 high 142%
Kimba 22.1 -1.6 33.0 19th 10.1 +1.0 3.5 1st 81.2 31.3 v high 259%
Kyancutta 23.6 -1.6 35.0 19th 10.3 +2.1 3.9 2nd 40.8 26.8 high 152%
Minnipa Pirsa 23.0   35.9 19th 11.0   4.0 1st 41.0
Neptune Island 17.6 +0.2 24.6 19th 13.3 +1.0 10.9 1st 41.4 27.2 high 152%
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 19.7   35.3 19th 11.0   6.1 18th 27.2
Nullarbor 24.0 -0.3 36.6 18th 12.1 +2.0 4.5 7th 21.8 18.4 average 118%
Port Augusta Aero 26.4   38.1 23rd 12.6   4.2 2nd 25.4
Streaky Bay 22.9 +0.1 32.8 19th 12.8 +1.4 6.7 2nd 32.9 26.5 high 124%
Whyalla Aero 22.9 -0.9 36.6 19th 11.9 +1.4 3.6 3rd 39.2 24.9 high 157%
Wudinna Aero 24.0   35.5 19th 10.6   4.4 2nd 37.2
Upper North (district 19)
Hawker 26.0 +0.4 36.8 23rd 10.9 +1.2 2.2 2nd 32.4 24.7 high 131%
Yongala 22.7 +1.0 33.5 23rd 8.0 +2.0 0.4 11th 33.6 33.9 average 99%
Northeast (district 20)
Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) 25.2   35.2 23rd 9.3   -1.0 5th 46.9
Yunta Airstrip 24.7   34.6 23rd 10.1   2.1 3rd 17.4
Lower North (district 21)
Clare High School 20.5   31.4 23rd 9.7   4.8 1st 61.6
Port Pirie Aerodrome 24.3   35.5 23rd 11.2   2.6 1st 49.3
Port Pirie Nyrstar Comparison 24.5 0.0 35.0 23rd 12.7 +0.8 6.5 2nd 50.5 33.3 high 152%
Snowtown (Rayville Park) 23.8   35.4 19th 8.4   1.4 3rd 31.2
Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)
Edithburgh 19.5   35.5 19th 12.1   5.3 27th 29.8
Kadina AWS 22.9   35.0 19th 8.7   1.3 2nd 43.4
Maitland 21.1 -0.2 33.5 19th 11.2 +1.3 6.3 2nd 51.0 42.5 high 120%
Minlaton Aero 21.3   34.6 19th 10.3   4.1 2nd 38.4
Stenhouse Bay 19.2   34.0 19th 12.5   8.7 17th 35.0
Warooka 20.3 -0.3 31.8 19th 11.1 +1.0 6.8 2nd 34.8 35.7 average 97%
Kangaroo Island (district 22B)
Cape Borda 17.3   26.4 19th 10.5   6.5 2nd 46.0
Cape Willoughby 17.0 -0.6 29.0 19th 12.3 +0.9 7.6 1st 38.2 42.4 average 90%
Kingscote Aero 20.1   31.6 19th 8.0   0.4 17th 26.6
Parndana Cfs AWS 17.7   28.4 19th 8.7   3.7 10th 37.4
Adelaide Plains (district 23A)
Adelaide (Kent Town) 22.2 +0.4 34.5 19th 13.0 +1.6 7.1 1st 42.6 43.8 average 97%
Adelaide Airport 21.2 +0.3 33.6 19th 12.5 +1.9 5.3 2nd 23.2 37.8 average 61%
Edinburgh RAAF 22.3 +0.3 35.2 19th 11.7 +1.7 4.4 2nd 35.0 39.6 average 88%
Parafield Airport 22.9 +1.2 34.3 19th 11.8 +1.7 4.8 12th 32.0 42.1 average 76%
Roseworthy AWS 22.6   34.5 23rd 8.7   1.1 2nd 43.4
County Light (district 23B)
Nuriootpa Viticultural 20.6   31.1 23rd 9.6   1.7 2nd 16.0
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre)     33.2 19th 9.5 +1.2 3.0 12th 39.0 44.2 average 88%
Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)
Hindmarsh Island AWS 20.2   34.7 19th 11.3   5.8 3rd 21.4
Kuitpo Forest Reserve 18.0   29.9 19th 9.9   5.1 2nd 45.6
Mount Barker 19.4 0.0 31.2 19th 8.8 +1.6 1.7 3rd 41.8 66.7 low 63%
Mount Crawford (Mt Crawford AWS) 17.9   28.0 19th 9.0   3.3 2nd 48.2
Mount Lofty 16.2   27.2 19th 8.3   2.6 2nd 61.0
Noarlunga 20.8   33.3 19th 12.4   6.5 2nd 27.8
Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) 16.8   28.8 19th 9.5   4.8 2nd 55.2
Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay) 19.4   33.4 19th 9.7   1.9 3rd 32.8
Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)
Loxton Research Centre 24.4 +0.4 34.9 23rd 9.9 +1.6 3.5 10th 28.0 26.7 average 105%
Renmark Aero 25.5   36.5 23rd 10.3   2.5 3rd 40.2
Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)
Eudunda 20.8 +0.3 31.9 23rd 9.2 +1.2 3.6 12th 43.2 40.6 average 106%
Meningie 20.5 0.0 31.7 19th 10.2 +0.8 3.4 2nd 33.7 39.2 average 86%
Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) 21.8   34.5 19th 8.5   0.8 17th 33.6
Murray Bridge Comparison 22.4 -0.3 35.1 19th 9.9 +0.9 3.8 3rd 36.5 34.0 average 107%
Strathalbyn Racecourse 20.2   33.5 19th 9.8   2.8 2nd 36.4
Murray Mallee (district 25A)
Karoonda 23.2   34.6 19th 9.2   2.6 3rd 46.9 32.8 high 143%
Upper Southeast (district 25B)
Keith 22.1 +0.6 34.3 19th 9.3 +1.1 1.3 2nd 22.0 42.2 low 52%
Keith (Munkora) 22.9   35.3 19th 6.9   -1.6 17th 19.2
Lameroo (Austin Plains) 23.3   34.4 19th 8.4   2.2 2nd 35.4
Lameroo Comparison 23.4 +0.9 34.1 19th 9.5 +1.7 3.0 2nd
Lower Southeast (district 26)
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 19.2   30.6 19th 10.0   5.2 26th 30.6
Coonawarra 20.2 +0.9 32.2 19th 8.6 +1.5 0.8 2nd 28.8 45.7 low 63%
Mount Gambier Aero 19.1 +1.2 31.4 19th 8.6 +1.5 1.3 3rd 42.8 61.4 low 70%
Naracoorte Aerodrome 20.3   31.8 19th 8.5   0.6 3rd 22.6
Padthaway South 20.8   33.2 19th 8.7   0.4 2nd 25.8
Robe Airfield 19.1   31.3 19th 9.3   4.2 3rd 26.6
Robe Comparison 18.5 +0.9 25.6 18th 11.1 +0.9 5.5 3rd 31.4 44.2 average 71%

Notes

A Monthly Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 2 pm on Monday 31 October 2011. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 20 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries