South Australia in October 2013: Dry, windy with warm days

  • Rainfall was below average for most of the state
  • Daytime temperatures were above average, with cooler nights across eastern districts
  • Windy, with increased frequent strong and gusty winds across the state

Rainfall

Most locations in South Australia received below average rainfall throughout October, apart from the lower southeast where above average rainfall was recorded in a persistent westerly airstream. The wettest periods for much of the state occurred at the start of the month, on the 17th and again on the 22nd and 24th. In the latter period an intense low pressure system moved across southern parts of the State. As the low strengthened, strong to gale force and very gusty winds developed over southern districts along with showers and isolated thunderstorm activity.

Pastoral Districts

Rainfall totals over the pastoral districts were average to below average, tending to very much below average across the Northwest district and other northern parts of the pastoral areas. Rainfall totals were typically between 5 to 10mm in what is typically a low rainfall time of the year with several locations reporting no rainfall through the month. With this, some sites had their lowest total October rainfall on record

The wettest period for the pastoral districts was on the 1st as a cloud band and trough of low pressure produced showers and isolated thunderstorms. The wettest location overall throughout the pastoral districts was at Gluepot Reserve in the northeast of the state with 15.2 mm in total for the month.

Agricultural Districts

Average to below average rainfall was observed across the agricultural districts with some parts in the western agricultural areas seeing very much below average rainfall for the month. The lower southeast was the only region to receive above average rainfall through October were some sites had their highest total October rainfall on record or had their highest total October rainfall for at least 20 years.

Totals ranged between 25 to 50 mm for most locations, with 60 to 80 mm widely recorded across the Mount Lofty Ranges and the lower southeast districts of the state. The wettest overall for the month in the agricultural districts was at Mount Gambier Aerodrome in the lower southeast with 114.8 mm, 35.6 mm of which was reported on the 23rd, which was also the wettest day for any location in the state. Some other sites also reported their highest October daily rainfall on record on the 23rd.

Temperature

The mean temperature (the average of the maximum and minimum temperatures) for South Australia as a whole in October 2013 was 0.9 °C above the long-term average. By contrast, October 2012 was 1.4 °C above average. Mean temperatures across the state ranged from 11.7°C at Mount Lofty to 23.4°C at Oodnadatta Airport in the Far North.

Maximum temperature

Mean maximum temperatures were above average across most of South Australia through October, except for the southeast districts where daytime temperatures were cooler than average. The state wide area average was 1.7 °C above normal and ranks as the 12th warmest October days out of 104 years of observations. Several locations across western agricultural districts and parts of the pastoral districts in the far north observed temperatures in excess of 2.0°C above the long term October average. Elsewhere across the state, daytime temperatures were 1 to 2 °C above average.

Average daily maximum temperatures ranged from 16.2 °C at Mount Lofty to 32.0 °C at Moomba Airport in the Northeast pastoral district.

The warmest period occurred during the third week of October due to a high pressure system over the Tasman Sea directing warm northerly winds across South Australia. From the 18th through to the 21st, much of the state observed maximum temperatures well above average. The warmest day for any location was recorded was at Moomba Airport, reaching 43.5 °C on the 21st, a record warmest October day at this location, though records commenced at this site in 1995. On the 1st, Mount Lofty recorded the coldest day for any location when its maximum temperature reached just 9.7°C. 

Minimum temperature

While most of the eastern half of South Australia experienced cooler than average nights, mean minimum temperatures were mostly near average as a whole, with October overnight minimum temperatures for the state only 0.1 °C warmer than average. Some locations across the western agricultural areas observed nights of 1 to 2 °C above normal, with cooler nights between 1 to 2 °C below average observed across parts of the Flinders ranges and in the Northeast pastoral. The warmest nights on average were recorded at Oodnadatta, with 14.7 °C, while the coolest nights on average were observed at Yongala with 5.0°C.

The warmest nights for many locations occurred between the 19th and 22nd  in the warm north-westerly airstream ahead of an approaching low pressure trough. Moomba Airport reported the warmest night for any location on the 22nd with a minimum of 25.8°C. The coldest night for any location around the State was observed at Yongala where the temperature fell to -1.8 °C on the 18th.

Wind

While strong and gusty winds are common across the southern parts of South Australia during spring months, October 2013 has been particularly windy across the state. On the 1st and 2nd wind gusts in excess of 70 km/h were reported across southern regions associated with the passage of a vigorous cold frontal system. Neptune Island recorded the highest wind gust on the 2nd, with 111km/h. The windy weather continued on the 16th and 17th with gusts up to 78 km/h observed in the Adelaide region km/h. Another vigorous cold front that passed across southern parts of the state on the 22nd, saw winds gust to 107 km/h, again at Neptune Island, and at North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS), while Edinburgh RAAF reported the strongest wind gust in the Adelaide region with 89 km/h. Several stations saw record numbers of gusty winds for October, and accumulated wind totals at southern stations indicate winds were also typically 10-20% stronger than usual for this time of the year.

Further information

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Extremes in October 2013
Hottest day 43.5 °C at Moomba Airport on the 21st
Warmest days on average 32.0 °C at Moomba Airport
Coolest days on average 16.2 °C at Mount Lofty
Coldest day 9.7 °C at Mount Lofty on the 1st
Coldest night -1.8 °C at Yongala on the 18th
Coolest nights on average 5.0 °C at Yongala
Warmest nights on average 14.7 °C at Oodnadatta Airport
Warmest night 25.8 °C at Moomba Airport on the 22nd
Warmest on average overall 23.3 °C at Moomba Airport
23.3 °C at Oodnadatta Airport
Coolest on average overall 11.7 °C at Mount Lofty
Wettest overall 114.8 mm at Mount Gambier Aero
Driest overall 0 mm at Cook, Marla Police Station, and Moomba Airport
Wettest day 35.6 mm at Mount Gambier Aero on the 23rd
Highest wind gust 111 km/h at Neptune Island on the 2nd

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record highest October daily rainfall
Highest daily rainfall
in October 2013 (mm)
Previous wettest
for October
Years of
record
Nangwarry Forestry SA Depot 23.4 on the 23rd 22.4 on the 7th in 1994 20



Record highest total October rainfall
Total rainfall
for October 2013 (mm)
Previous wettest
for October
Years of
record
Average for
October
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 68.0 61.8 in 2000 20 33.8

Highest total October rainfall for at least 20 years
Total rainfall
for October 2013 (mm)
Most recent October
at least this wet
Years since
wetter
Average for
October
Kalangadoo 111.8 175.4 in 1975 38 61.9
Robe Comparison 77.2 83.6 in 1992 21 44.4



Record lowest total October rainfall
Total rainfall
for October 2013 (mm)
Previous driest
for October
Years of
record
Average for
October
Cook 0.0 = 0.0 in 2006 93 17.3
Marla Police Station 0.0 = 0.0 in 1994 28 20.1



Highest October mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years
Mean daily minimum
temperature
for October 2013 (°C)
Most recent October
at least this warm
Years since
warmer
Average for
October
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 10.1 10.4 in 1992 21 9.1



Summary statistics for October 2013
Maximum temperatures
for October
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
for October
(°C)
Rainfall
for October
(millimetres)
Mean for
October
2013
Diff
from
average
Highest for
October
2013
Mean for
October
2013
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
October
2013
Total for
October
2013
Average
for
October
Rank of
October
2013
Fraction of
October
average
Northwest (district 16)
Andamooka 28.7 +0.6 39.5 20th 13.2 -0.3 9.2 14th 4.8 18.9 average 25%
Coober Pedy Airport 29.9   41.5 20th 13.3   8.5 14th 3.0 12.2 average 25%
Ernabella (Pukatja) 30.5   38.9 9th 13.8   4.6 2nd 1.2
Marla Police Station 30.6 +0.8 42.2 9th 13.4 -0.9 6.0 4th 0 20.1 lowest 0%
Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome) 29.2   41.2 20th 11.5   2.2 18th 2.6
Tarcoola Aero 29.6   42.0 9th 12.0   3.6 14th 0.2
Woomera Aerodrome 27.9 +1.7 40.0 20th 12.7 +0.4 7.6 14th 7.6 15.6 average 49%
Far North (district 17)
Arkaroola 27.6 +1.0 40.0 21st     5.3 12th 5.2 19.2 average 27%
Leigh Creek Airport 28.4 +1.7 40.1 21st 11.6 -0.8 5.2 18th 6.6 18.2 average 36%
Marree Aero 30.5   42.1 21st 12.4   6.5 16th 2.6
Marree Comparison 31.4 +1.9 43.3 21st 12.4 -1.0 6.8 18th 3.0 13.2 average 23%
Moomba Airport 32.0   43.5 21st 14.5   8.0 15th 0
Oodnadatta Airport 31.9 +1.6 41.5 21st 14.7 -0.4 7.1 15th 1.8 13.7 average 13%
Western Agricultural (district 18)
Ceduna AMO 26.7 +2.9 42.0 9th 11.3 +1.4 2.0 15th 23.2 25.3 average 92%
Cleve 23.9 +1.6 36.1 20th 10.9 +0.7 4.5 25th 7.4 36.3 v low 20%
Cleve Aerodrome 24.3   37.6 20th 10.2   3.2 25th 4.4 28.9 low 15%
Cummins Aero 24.1   36.7 9th 7.0   0.3 25th 19.4
Elliston 23.1 +1.6 36.0 9th 11.8 +0.7 4.1 18th 10.9 30.2 low 36%
Kimba 24.9 +1.1 38.2 20th 9.1 0.0 3.5 14th 4.8 30.8 low 16%
Kyancutta 27.4 +2.2 40.6 20th 9.0 +0.8 1.0 25th 5.3 26.2 low 20%
Minnipa Pirsa 26.6   39.8 9th 10.5   4.7 18th 5.6
Neptune Island 18.4 +1.0 25.3 9th 13.1 +0.8 9.4 17th 34.0 27.1 high 125%
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 22.1 +1.6 36.3 9th 9.2 -0.3 3.8 18th 27.6 26.6 average 104%
Nullarbor 25.6 +1.3 40.4 8th 11.0 +0.8 2.5 11th 4.0 18.1 low 22%
Port Augusta Aero 27.7   41.6 20th 10.3   2.2 18th 12.4
Streaky Bay 24.8 +2.0 34.0 20th 12.4 +1.0 6.0 25th 5.3 26.3 low 20%
Whyalla Aero 25.4 +1.6 41.2 20th 11.2 +0.7 4.0 18th 5.0 24.3 low 21%
Wudinna Aero 27.3   40.9 20th 8.9   1.0 25th 7.4
Upper North (district 19)
Hawker 26.9 +1.2 38.8 20th 8.6 -1.2 2.8 18th 22.6 24.6 average 92%
Yongala 22.9 +1.1 36.3 20th 5.0 -1.1 -1.8 18th 17.2 33.6 average 51%
Northeast (district 20)
Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) 26.0   39.0 20th 8.9   0.5 15th 15.2
Yunta Airstrip 26.0   38.0 20th 8.7   0.2 18th 7.2
Lower North (district 21)
Clare High School 21.4   35.1 20th 6.8   0.6 25th 29.2 49.1 average 59%
Port Pirie Aerodrome 25.4   38.8 20th 9.5   2.4 25th 15.6
Snowtown (Rayville Park) 24.7   38.6 20th 6.5   -0.1 25th 16.8
Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)
Edithburgh 21.5 +1.4 34.9 9th 9.5 -1.3 2.0 18th 18.6 29.0 low 64%
Kadina AWS 23.7   37.8 20th 7.7   0.2 18th 12.2
Maitland 22.4 +1.1 35.5 20th 10.7 +0.7 6.9 15th 25.8 41.7 average 62%
Minlaton Aero 23.1   35.1 9th 9.3   2.7 25th 13.6
Stenhouse Bay 20.4   31.8 9th 11.3   5.5 18th 26.4
Warooka 21.1 +0.5 29.4 20th 10.0 -0.1 5.8 24th 19.8 35.4 average 56%
Kangaroo Island (district 22B)
Cape Borda 18.0   26.6 9th 10.7   6.7 26th 54.4
Cape Willoughby 18.3 +0.7 26.1 9th 11.7 +0.3 7.7 17th 46.6 41.9 average 111%
Kingscote Aero 20.4   29.9 9th 8.0   2.5 18th 41.0 31.4 average 131%
Parndana Cfs AWS 18.0   26.9 9th 8.4   3.8 26th 55.0
Adelaide Plains (district 23A)
Adelaide (Kent Town) 22.3 +0.4 33.0 20th 11.3 -0.2 5.4 15th 32.4 43.1 average 75%
Adelaide Airport 21.9 +0.9 32.7 20th 11.1 +0.5 5.0 15th 16.4 37.2 low 44%
Edinburgh RAAF 23.1 +1.0 34.1 20th 10.1 +0.1 3.7 15th 18.6 38.6 low 48%
Parafield Airport 23.3 +1.5 34.3 20th 9.9 -0.2 3.4 15th 21.4 41.4 low 52%
Roseworthy AWS 24.4   38.0 20th 7.7   1.6 25th 12.2
County Light (district 23B)
Nuriootpa Viticultural 21.4   34.4 20th 7.4   0.1 15th 21.0
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 22.9 +1.1 36.8 20th 7.1 -1.2 1.1 15th 24.5 43.8 average 56%
Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)
Hindmarsh Island AWS 21.5   33.3 9th 11.1   5.9 4th 22.0
Kuitpo Forest Reserve 18.6   29.0 20th 9.0   4.8 4th 36.4
Mount Barker 19.8 +0.4 30.9 20th 7.9 +0.7 2.2 25th 49.0 66.4 average 74%
Mount Crawford (Mt Crawford AWS) 18.4   30.0 20th 8.2   3.9 24th 41.4 48.7 average 85%
Mount Lofty 16.2   26.6 20th 7.3   3.3 24th 63.4
Noarlunga 21.2   31.4 9th 11.5   6.9 25th 15.8
Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) 16.8   26.3 9th 9.1   5.7 4th 51.8 62.5 average 83%
Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay) 21.0   31.5 9th 9.5   2.1 18th 30.6
Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)
Loxton Research Centre 24.8 +0.7 37.9 20th 8.4 +0.1 1.3 18th 20.0 26.0 average 77%
Renmark Aero 25.8   39.7 20th 8.6   0.1 15th 18.4
Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)
Eudunda 21.8 +1.2 35.2 20th 8.0 0.0 2.6 15th 23.0 40.2 average 57%
Meningie 21.3 +0.7 29.3 19th 10.5 +1.1 5.0 18th 28.0 39.0 average 72%
Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) 23.6   36.4 20th 7.2   -1.1 4th 12.4
Murray Bridge Comparison 23.9 +1.2 35.2 20th 9.0 0.0 2.8 4th 14.4 33.8 low 43%
Strathalbyn Racecourse 21.3   32.5 20th 9.3   4.0 4th 26.2
Murray Mallee (district 25A)
Karoonda 23.8   37.5 20th 8.7   1.9 15th 14.4 32.5 low 44%
Upper Southeast (district 25B)
Keith 21.6 +0.1 33.0 9th 8.8 +0.6 3.0 4th 33.8 41.9 average 81%
Keith (Munkora) 21.7   32.8 20th 6.8   -0.3 18th 52.2
Lameroo (Austin Plains) 23.6   37.0 20th 6.6   0.2 18th 18.2
Lameroo Comparison 23.3 +0.7 36.5 20th 8.3 +0.5 2.7 18th 14.2 36.7 low 39%
Lower Southeast (district 26)
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 17.5 -1.0 26.7 19th 10.1 +1.0 6.3 7th 68.0 33.8 highest 201%
Coonawarra 18.2 -1.2 28.0 9th 8.2 +1.0 3.1 7th 83.6 46.7 v high 179%
Mount Gambier Aero 17.3 -0.6 26.8 19th 8.3 +1.2 3.5 4th 114.8 61.8 v high 186%
Naracoorte Aerodrome 18.9   29.4 9th 7.9   2.5 7th 58.8
Padthaway South 19.3   30.6 9th 8.1   2.7 7th 60.6
Robe Airfield 17.4   26.3 19th 9.8   4.7 7th 70.0
Robe Comparison 16.8 -0.8 23.0 19th 11.0 +0.7 8.1 27th 77.2 44.4 v high 174%

Notes

A Monthly Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 10 am on Friday 1 November 2013. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 20 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

The ACORN-SAT dataset is being used for temperature area averages from December 2012 onwards. The major change from earlier datasets is that the ACORN-SAT dataset commences in 1910, rather than 1950, and hence rankings are calculated using a larger set of years.

Further information

Media
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