Victoria in December 2013: Warm daytimes, mixed rainfall

Victoria in December 2013 was characterised by:

  • drier than normal conditions in the west
  • warm daytimes across most of the State
  • warm nights in Gippsland.

Wet in the north, dry in the west

Preliminary data indicates that rainfall totals were above average over parts of the north but below average over the west. The wettest station overall was Toolangi (Mt St Leonard MW) to the northeast of Melbourne with 155.8 mm. Kaniva , in the Wimmera, was the driest station overall with 3.0 mm. The wettest single day was the 5th when thunderstorms occurred over most of the State and Mount Hotham reported 76.8 mm. Some stations, with relatively short records, had their highest December daily rainfall on record and/or their highest total December rainfall. Meanwhile, others reported their lowest total December rainfall on record. The area averaged rainfall for the State was 38.33 mm which is 9.19 mm drier than the 1961-90 average of 47.52 mm. There is a map of rainfall deciles below.

Overall temperatures mostly normal

Mean temperatures (the average of maximum and minimum temperatures) were warmer than normal in the Mallee but close to normal in most other parts. The warmest station on average was Mildura Airport in the far northwest with 23.8 C. Mount Hotham, in the Alpine region, had the coolest on average with 10.0 C. The average temperature for Victoria was 19.45 C which is 1.10 C warmer than the 1961-90 average of 18.35 C.

Warmer than usual daytimes across the State

Daytime temperatures have been warmer than usual in the Mallee and parts of all other districts. The exception is the Central district where they have been mostly typical for December. The hottest day was the 20th when Ouyen (Post Office) recorded 44.8 C. Mildura Airport, in the far northwest, recorded the warmest days on average with 32.0 C. Mount Hotham, in the Alpine region, recorded the coolest days on average with 14.4 C. The coldest day was the 5th when Mount Hotham recorded 0.0 C. Some stations reported their coldest December day (lowest maximum temperature) on record while a couple had their highest December temperature on record. There is a map of maximum temperature anomalies below. The area averaged maximum temperature for Victoria was 26.79 C which is 1.60 C warmer than the 1961-90 average of 25.19 C.

Warm nights in Gippsland

Overnight temperatures have been warmer than usual in northern parts of the Mallee and most of Gippsland. Average minimum temperatures were mostly close to normal in other districts. The coldest night was the 6th when Falls Creek and Mount Hotham recorded -4.1 C. Mount Hotham also recorded the coolest nights on average with 5.7 C, whilst Mildura Airport had the warmest with 15.6C. The warmest night was the 20th when Ouyen (Post Office) and Walpeup Research recorded 28.8 C. Some stations had their lowest December temperature on record but Ouyen (Post Office) observed their warmest December night (highest daily minimum temperature) on record. There is a map of minimum temperature anomalies below. The area averaged minimum temperature for Victoria was 12.10 C which is 0.59 C warmer than the 1961-90 average of 11.51 C.

Wind

The strongest wind gust was 109 km/h recorded at Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse on the 5th.

Further information

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Extremes in December 2013
Hottest day 44.8 C at Ouyen (Post Office) on the 20th
Warmest days on average 32.0 C at Mildura Airport
Coolest days on average 14.4 C at Mount Hotham
Coldest day 0.0 C at Mount Hotham on the 5th
Coldest night -4.1 C at Falls Creek on the 6th
-4.1 C at Mount Hotham on the 6th
Coolest nights on average 5.7 C at Mount Hotham
Warmest nights on average 15.6 C at Mildura Airport
Warmest night 28.8 C at Ouyen (Post Office) on the 20th
28.8 C at Walpeup Research on the 20th
Warmest on average overall 23.8 C at Mildura Airport
Coolest on average overall 10.0 C at Mount Hotham
Wettest overall 155.8 mm at Toolangi (Mt St Leonard MW)
Driest overall 3.0 mm at Kaniva
Wettest day 76.8 mm at Mount Hotham on the 5th
Highest wind gust 109 km/h at Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse on the 5th

Maps

Anomaly in mean maximum temperature

Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature

Anomaly in mean minimum temperature

Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature

Rainfall deciles

Map of Rainfall deciles


Record highest December daily rainfall
Highest daily rainfall
in December 2013 (mm)
Previous wettest
for December
Years of
record
Holland Ck at Wrightley 62.6 on the 5th 61.0 on the 3rd in 2005 14
Strathbogie (Mount Wombat) 54.8 on the 5th 47.2 on the 22nd in 2007 14
Too Rour (Moroko Park) 42.8 on the 5th 41.6 on the 22nd in 2007 14
Dargo River @ Lower Dargo Road 37.4 on the 5th 22.4 on the 13th in 2004 13



Record highest total December rainfall
Total rainfall
for December 2013 (mm)
Previous wettest
for December
Years of
record
Average for
December
Strathbogie (Mount Wombat) 125.0 108.2 in 2010 14 48.7
Healesville (Yarra River @ Yarra Grange) 112.2 81.2 in 2004 11 59.8
Toolangi (Mt St Leonard MW) 155.8 135.2 in 2011 11 95.9



Record lowest total December rainfall
Total rainfall
for December 2013 (mm)
Previous driest
for December
Years of
record
Average for
December
Cardinia Reservoir 61.6 66.8 in 1995 12 98.9
Nhill Aerodrome 6.2 6.4 in 2006 11 30.1
Kanagulk 17.6 19.4 in 2006 10 48.2



Record highest December temperature
Highest temperature
in December 2013 (C)
Previous warmest
for December
Years of
record
Average for
December
Mangalore Airport 42.6 on the 20th 42.2 on the 10th in 2006 53 26.9
Wangaratta Aero 41.7 on the 19th 41.6 on the 31st in 2005 27 28.9



Record lowest December daily maximum temperature
Lowest daily maximum
temperature
in December 2013 (C)
Previous coolest
for December
Years of
record
Average for
December
Ballarat Aerodrome 10.9 on the 5th 11.0 on the 27th in 1993 57 22.6
Gabo Island Lighthouse 13.5 on the 5th 13.9 on the 11th in 1964 57 19.9
Point Hicks (Lighthouse) 12.9 on the 5th 14.4 on the 6th in 2002 46 22.0
Mount Hotham 0.0 on the 5th = 0.0 on the 27th in 1993 23 13.5
Mallacoota 12.6 on the 5th 14.7 on the 3rd in 1996 21 21.9
Shepparton Airport 17.7 on the 5th 18.5 on the 19th in 2010 18 28.6
Stawell Aerodrome 13.4 on the 5th 14.4 on the 19th in 2010 18 26.3
Colac (Mount Gellibrand) 13.0 on the 5th = 13.0 on the 2nd in 2001 14 23.0
Dinner Plain (Mount Hotham Airport) 8.0 on the 5th 8.2 on the 14th in 2008 14 19.4



Record highest December daily minimum temperature
Highest daily minimum
temperature
in December 2013 (C)
Previous warmest
for December
Years of
record
Average for
December
Ouyen (Post Office) 28.8 on the 20th 27.8 on the 12th in 1998 57 13.7



Record lowest December temperature
Lowest temperature
in December 2013 (C)
Previous coolest
for December
Years of
record
Average for
December
Longerenong 0.5 on the 6th 2.0 on the 2nd in 2004 49 11.2
Castlemaine Prison 1.0 on the 6th = 1.0 on the 12th in 1995 46 10.8
Cape Nelson Lighthouse 5.7 on the 30th 5.8 on the 7th in 2006 19 13.1


Summary statistics for December 2013
Maximum temperatures
for December
(C)
Minimum temperatures
for December
(C)
Rainfall
for December
(millimetres)
Mean for
December
2013
Diff
from
average
Highest for
December
2013
Mean for
December
2013
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
December
2013
Total for
December
2013
Average
for
December
Rank of
December
2013
Fraction of
December
average
North Mallee (district 76)
Mildura Airport 32.0 +1.9 43.1 20th 15.6 +0.8 8.1 6th 55.6 25.8 high 216%
Ouyen (Post Office) 31.9 +1.7 44.8 20th 14.7 +1.0 7.0 6th 23.3 25.7 average 91%
Walpeup Research 31.7 +1.9 44.0 20th 14.4 +0.9 6.2 6th 20.4 24.8 average 82%
South Mallee (district 77)
Hopetoun Airport 31.4 44.2 19th 12.8 4.5 6th 5.6 31.3 low 18%
Swan Hill Aerodrome 31.6 +1.4 43.1 19th 14.2 +0.8 6.2 6th 37.4 23.1 high 162%
North Wimmera (district 78)
Nhill Aerodrome 29.4 +0.7 42.6 19th 11.8 -0.3 6.3 24th 6.2 30.1 lowest 21%
Warracknabeal Museum 30.2 +1.6 42.5 19th 11.8 -0.4 5.8 6th 2.8 27.9 v low 10%
South Wimmera (district 79)
Edenhope Airport 26.7 41.2 19th 10.3 4.5 24th 10.4
Grampians (Mount William) 18.6 32.1 19th 7.8 0.1 6th 32.6
Horsham Aerodrome 29.2 +0.9 42.3 19th 10.0 -0.4 2.1 6th 6.4 26.5 v low 24%
Kanagulk 27.0 41.1 19th 9.9 4.9 30th 17.6 48.2 lowest 37%
Longerenong 29.9 +2.2 43.1 19th 10.2 -1.0 0.5 6th 9.0 28.0 low 32%
Pyrenees (Ben Nevis) 22.6 36.4 19th 10.0 1.4 6th 22.0
Stawell Aerodrome 27.1 +0.8 41.1 19th 10.9 -0.3 3.7 6th 10.2 36.6 low 28%
Lower North (district 80)
Charlton 31.5 43.6 20th 12.2 3.2 6th 10.8 34.1 low 32%
Echuca Aerodrome 30.7 +1.8 43.0 19th 13.3 -0.1 5.5 6th 47.8 29.3 high 163%
Kerang 31.3 +1.6 42.2 20th 14.3 +0.9 6.0 6th 35.8 27.4 high 131%
Kyabram 30.4 +2.4 41.4 20th 12.9 +0.5 5.4 6th 41.6 32.4 average 128%
Upper North (district 81)
Bendigo Airport 28.9 +1.9 41.5 20th 11.7 +0.1 5.3 12th 46.8 42.4 average 110%
Shepparton Airport 30.0 +1.4 41.3 19th 12.8 +0.3 4.2 6th 35.2 32.6 average 108%
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 29.0 +1.6 40.8 19th 12.7 +0.5 5.4 6th 39.4 34.3 average 115%
Yarrawonga 31.5 +1.7 42.3 20th 13.4 +0.3 5.6 6th 47.2 41.0 average 115%
Lower Northeast (district 82)
Benalla Airport 29.8 40.8 20th 12.5 5.5 6th 53.4
Corryong Airport 29.9 39.2 20th 11.3 4.6 7th 68.2
Dartmouth Reservoir 28.0 +1.3 37.0 21st 12.1 +0.5 2.6 6th 66.0 72.9 average 91%
Hunters Hill 24.2 +1.6 33.2 20th 12.4 +0.7 1.0 6th 71.2 78.2 average 91%
Rutherglen Research 30.7 +1.6 41.4 20th 11.6 +0.2 4.4 7th 63.0 44.4 high 142%
Strathbogie 25.2 +0.7 35.7 20th 10.0 +0.7 1.8 7th 83.0 56.7 high 146%
Wangaratta Aero 30.3 +1.4 41.7 19th 11.6 0.0 4.7 1st 49.4 42.2 average 117%
Upper Northeast (district 83)
Dinner Plain (Mount Hotham Airport) 20.2 +0.8 29.7 20th 6.4 +0.2 -0.8 7th 87.4 67.3 high 130%
Falls Creek 15.8 +0.9 24.3 20th 6.6 +0.6 -4.1 6th 121.8 107.0 average 114%
Mount Buller 15.4 +1.0 24.6 20th 6.9 +0.9 -3.7 6th 154.2 97.4 high 158%
Mount Hotham 14.4 +0.9 23.5 20th 5.7 +0.3 -4.1 6th 140.6 111.5 average 126%
Omeo 25.1 35.3 20th 8.2 0.5 7th 61.0 53.4 average 114%
East Gippsland (district 84)
Combienbar AWS 23.9 +1.1 36.8 20th 11.7 +0.6 4.7 6th 70.0 69.0 average 101%
Gabo Island Lighthouse 21.5 +1.6 32.1 20th 15.0 +0.7 10.0 6th 49.4 66.8 average 74%
Gelantipy 22.0 +0.9 32.2 20th 9.9 +0.5 2.9 7th 67.2 65.1 average 103%
Lakes Entrance (Eastern Beach Road) 23.3 37.3 20th 13.6 8.4 1st 48.2
Mallacoota 22.7 +0.8 33.1 20th 14.2 +0.8 8.9 1st 48.4 70.4 average 69%
Mount Nowa Nowa 23.9 +1.6 38.6 20th 12.4 +0.5 6.6 6th 45.8 79.3 v low 58%
Orbost 24.1 +0.4 38.1 20th 12.7 +0.2 6.3 6th 70.8 66.7 average 106%
Point Hicks (Lighthouse) 23.3 +1.3 34.5 20th 14.6 +0.5 8.3 6th 95.5 72.5 high 132%
West Gippsland (district 85)
Bairnsdale Airport 25.1 +1.6 38.3 19th 11.7 +0.6 5.8 1st 43.0 58.6 low 73%
East Sale Airport 24.8 +1.4 38.1 19th 11.6 +0.3 5.8 30th 32.2 53.7 low 60%
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) 24.8 +0.7 39.4 19th 11.5 +0.4 5.0 7th 37.4 67.1 low 56%
Mount Baw Baw 15.1 +1.1 26.3 20th 6.1 +0.7 -2.0 6th 126.8 150.0 low 85%
Mount Moornapa 24.3 +1.6 37.6 19th 11.5 +0.4 5.8 6th 54.6 53.4 average 102%
Pound Creek 21.8 35.8 19th 11.9 6.2 1st 66.2
Willow Grove (Blue Rock Reservoir) 37.1 19th 11.9 +0.6 7.5 6th 32.3 63.2 low 51%
Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse 19.4 +0.6 30.9 19th 13.4 +0.8 9.9 10th 99.6 64.0 high 156%
Yarram Airport 23.3 36.6 19th 11.4 7.0 1st 46.4
East Central (district 86)
Bundoora (Latrobe University) 24.6 -0.1 40.0 19th 12.5 +0.2 6.7 6th 35.5 63.9 low 56%
Cerberus 22.3 0.0 37.7 19th 12.0 +0.2 6.2 7th 61.4 53.1 average 116%
Coldstream 24.9 0.0 38.4 19th 10.1 +0.5 2.2 30th 68.4 55.6 high 123%
Coldstream Comparison 24.9 38.3 19th 10.0 1.9 30th 68.4
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens 23.0 -0.3 35.0 19th 11.5 -0.1 7.1 6th 59.0 65.3 average 90%
Essendon Airport 24.9 +0.5 40.1 19th 12.4 +0.7 6.1 6th 35.0 51.2 average 68%
Ferny Creek 21.3 34.8 19th 10.4 4.6 6th 94.2
Frankston AWS 22.2 -0.1 37.0 19th 13.4 -0.3 9.2 6th
Melbourne (Olympic Park) Comparison 23.7 39.2 19th 13.9 8.2 6th 40.6
Melbourne Airport 24.7 +0.3 39.3 19th 11.9 -0.1 6.2 6th 34.6 48.5 average 71%
Melbourne Regional Office 24.7 +0.5 39.9 19th 14.3 +1.4 7.9 6th 38.6 59.2 average 65%
Moorabbin Airport 23.7 -0.1 38.9 19th 13.0 +0.4 7.1 1st 60.6 59.1 average 103%
Rhyll 22.0 +0.4 37.1 19th 13.8 +0.2 9.3 6th 40.4 44.5 average 91%
Scoresby Research Institute 24.3 +0.4 38.3 19th 12.2 +0.4 5.3 30th 76.2 76.0 average 100%
Viewbank 25.0 -0.4 39.9 19th 12.6 +0.2 6.0 6th 44.8 67.0 low 67%
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 23.1 +1.4 36.7 19th 10.2 +0.2 3.4 6th 44.6 46.7 average 96%
Wonthaggi 22.2 +0.3 37.1 19th 12.8 +1.2 9.1 25th 69.6 61.3 average 114%
West Central (district 87)
Avalon Airport 24.8 +0.8 41.1 19th 11.3 -0.3 5.6 7th 23.4 29.5 average 79%
Breakwater (Geelong Racecourse) 24.0 40.3 19th 11.6 5.9 6th 28.8
Laverton RAAF 24.3 +0.5 40.3 19th 12.0 0.0 5.9 6th 38.0 45.9 average 83%
Sheoaks 24.9 +1.6 39.1 19th 9.8 -0.5 2.4 30th 23.6 32.0 average 74%
North Central (district 88)
Castlemaine Prison 26.7 +1.4 38.8 20th 10.9 +0.1 1.0 6th 26.6 41.2 average 65%
Eildon Fire Tower 24.4 +0.9 36.7 20th 11.3 +0.3 3.3 6th 73.6 44.0 high 167%
Lake Eildon 27.4 +1.2 40.0 20th 11.4 +0.5 4.3 30th 79.4 56.3 high 141%
Mangalore Airport 28.7 +1.8 42.6 20th 12.2 +0.4 4.1 6th 38.4 40.7 average 94%
Maryborough 28.1 +1.5 40.4 19th 11.2 -0.1 4.2 6th 15.2 37.5 low 41%
Redesdale 28.6 +2.3 41.3 20th 9.9 -0.1 2.7 6th 21.4 37.9 average 56%
Western Plains (district 89)
Ararat Prison 26.3 +1.8 40.0 19th 9.2 -0.1 1.2 6th 16.4 38.0 low 43%
Ballarat Aerodrome 23.7 +1.1 36.9 19th 8.8 -0.6 0.1 6th 26.0 50.7 low 51%
Westmere 25.6 39.7 19th 8.2 -0.5 30th 21.8
West Coast (district 90)
Aireys Inlet 22.3 +1.3 37.5 19th 11.5 -0.7 7.3 6th 41.6 40.4 average 103%
Cape Nelson Lighthouse 20.7 +1.1 36.4 19th 12.5 -0.6 5.7 30th 30.6 41.9 average 73%
Casterton 24.7 39.2 19th 8.9 1.5 30th 17.6
Colac (Mount Gellibrand) 23.6 +0.6 38.0 19th 10.0 -0.6 4.1 6th 27.6 39.1 average 71%
Dartmoor 23.8 40.4 19th 10.2 2.7 30th 34.4
Hamilton Airport 24.2 +0.3 39.2 19th 9.4 0.0 2.8 30th 28.8 45.2 average 64%
Mortlake Racecourse 23.8 +0.6 38.5 19th 9.1 -0.1 3.4 6th 24.2 44.1 low 55%
Port Fairy AWS 21.7 +0.5 38.0 19th 12.1 -0.4 5.0 30th 39.8 43.5 average 91%
Portland (Cashmore Airport) 20.6 +0.5 34.9 19th 10.8 -0.1 2.8 30th 42.2 50.9 average 83%
Portland NTC AWS 20.2 36.7 19th 12.7 7.0 30th
Warrnambool Airport NDB 21.3 -1.3 36.3 19th 10.2 +0.1 2.2 30th 50.0 49.9 average 100%

Notes

A Monthly Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in Victoria using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 1 pm on Thursday 2 January 2014. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

The ACORN-SAT dataset is being used for temperature area averages from December 2012 onwards. The major change from earlier datasets is that the ACORN-SAT dataset commences in 1910, rather than 1950, and hence rankings are calculated using a larger set of years.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries