South Australia in October 2014: hottest and driest October on record

Maximum temperatures were well above average across South Australia during October, with many locations experiencing highest on record daytime temperatures. Across the state as a whole, the October maximum temperature was +4.1 C above the long-term average and +0.9 C warmer than the previous warmest October observed in 1988. Minimum temperatures were +1.5 C above the long-term average for the state, though some central and eastern districts observed generally mild nights. In the second half of the month, northerly winds saw several locations observe both day and night temperatures that were significantly above average, with several locations observing extended periods with daily maximum temperatures above 35 C. With respect to mean temperature, the warm days and nights across South Australia have resulted in the warmest October on record with a statewide mean temperature anomaly of +2.8 C above average.

Rainfall was very much below average across most of the state, with locations across western and central agricultural districts experiencing their driest October on record. The heaviest rainfall occurred on the evening of the 26th, as a low pressure trough with embedded thunderstorms crossed central and eastern districts. Isolated showers in a fresh southwesterly airstream cleared by the afternoon of the 28th. Very little rainfall was recorded during other periods of the month which resulted in 1.6 mm of rainfall statewide (92% below normal), and the driest October on record. The previous driest October was observed in 1982 with a statewide average of 2.1 mm.

  • Record runs of days above thresholds at many locations
  • Driest October on record for the state
  • Hottest October on record for the state

Further information

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Extremes in October 2014
Hottest day 43.1 C at Moomba Airport on the 26th
Warmest days on average 34.1 C at Oodnadatta Airport
Coolest days on average 19.0 C at Neptune Island
Coldest day 10.4 C at Mount Lofty on the 14th
Coldest night -2.1 C at Keith (Munkora) on the 15th
Coolest nights on average 6.5 C at Keith (Munkora)
Warmest nights on average 17.1 C at Moomba Airport
Warmest night 28.4 C at Moomba Airport on the 27th
Warmest on average overall 25.4 C at Moomba Airport and at Oodnadatta Airport
Coolest on average overall 14.5 C at Mount Gambier Aero
Wettest overall 25.8 mm at Nangwarry Forestry SA Depot
Wettest day 20.0 mm at Glendambo on the 31st
Strongest wind gust 135 km/h at Coober Pedy Airport on the 31st

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record lowest October total rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
October
Melrose 1.0 1.4 in 2006 154 53.1
Jamestown 0.4 0.6 in 2006 138 44.2
Yongala 0.2 0.3 in 2006 134 33.4
Elliston 1.0 2.2 in 2006 133 29.9
Murrays Lagoon (Bayside) 2.3 3.6 in 2006 103 37.4
Owen 1.5 2.1 in 1969 82 40.2
Burra Community School 0.4 0.6 in 2006 50 39.3
Port Parham 2.8 4.4 in 2008 43 34.3
Morgan (Brenda Park Station) 0.4 0.5 in 2006 23 26.8
Coulta (Coles Point) 0.6 1.0 in 2006 21 24.2

Lowest October total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
lower
Years since
lower
Average for
October
Mount Hope (Fairview) 0.4 0.0 in 1927 87 28.0
Booleroo Centre (Willowie) 0.4 0.0 in 1929* 83 29.3
Woomera Aerodrome 0.4 0.0 in 1991 23 15.4
Swan Reach 0.8 0.4 in 1991* 22 26.1

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported.




Record highest October temperature
New record
(C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
October
Mount Barker 35.3 on the 21st 34.9 on the 12th in 2004 58 19.4
Meningie 36.4 on the 21st 34.6 on the 12th in 2006 49 20.6
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 34.0 on the 21st 33.1 on the 25th in 1997 23 18.4
Clare High School 35.6 on the 21st = 35.6 on the 12th in 2006 21 20.6
Kingscote Aero 33.8 on the 21st 33.1 on the 12th in 2004 21 19.9
Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) 33.6 on the 21st 29.6 on the 12th in 2004 21 16.5



Record highest October mean daily maximum temperature
New record
(C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
October
Mount Barker 24.4 22.5 in 2006 112 19.4
Streaky Bay 26.5 25.6 in 2008 87 22.9
Yongala 26.8 26.3 in 1940 86 21.8
Kyancutta 30.1 28.9 in 1940 84 25.2
Ceduna AMO 27.5 26.9 in 2008 73 23.8
Mount Gambier Aero 21.1 20.5 in 2006 72 17.9
Woomera Aerodrome 31.0 29.4 in 1988 65 26.2
Keith 25.6 24.4 in 2006 60 21.6
Adelaide Airport 24.5 23.6 in 2006 59 21.0
Parafield Airport 26.1 25.2 in 2006 57 21.8
Elliston 24.5 24.2 in 2004 52 21.6
Neptune Island 19.0 = 19.0 in 1988 52 17.5
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 27.0 25.6 in 2006 52 21.9
Eudunda 25.6 24.2 in 2006 49 20.6
Meningie 24.5 22.8 in 1988 48 20.6
Cape Willoughby 20.4 19.7 in 1988 47 17.6
Kimba 28.6 28.5 in 1988 46 23.8
Andamooka 31.9 31.5 in 1988 44 28.1
Edinburgh RAAF 25.8 25.0 in 2006 41 22.1
Hawker 30.4 30.0 in 1988 41 25.7
Adelaide (Kent Town) 26.0 24.4 in 2006 37 21.9
Maitland 25.9 23.8 in 2006 33 21.4
Leigh Creek Airport 31.1 29.9 in 2006 30 26.8
Loxton Research Centre 28.0 26.6 in 2008 30 24.1
Coonawarra 22.3 22.0 in 2008 29 19.3
Nullarbor 27.3 26.6 in 2004 26 24.4
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 20.7 20.4 in 2006 22 18.4
Coulta (Coles Point) 23.7 23.1 in 2004 22 21.0
Edithburgh 23.2 22.1 in 2006 22 20.2
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 24.4 22.9 in 2006 22 20.6
Clare High School 25.7 24.2 in 2006 20 20.6
Coober Pedy Airport 32.4 31.0 in 2012 20 28.4
Kingscote Aero 23.0 22.3 in 2008 20 19.9
Mount Crawford (Mt Crawford AWS) 22.7 21.1 in 2006 20 17.7
Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) 20.0 18.9 in 2004 20 16.5

Highest October mean daily maximum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(C)
Most recent
higher
Years since
higher
Average for
October
Warooka 24.0 24.4 in 1965* 48 20.6
Oodnadatta Airport 34.1 34.3 in 1967* 37 30.3
Arkaroola 30.9 32.5 in 1988 26 26.6
Marla Police Station 33.4 34.1 in 1988 26 29.9
Cleve 26.5 27.9 in 1988* 25 22.3
Whyalla Aero 27.2 27.4 in 1988* 21 23.8

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.




Record highest October daily minimum temperature
New record
(C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
October
Moomba Airport 28.4 on the 27th = 28.4 on the 29th in 2005 20 15.6



Record highest October mean daily minimum temperature
New record
(C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
October
Woomera Aerodrome 14.6 14.4 in 1977 65 12.4
Meningie 11.0 10.8 in 1999 48 9.4
Coober Pedy Airport 16.0 15.6 in 2004 20 13.9

Highest October mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(C)
Most recent
higher
Years since
higher
Average for
October
Cleve 11.9 12.0 in 1965* 48 10.2
Andamooka 15.4 15.7 in 1977 37 13.5

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.




Record highest October mean temperature
New record
(C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
October
Mount Barker 16.3 15.5 in 1867 112 13.3
Streaky Bay 19.7 19.3 in 2008 87 17.1
Kyancutta 19.9 19.5 in 1965 84 16.7
Mount Gambier Aero 14.5 14.0 in 2008 72 12.5
Woomera Aerodrome 22.8 21.5 in 1977 65 19.3
Adelaide Airport 17.9 17.5 in 1965 59 15.8
Keith 17.4 16.6 in 1963 59 14.9
Elliston 18.4 18.1 in 2008 52 16.3
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 17.8 17.4 in 1965 52 15.1
Neptune Island 16.3 = 16.3 in 1999 51 14.9
Eudunda 17.2 17.1 in 1965 49 14.3
Meningie 17.9 16.7 in 1988 48 15.0
Cape Willoughby 16.4 15.9 in 2008 47 14.5
Andamooka 23.7 23.4 in 1988 44 20.8
Edinburgh RAAF 18.0 17.6 in 2006 41 16.0
Adelaide (Kent Town) 19.1 18.1 in 2006 37 16.7
Maitland 18.5 17.6 in 2008 33 15.7
Leigh Creek Airport 22.4 22.0 in 1988 30 19.6
Loxton Research Centre 18.6 17.7 in 2008 30 16.2
Coonawarra 15.1 14.8 in 2008 29 13.3
Whyalla Aero 19.4 19.0 in 1988 29 17.2
Nullarbor 19.1 18.8 in 2004 26 17.3
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 15.4 14.9 in 2004 22 13.8
Coulta (Coles Point) 17.4 16.8 in 1999 22 15.5
Edithburgh 17.2 16.8 in 2006 22 15.4
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 17.2 16.4 in 2008 22 15.1
Clare High School 17.1 16.0 in 2006 20 14.2
Coober Pedy Airport 24.2 23.2 in 2004 20 21.2
Kingscote Aero 15.3 14.6 in 2008 20 13.5
Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) 14.8 14.3 in 2004 20 12.7

Highest October mean temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(C)
Most recent
higher
Years since
higher
Average for
October
Yongala 16.7 17.7 in 1940* 71 13.9
Parafield Airport 18.1 18.2 in 1940* 56 16.0
Warooka 17.6 18.2 in 1965* 48 15.4
Oodnadatta Airport 25.4 25.7 in 1967* 37 22.7
Arkaroola 21.9 22.1 in 1988 26 19.1
Kimba 19.1 19.5 in 1988 26 16.4
Marla Police Station 24.8 24.9 in 1988 26 22.1
Cleve 19.2 19.6 in 1988* 25 16.2
Hawker 20.5 20.9 in 1988* 21 17.7

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.




Summary statistics for October 2014
Maximum temperatures
(C)
Minimum temperatures
(C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
October
2014
Diff
from
average
Highest for
October
2014
Mean for
October
2014
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
October
2014
Total for
October
2014
Average
for
October
Rank of
October
2014
Fraction of
October
average
Northwest (district 16)
Andamooka 31.9 +3.8 40.1 24th 15.4 +1.9 8.1 14th 3.0 18.6 average 16%
Coober Pedy Airport 32.4 +4.0 40.4 24th 16.0 +2.1 8.1 14th 0.2 11.6 low 2%
Ernabella (Pukatja) 32.6 +3.8 39.3 26th 16.6 +2.6 6.1 15th 0.2 23.2 v low 1%
Marla Police Station 33.4 +3.5 42.3 26th 16.2 +1.9 7.2 15th 0.6 19.4 low 3%
Mount Ive     38.8 24th 10.8   1.2 13th 0 22.6 lowest 0%
Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome) 32.0 +4.0 41.2 24th 14.3 +2.0 5.3 16th 0 13.0 v low 0%
Tarcoola Aero 32.4 +4.4 41.7 26th 13.2 +1.5 3.7 14th 0 15.9 v low 0%
Woomera Aerodrome 31.0 +4.8 39.9 24th 14.6 +2.2 7.2 15th 0.4 15.4 v low 3%
Far North (district 17)
Arkaroola 30.9 +4.3 38.9 25th 12.0 +0.4 4.8 16th 0 18.9 lowest 0%
Leigh Creek Airport 31.1 +4.3 39.1 24th 13.8 +1.4 7.2 14th 2.8 17.7 low 16%
Marree Aero 33.3 +3.7 40.6 24th 14.7 +0.8 8.4 14th 0.4 10.8 v low 4%
Moomba Airport 33.8 +3.3 43.1 26th 17.1 +1.5 8.9 15th 0 9.8 lowest 0%
Oodnadatta Airport 34.1 +3.8 42.5 26th 16.7 +1.6 7.4 15th 0 13.5 lowest 0%
Western Agricultural (district 18)
Ceduna AMO 27.5 +3.7 40.6 20th 10.3 +0.4 -0.1 14th 0.6 25.0 v low 2%
Cleve 26.5 +4.2 37.0 21st 11.9 +1.7 6.0 13th 2.2 36.0 v low 6%
Cleve Aerodrome 26.5 +3.7 37.9 21st 10.6 +0.8 4.3 8th 1.4 28.4 v low 5%
Coulta (Coles Point) 23.7 +2.7 34.4 21st 11.0 +0.9 3.9 15th 0.6 24.2 lowest 2%
Cummins Aero 26.9   36.0 26th 8.7   0.0 15th 0.6
Elliston 24.5 +2.9 37.8 20th 12.3 +1.2 4.2 15th 1.0 29.9 lowest 3%
Kimba 28.6 +4.8 37.0 24th 9.9 +0.8 4.0 13th 2.6 30.5 v low 9%
Kyancutta 30.1 +4.9 38.4 24th 9.7 +1.5 0.2 15th 3.9 26.0 low 15%
Minnipa Pirsa 29.1 +4.2 37.5 20th 11.2 +1.2 1.9 14th 1.6 21.0 low 8%
Neptune Island 19.0 +1.5 25.6 18th 13.6 +1.3 9.5 13th 3.2 26.7 v low 12%
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 24.4 +3.8 34.6 18th 10.0 +0.5 4.1 16th 0.6 25.3 v low 2%
Nullarbor 27.3 +2.9 38.6 9th 10.8 +0.6 3.2 15th 1.6 17.9 v low 9%
Port Augusta Aero 29.8 +3.1 41.0 21st 13.0 +1.6 5.0 15th 0.6 17.4 v low 3%
Streaky Bay 26.5 +3.6 39.0 20th 12.7 +1.3 5.5 16th 2.3 26.0 v low 9%
Whyalla Aero 27.2 +3.4 39.4 21st 11.6 +1.0 4.4 16th 4.4 23.7 low 19%
Wudinna Aero 30.0 +4.5 38.3 24th 9.6 +1.0 0.5 15th 1.8 20.2 low 9%
Upper North (district 19)
Hawker 30.4 +4.7 38.2 21st 10.6 +0.8 0.5 14th 0 24.4 lowest 0%
Yongala 26.8 +5.0 34.9 21st 6.9 +0.9 -1.4 14th 0.2 33.4 lowest 1%
Northeast (district 20)
Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) 29.5 +4.2 39.4 22nd 8.7 +0.1 2.1 15th 0.4 23.3 v low 2%
Lower North (district 21)
Clare High School 25.7 +5.1 35.6 21st 8.5 +0.8 0.4 15th 4.0 47.0 low 9%
Port Pirie Aerodrome 27.9   38.5 21st 10.2   2.1 15th 1.1
Snowtown (Rayville Park) 28.1 +4.1 39.0 21st 7.4 +0.6 -1.3 15th 2.2 28.3 v low 8%
Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)
Edithburgh 23.2 +3.0 34.0 18th 11.2 +0.5 3.8 16th 2.8 27.8 v low 10%
Kadina AWS 26.6   37.4 21st 8.1   0.6 16th 2.0 22.1 low 9%
Maitland 25.9 +4.5 37.0 21st 11.3 +1.3 4.6 16th 3.0 41.3 v low 7%
Minlaton Aero 25.6 +3.6 38.7 21st 10.0 +0.9 2.6 16th 1.2 24.5 v low 5%
Stenhouse Bay 22.5 +2.6 35.2 21st 12.6 +1.0 9.4 13th 6.0 29.2 low 21%
Warooka 24.0 +3.4 35.2 21st 11.2 +1.1 7.2 8th 2.2 35.2 v low 6%
Kangaroo Island (district 22B)
Cape Borda 19.6 +1.8 30.4 21st 10.9 +0.9 6.3 3rd 7.0 31.2 v low 22%
Cape Willoughby 20.4 +2.8 30.3 21st 12.4 +1.0 9.2 13th 4.4 41.7 v low 11%
Kingscote Aero 23.0 +3.1 33.8 21st 7.6 +0.5 0.9 8th 3.8 30.0 low 13%
Parndana Cfs AWS 20.9   33.1 21st 8.8   4.3 30th 9.0
Adelaide Plains (district 23A)
Adelaide (Kent Town) 26.0 +4.1 37.3 21st 12.1 +0.6 5.1 15th 5.0 42.8 v low 12%
Adelaide Airport 24.5 +3.5 37.7 21st 11.3 +0.7 5.1 15th 5.0 36.6 v low 14%
Edinburgh RAAF 25.8 +3.7 38.4 21st 10.3 +0.3 2.3 15th 5.6 37.8 v low 15%
Parafield Airport 26.1 +4.3 38.8 21st 10.2 +0.1 1.8 15th 1.0 40.8 v low 2%
Roseworthy AWS 27.6 +4.3 39.3 21st 7.7 +0.2 -1.3 15th 7.8 32.3 low 24%
County Light (district 23B)
Nuriootpa Viticultural 25.6 +4.7 35.6 21st 8.2 +0.1 -1.0 15th 5.4 36.0 low 15%
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 27.0 +5.1 38.0 21st 8.5 +0.2 -1.2 15th 5.4 43.5 v low 12%
Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)
Hindmarsh Island AWS 23.8 +3.1 38.4 21st 11.7 +1.0 7.3 13th 7.6 28.0 low 27%
Kuitpo Forest Reserve 22.2 +3.9 34.8 21st 10.0 +1.0 5.0 14th 11.2 51.4 v low 22%
Mount Barker 24.4 +5.0 35.3 21st 8.5 +1.3 3.0 2nd 15.2 66.0 v low 23%
Mount Crawford (Mt Crawford AWS) 22.7 +5.0 32.6 21st 8.4 +0.1 3.1 15th 5.2 46.6 v low 11%
Mount Lofty 20.6 +6.0 31.4 21st 8.9 +1.6 3.3 14th 12.0
Noarlunga 24.8 +3.9 37.4 21st 12.4 +1.0 6.0 14th 3.4 32.7 v low 10%
Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) 20.0 +3.5 33.6 21st 9.7 +0.9 5.1 13th 11.0 60.0 v low 18%
Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay) 23.5 +3.3 37.9 21st 9.6 +0.8 1.9 9th 5.8 37.8 v low 15%
Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)
Loxton Research Centre 28.0 +3.9 38.5 22nd 9.2 +0.9 3.0 8th 0.8 25.2 v low 3%
Renmark Aero 28.7 +3.7 38.8 22nd 9.4 +0.6 2.2 8th 0.2 25.2 v low 1%
Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)
Eudunda 25.6 +5.0 34.6 21st 8.7 +0.7 3.1 2nd 11.4 40.0 low 29%
Meningie 24.5 +3.9 36.4 21st 11.0 +1.6 2.4 3rd 6.6 38.8 v low 17%
Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) 26.9   37.8 21st 8.1   0.4 17th 4.4
Strathalbyn Racecourse 25.2 +4.1 37.3 21st 10.2 +1.5 4.0 17th 9.4 34.6 low 27%
Murray Mallee (district 25A)
Karoonda 27.3 +3.8 37.2 21st 8.9 +0.9 2.5 3rd 0.8 32.1 v low 2%
Upper Southeast (district 25B)
Keith 25.6 +4.0 36.2 31st 9.1 +0.9 1.0 15th 3.8 41.5 v low 9%
Keith (Munkora) 26.1 +4.0 37.2 31st 6.5 +0.8 -2.1 15th 5.8 26.3 v low 22%
Lameroo (Austin Plains) 26.9 +3.2 37.7 22nd 7.6 +0.5 -0.4 14th 2.8 18.6 low 15%
Lower Southeast (district 26)
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 20.7 +2.3 34.0 21st 10.0 +0.8 4.3 17th 7.0 32.5 v low 22%
Coonawarra 22.3 +3.0 32.1 22nd 7.9 +0.7 0.9 1st 15.0 45.9 low 33%
Mount Gambier Aero 21.1 +3.2 33.2 31st 8.0 +0.9 2.8 9th 25.2 61.3 low 41%
Naracoorte Aerodrome 23.9 +3.6 34.5 22nd 7.1 +0.4 -1.7 17th 6.0 35.8 v low 17%
Padthaway South 23.9 +3.6 34.4 22nd 7.9 +0.2 0.3 17th 11.2 35.7 low 31%
Robe Airfield 20.8 +2.2 32.3 21st 9.0 +0.6 1.8 9th 8.0 33.7 v low 24%

Notes

A Monthly Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.

A Climate Summary is generally published on the first working day of each month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 9 am on Monday 3 November 2014. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

The ACORN-SAT dataset is used for temperature area averages.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries