Greater Melbourne in January 2019: drier and much warmer than average

Rainfall in January 2019 was below average across the Melbourne metropolitan area. Both maximum and minimum temperatures were much warmer than average.

Below average rainfall

  • Overall, rainfall was generally below average across Greater Melbourne
  • January rainfall totals ranged from 6% of average at Cerberus to 75% of average at Laverton RAAF
  • Most of rain fell on the last day of the month when thunderstorms, associated with a fast-moving cold front and a low-pressure trough, produced locally heavy falls
  • The highest daily rainfall total was 24.4 mm at Willowmavin (in the northern part of Greater Melbourne) on the 31st
  • The wettest place in Greater Melbourne in January was Laverton RAAF, which received 29.8 mm during the month

Much warmer than average

  • Both mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures were above average across Greater Melbourne
  • The hottest days were on the 4th, 24th and 25th, with Melbourne Airport recording Greater Melbourne's hottest temperature for the month, 46.0 °C, on the 25th
  • Mean maximum temperatures ranged from 2.0 °C warmer than average at Cerberus, to 5.3 °C warmer than average at Wallan (Kilmore Gap)
  • Averaged across all measuring sites, mean maximum temperature in Greater Melbourne was the highest since at least 1990
  • Melbourne Airport, Wallan (Kilmore Gap), Coldstream and Viewbank had their highest January temperature on record on the 25th
  • Several sites had either their record highest January mean daily maximum temperature or their highest January mean daily maximum temperature since 1981
  • Nights were also very warm, with mean minimum temperatures generally between 1.5 °C and 2.5 °C above January average throughout Greater Melbourne
  • Highest daily minimum temperature during the month, 23.4 °C, was recorded at Wallan (Kilmore Gap) on the 25th
  • Essendon Airport and Moorabbin Airport had their record highest January mean daily minimum temperature and highest January mean daily minimum temperature since 1981 respectively
  • The night between the 24th and 25th was exceptionally warm across Greater Melbourne, with some sites recording their highest overnight (6pm to 9am) minimum temperature for January, for example Essendon Airport had its warmest night in 17 years (30.9 °C), while Melbourne Airport recorded its warmest night in 10 years (29.1 °C)

Melbourne (Olympic Park)

  • Melbourne (Olympic Park) had six rain days during the month, less than the January average of around eight rain days for the city
  • Total rainfall for Melbourne (Olympic Park) was 11.2 mm, most of which fell on the 31st
  • The mean daily maximum temperature for Melbourne (Olympic Park) was 28.4 °C. The warmest day was 42.8 °C on the 25th, and the coolest day was on the 9th when the temperature reached 20.5 °C
  • The mean daily minimum temperature for Melbourne (Olympic Park) was 17.5 °C. The coldest morning was 12.9 °C on the 11th, and the warmest morning was on the 18th when the minimum temperature was 22.3 °C

Thunderstorms and strong winds

  • Thunderstorms, associated with a fast-moving cold front and a low-pressure trough, produced damaging winds on the 30th. Many sites recorded wind gusts which exceeded 70 km/h and the strongest January wind gust of 113 km/h was recorded at Laverton RAAF on this day
  • Dust raised by strong winds on the 30th, reduced visibility in Melton, in the northwest of Greater Melbourne

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Extremes in January 2019
Hottest day 46.0 °C at Melbourne Airport on the 25th
Warmest days on average 32.1 °C at Coldstream
Coolest days on average 26.5 °C at Cerberus
Coldest day 16.0 °C at Ferny Creek on the 5th
Coldest night 6.0 °C at Coldstream on the 10th
Coolest nights on average 13.2 °C at Coldstream
Warmest nights on average 17.5 °C at Melbourne (Olympic Park)
Warmest night 23.4 °C at Wallan (Kilmore Gap) on the 25th
Warmest on average overall 23.7 °C at Viewbank
Coolest on average overall 20.8 °C at Cerberus
Wettest overall 29.8 mm at Laverton RAAF
Driest overall 2.4 mm at Cerberus
Wettest day 24.4 mm at Willowmavin (Avalon Station) on the 31st
Strongest wind gust 113 km/h at Laverton RAAF on the 30th

Record highest January temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
January
Melbourne Airport 46.0 on the 25th 44.6 on the 25th in 2003 49 26.5
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 43.2 on the 25th 40.9 on the 16th in 2014 26 25.0
Coldstream 43.8 on the 25th 43.4 on the 29th in 2009 25 27.9
Viewbank 44.8 on the 25th 44.7 on the 29th in 2009 20 27.9



Record highest January mean daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
January
Scoresby Research Institute 31.2 29.3 in 2018 60 26.3
Essendon Airport 30.2 29.7 in 1951 49 26.5
Melbourne Airport 30.4 29.7 in 2001 48 26.5
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens 28.9 27.6 in 2009 28 25.5
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 30.3 27.7 in 2009 25 25.0
Coldstream 32.1 30.2 in 2009 24 27.9

Highest January mean daily maximum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Average for
January
Laverton RAAF 28.5 29.4 in 1981 25.7
Moorabbin Airport 29.0 29.5 in 1981 25.8



Record highest January mean daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
January
Essendon Airport 16.5 16.4 in 2018 49 13.6

Highest January mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Average for
January
Moorabbin Airport 16.5 16.6 in 1981 14.3



Record highest January mean temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
January
Scoresby Research Institute 23.4 22.7 in 1981 60 19.8
Essendon Airport 23.4 22.4 in 2018 49 20.1
Melbourne Airport 23.0 22.9 in 2001 48 20.1
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens 22.1 21.3 in 2001 28 19.5
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 22.1 20.7 in 2001 25 18.7
Coldstream 22.7 21.6 in 2001 24 19.9

Highest January mean temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Average for
January
Laverton RAAF 22.4 23.1 in 1981 19.8
Moorabbin Airport 22.8 23.1 in 1981 20.0



Summary statistics for January 2019
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
January
2019
Diff
from
average
Highest for
January
2019
Mean for
January
2019
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
January
2019
Total for
January
2019
Average
for
January
Rank of
January
2019
Fraction of
January
average
Cerberus 26.5 +2.0 42.1 25th 15.0 +1.1 8.3 10th 2.4 37.1 v low 6%
Coldstream 32.1 +4.2 43.8 25th 13.2 +1.3 6.0 10th 13.2 42.7 low 31%
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens 28.9 +3.4 42.9 4th 15.0 +1.4 9.8 10th 23.0 51.2 low 45%
Essendon Airport 30.2 +3.7 45.2 25th 16.5 +2.9 12.0 6th 19.0 42.2 low 45%
Ferny Creek 27.8   39.5 25th 13.9   7.8 10th 20.4
Laverton RAAF 28.5 +2.8 44.8 25th 16.2 +2.4 10.1 6th 29.8 39.5 average 75%
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 28.4   42.8 25th 17.5   12.9 11th 11.2
Melbourne Airport 30.4 +3.9 46.0 25th 15.5 +1.7 8.8 10th 10.8 39.9 low 27%
Moorabbin Airport 29.0 +3.2 43.8 4th 16.5 +2.2 12.1 11th 13.8 43.9 v low 31%
Scoresby Research Institute 31.2 +4.9 43.5 25th 15.6 +2.3 9.6 10th 18.4 51.9 v low 35%
Viewbank 31.4 +3.5 44.8 25th 16.1 +1.5 11.7 11th 22.4 39.6 low 57%
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 30.3 +5.3 43.2 25th 14.0 +1.6 8.0 10th 13.2 46.1 v low 29%

Daily maximum temperatures for January 2019
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Cerberus22.221.225.141.520.421.022.022.919.821.428.322.929.434.326.724.231.426.221.823.223.925.124.037.042.123.825.435.132.821.3
Coldstream30.325.934.142.220.323.729.029.723.025.834.630.331.840.440.434.935.131.525.328.235.737.730.140.943.832.127.034.336.038.923.2
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens25.522.931.542.920.321.320.021.731.037.634.527.330.826.623.823.327.128.824.437.241.825.127.132.935.437.822.5
Essendon Airport27.623.830.844.321.522.524.726.321.422.830.727.730.735.435.429.236.930.524.924.428.330.625.842.345.227.529.535.538.740.522.3
Ferny Creek25.621.330.238.716.019.123.324.617.820.329.825.127.136.136.931.531.428.920.923.030.232.725.336.439.527.023.731.631.935.719.6
Laverton RAAF24.623.130.843.821.021.723.424.620.721.928.925.628.833.630.426.835.027.624.323.827.429.824.737.044.826.228.432.137.734.022.0
Melbourne (Olympic Park)26.222.229.542.621.222.123.124.120.521.430.424.730.532.330.426.732.528.723.522.925.126.823.940.842.826.127.834.536.838.121.5
Melbourne Airport27.423.530.543.421.222.324.326.721.622.731.527.929.538.538.631.337.030.224.024.329.731.125.741.946.028.129.035.637.840.022.5
Moorabbin Airport25.224.130.343.821.521.924.724.421.122.730.125.330.633.531.925.732.627.523.723.729.030.627.040.043.727.627.333.236.638.622.5
Scoresby Research Institute28.825.232.443.020.622.927.127.622.524.433.328.431.040.040.233.634.629.425.126.733.034.629.041.043.529.528.134.936.239.122.6
Viewbank29.326.431.644.021.723.325.928.522.424.734.328.031.940.538.730.634.730.925.626.332.535.327.742.244.829.528.234.937.338.822.3
Wallan (Kilmore Gap)29.023.433.141.019.021.026.029.119.822.532.330.427.938.340.333.934.232.123.525.034.236.426.338.643.231.925.730.533.735.321.3
Values are the maximum temperature, usually in the 24 hours from 9 am on the day indicated,
and typically occurred in the afternoon of that day.
Temperatures coloured according to their difference
from the long-term average for the period
-10.0 -9.0 -8.0 -7.0 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 +1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0 +6.0 +7.0 +8.0 +9.0 +10.0 °C Grey outline marks highest
and lowest for the period

Daily minimum temperatures for January 2019
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Cerberus9.617.313.716.916.310.916.313.414.38.315.016.413.915.617.617.017.820.113.513.617.016.713.713.821.215.215.910.412.512.717.3
Coldstream11.512.210.112.714.89.710.711.614.06.07.714.211.312.914.314.518.519.911.99.713.316.012.813.521.118.515.911.112.211.516.5
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens12.516.514.015.714.712.013.49.812.917.011.014.616.819.320.713.012.116.916.514.915.321.815.514.812.714.415.017.1
Essendon Airport13.917.915.616.616.512.016.517.014.612.012.918.114.617.917.518.019.621.714.814.618.018.417.316.621.418.516.814.315.915.916.1
Ferny Creek12.213.211.613.611.711.010.811.911.07.810.018.710.314.720.716.620.020.512.211.613.614.214.314.822.614.612.712.114.915.612.9
Laverton RAAF12.718.117.316.216.510.117.116.014.710.410.918.015.716.618.518.518.921.114.415.018.318.216.916.721.217.716.513.714.514.716.3
Melbourne (Olympic Park)15.518.415.918.017.414.617.116.716.113.512.917.714.418.719.419.820.722.316.515.218.419.018.717.321.119.918.415.517.518.017.2
Melbourne Airport12.316.915.116.415.410.816.215.714.28.811.117.912.916.415.916.419.421.112.713.517.417.815.917.421.017.315.813.114.614.915.5
Moorabbin Airport14.117.414.716.517.015.315.314.815.712.212.117.912.217.219.117.820.821.217.313.717.917.416.515.221.018.618.114.515.715.418.0
Scoresby Research Institute12.616.518.015.913.113.814.29.610.217.212.616.717.316.919.820.215.612.716.516.816.514.721.218.616.012.614.817.5
Viewbank14.016.814.616.216.312.514.014.214.811.811.717.612.717.617.618.919.921.214.813.717.718.217.616.220.219.116.314.015.915.316.8
Wallan (Kilmore Gap)12.013.411.813.812.29.311.213.111.28.010.118.310.714.919.717.117.521.211.311.214.215.014.814.623.415.012.612.714.615.312.8
Values are the minimum temperature, usually in the 24 hours to 9 am on the day indicated,
and typically occurred that morning.
Temperatures coloured according to their difference
from the long-term average for the period
-10.0 -9.0 -8.0 -7.0 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 +1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0 +6.0 +7.0 +8.0 +9.0 +10.0 °C Grey outline marks highest
and lowest for the period

Daily rainfall for January 2019
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
Bonbeach (Carrum) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3.0 - - - - - - - - - - - 17.0
Bullengarook East - - - 0.2 - 1.0 - - - - - - - - - - - 3.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - 11.6
Burnside - - - - 0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3.0 - - - - - - - - - - - 1.8
Cerberus - - - - 0.2 - - - 0.4 0.2 - - - - - - - 0.2 1.0 - - - - - - - - - - - 0.4
Cheltenham Kingston Centre - - - - - - - 1.8 0.5 - - - - - - - 0.1 - 0.2 - - - - - - - 0.8 - - - 2.1
Coldstream - - - - - 3.2 - - 1.0 - - - - - - - - - 0.6 - - - - - - - 0.2 0.2 - - 8.0
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens - - - - 0.4 1.4 - 0.2 - - - - - - - - 0.2 2.0 - - - - - - - - - - - 18.8
Essendon Airport - - - - 0.2 1.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.6 - - - - - - - - - - - 15.0
Ferny Creek - - - - 1.0 2.8 - - 3.4 - - - - - - - - - 2.2 - - - - - - 0.4 0.4 - - - 10.2
Greenvale Reservoir 0.6 - - - 1.4 2.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.0 - - - - - - -



9.4
Kinglake West - - - - 0.4 3.6 - - 0.8 - - - - - - - - 0.8 1.6 - - - - - - - 1.0 - - - 4.8
Kinglake West (Wallaby Creek) - - - - 0.6 3.0 - - 0.4 - - - - - - - - 0.4 2.4 - - - - - - -



4.4
Lancefield - - - - - 2.6 - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.0 - - - - - - - 0.6 - - - 8.4
Laverton RAAF - - - - - 0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - 0.4 4.8 - - - - - - - - - - - 24.2
Melbourne (Olympic Park) - - - - 0.4 1.4 - - 0.6 - - - - - - - - 0.2 2.0 - - - - - - - - - - - 6.6
Melbourne Airport - - - - - 1.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.0 0.2 - - - - - - - - - - 7.4
Mitcham - - - - 1.2 2.0 - - 0.2 - - - - - - - - - 1.2 - - - - - - -



13.0
Moorabbin Airport - - - - 0.2 1.6 - - - - - - - - - - - 0.2 2.8 - - - - - 0.4 - - - - - 8.6
Newham (Cobaw) - - - - - 2.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.4 - - - 6.2
Oakleigh (Metropolitan Golf Club) - - - - 2.0 - - - - - - - - - - 3.6 - - - - - - - - - - - - 3.4
Preston Reservoir - - - -
1.8 - - 0.2 - - - - - - - - - 1.6 - - - - - - -



14.0
Scoresby Research Institute - - - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.2 - - - - - - - - - 2.6 - - - - - - - 0.4 - - - 11.2
Toolangi (Mount St Leonard DPI) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21.0
Toorourrong Reservoir (Toorourrong) - - - - 1.2 2.6 0.2 - - - - - - - - - - 0.4 2.0 - - - - - - -




Upper Plenty - - - - 0.8 3.0 - - - - - - - - - - - 0.2 2.0 - - - - - - - 1.2 - - - 7.0
Viewbank - - - - 1.4 2.6 - - 2.2 - - - - - - - - - 1.0 - - - - - - - 0.4 - - - 14.8
Wallan - - - - 0.4 3.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4.0 - - - - - - 1.0 - - - 4.6
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) - - - - 0.2 2.8 - - - - - - - - - - - 0.2 2.4 - - - - - - - 0.4 0.2 - - 7.0
Warburton (O'Shannassy Reservoir (Quarte - - - - - 1.0 2.0 - - - - - - - - - 0.6 1.2 - - - - - - - 1.2



2.6
Willowmavin (Avalon Station) - - - - 0.2 3.2 - - - - - - - - - - 0.2 - 0.6 0.2 - - - - - - 0.6 0.2 - - 24.4
Woodend - - - - 0.2 1.0 - - - - - - - - - - 1.0 - 1.6 - - - - - - 0.4 - - - 5.6
Yan Yean - - - - 1.2 2.4 - - - - - - - - - - - 0.4 2.0 - - - - - - -



2.8
Yarra River @ Warrandyte



0.4 2.2

1.0








0.6






0.2


8.8
Most values are the precipitation in the 24 hours to 9 am on the day indicated. Days marked with → are part of a longer accumulation, which is shown on the final day.
Values over 100 mm have been rounded to the nearest whole millimetre.
Days marked with - have a rainfall report of zero; days left blank have no rainfall report (which often indicates no rain fell).
Rainfalls coloured
according to the amount
0 1.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 25.0 50.0 100 150 200 300 400 600 millimetres

Notes

The Monthly climate summary, generally published on the first working day of each month, lists the main features of the weather in Greater Melbourne using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This summary includes data from observing sites in or near the Greater Melbourne “Greater Capital City Statistical Area” (GCCSA). The Australian Bureau of Statistics designed the GCCSAs to “include the population within the urban area of the city, as well as people who regularly socialise, shop or work within the city, and live in small towns and rural areas surrounding the city. It is important to note that GCCSAs do not define the built up edge of the city. They provide a stable definition for these cities and are designed for the output of a range of social and economic survey data.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 10 am on Friday 1 February 2019. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the rainfall is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

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