Victoria in October 2019: much drier than average with warm days

October was drier than average across Victoria. Large areas of the State had rainfall in the lowest decile (lowest ten percent of records), making it Victoria's eighth-driest October on record. Daytime temperatures were above average across Victoria and the warmest since 2015, while night-time temperatures were generally close to average.

Eighth-driest October on record

  • Below to very much below average rainfall was recorded across most of Victoria
  • The state-wide average rainfall total was 65% below the October average of 63.8 mm
  • Rainfall in the lowest decile (bottom ten percent of records) was recorded in large areas in the north and east of the State
  • There were some moderate falls across Victoria on the 8th and 9th, and in the Alpine region on the 12th; some more rainfall fell on the 17th, with daily totals generally between 5 and 15 mm
  • The highest monthly total of 87.2 mm was recorded at Monbulk (in Melbourne's east)
  • In contrast, Mildura Airport did not receive any rain during the month; the only other time this occurred in Mildura in October was in 2006 (records go back to 1946)
  • Victoria's rainfall since January has been below average across most of the State, with large areas very much drier than average

Warm days

  • Mean maximum temperatures for October were above average throughout Victoria
  • The State's mean maximum temperature was 2.40 °C warmer than the October average, the eighth-warmest October on record
  • The highest daytime temperature in Victoria during October was 38.1 °C, recorded at Swan Hill Aerodrome on the 24th, in a northerly airflow preceding the approaching cold front
  • Some sites had their highest October temperature on record on the 24th and 31st
  • Mean minimum temperatures were above average in parts of the south, central and northwest Victoria
  • Several sites had their warmest October night on record on the 25th
  • There were some cool nights scattered throughout the month; Melbourne Airport and Walpeup Research had their lowest October temperature on record on the 1st and 9th respecitively
  • The State's mean minimum temperature was just 0.12 °C above the October average
  • Victoria's mean maximum temperature for the January to October period was the third-highest on record, and mean minimum temperature the ninth-highest

Strong winds

  • The passage of several cold fronts brought strong and gusty winds to Victoria, as well as some more snow to the Alps
  • The strongest wind gust was on the 6th, when a gust of 126 km/h was recorded at Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse
  • Areas of raised dust were observed across the northwest of the State on the 25th and 26th, with visibility at Mildura Airport at times reduced to 3 km or less

Further information

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Extremes in October 2019
Hottest day 38.1 °C at Swan Hill Aerodrome on the 24th
Warmest days on average 26.7 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest days on average 9.1 °C at Mount Hotham
Coldest day -1.3 °C at Mount Hotham on the 17th
-1.3 °C at Mount Hotham on the 26th
Coldest night -6.2 °C at Mount Hotham on the 9th
Coolest nights on average 1.6 °C at Mount Hotham
Warmest nights on average 11.2 °C at Gabo Island Lighthouse
Warmest night 21.5 °C at Shepparton Airport on the 25th
Warmest on average overall 18.5 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest on average overall 5.4 °C at Mount Hotham
Wettest overall 87.2 mm at Monbulk (Spring Road)
Driest overall 0 mm at Mildura Airport
Wettest day 38.8 mm at Holland Ck at Wrightley on the 12th
Strongest wind gust 126 km/h at Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse on the 6th

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Lowest October total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
lower
Average for
October
Wodonga 11.0 4.3 in 1940* 67.4

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported




Record highest October temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
October
East Sale 34.9 on the 31st 34.7 on the 12th in 2006 75 19.4
Bairnsdale Airport 35.8 on the 31st 35.3 on the 31st in 2012 40 19.9
Portland (Cashmore Airport) 32.8 on the 24th = 32.8 on the 5th in 2015 38 17.0
Gelantipy 29.0 on the 31st 28.9 on the 18th in 2017 27 16.6
Combienbar AWS 33.7 on the 31st 31.8 on the 13th in 2006 26 18.6
Mount Moornapa 34.5 on the 31st 34.1 on the 12th in 2006 26 18.8
Cape Nelson Lighthouse 35.0 on the 24th 33.7 on the 12th in 2004 24 17.4
Mount Nowa Nowa 35.0 on the 31st 34.8 on the 12th in 2004 24 19.2



Record highest October daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
October
Kyabram 21.0 on the 25th 19.9 on the 5th in 1970 53 7.6
Mount Moornapa 21.2 on the 25th 19.1 on the 19th in 2017 26 8.2
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 18.4 on the 25th 17.0 on the 22nd in 2007 26 6.9
Shepparton Airport 21.5 on the 25th 19.0 on the 22nd in 2007 24 7.5



Record lowest October temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
October
Walpeup Research 0.3 on the 9th 0.6 on the 11th in 1993 52 8.9
Melbourne Airport 1.0 on the 1st 1.3 on the 22nd in 2006 50 8.5



Summary statistics for October 2019
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
October
2019
Diff
from
average
Highest for
October
2019
Mean for
October
2019
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
October
2019
Total for
October
2019
Average
for
October
Rank of
October
2019
Fraction of
October
average
North Mallee (district 76)
Mildura Airport 26.7 +2.6 37.9 24th 10.3 +0.5 3.6 9th 0 28.2 lowest 0%
Walpeup Research 26.4 +3.0 38.0 24th 9.6 +0.7 0.3 9th 1.0 32.3 v low 3%
South Mallee (district 77)
Hopetoun Airport 25.5 +0.6 38.0 24th 7.2 -0.3 -0.4 1st 3.4 22.3 low 15%
Swan Hill Aerodrome 26.0 +1.6 38.1 24th 7.7 -0.3 0.8 1st 5.2 20.9 average 25%
North Wimmera (district 78)
Kellalac (Warracknabeal Airport) 23.8   36.3 24th 6.5   0.0 18th 8.0
Nhill Aerodrome 23.4 +0.7 36.8 24th 7.4 +0.1 -0.1 9th 10.8 28.4 average 38%
Warracknabeal Museum 24.0 +1.8 36.6 24th 7.1 -0.6 1.2 1st 12.2 36.3 low 34%
South Wimmera (district 79)
Edenhope Airport 20.7 -0.1 33.7 31st     2.3 1st
Grampians (Mount William) 13.7 +0.8 26.0 24th 4.8 +0.8 -0.7 9th 60.4 75.0 average 81%
Horsham Aerodrome 23.0 +1.1 36.6 24th 5.5 -0.1 -0.2 1st 14.2 30.9 average 46%
Kanagulk 20.5 -0.1 34.5 24th 6.5 -0.2 0.0 1st 28.8 31.6 average 91%
Longerenong 23.0 +2.0 36.1 24th 5.6 -1.0 -0.6 1st 13.4 40.9 low 33%
Pyrenees (Ben Nevis) 16.9 +0.8 29.3 24th 6.6 +0.5 1.4 9th 27.6 48.6 low 57%
Stawell Aerodrome 21.2 +1.0 34.2 24th 7.6 +0.1 0.8 1st 9.8 34.3 low 29%
Lower North (district 80)
Charlton 24.5 +0.6 36.2 24th 7.3 -0.3 -0.1 1st 0.2 22.2 v low 1%
Echuca Aerodrome 25.0 +2.8 36.2 24th 7.7 -0.9 0.4 1st 5.4 41.4 v low 13%
Kerang 25.4 +2.5 37.0 24th 9.3 +0.5 3.0 18th 1.8 36.6 v low 5%
Kyabram 24.9 +3.3 35.7 24th 7.8 +0.2 0.4 1st 38.0
Upper North (district 81)
Bendigo Airport 23.3 +2.4 34.6 24th 7.2 +0.5 0.4 18th 10.8 38.3 low 28%
Shepparton Airport 24.7 +2.5 35.7 24th 8.0 +0.5 1.9 1st 3.2 30.3 v low 11%
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 23.6 +2.4 34.5 24th 8.0 +0.4 0.6 18th 3.8 45.5 v low 8%
Yarrawonga 25.7 +2.9 35.4 24th 7.1 -0.3 0.3 1st 18.0 36.3 low 50%
Lower Northeast (district 82)
Benalla Airport 23.8 +1.3 33.7 31st 6.2 -0.7 -1.2 27th 31.3 34.1 average 92%
Dartmouth Reservoir 22.1 +1.6 30.2 24th 6.1 -0.8 -0.2 20th 29.2 96.4 low 30%
Hunters Hill 17.9 +1.7 26.4 24th 7.9 +0.8 0.2 9th 40.6 84.3 average 48%
Rutherglen Research 24.8 +3.8 34.2 24th 4.2 -2.0 -2.1 27th 8.8 56.9 v low 15%
Strathbogie 19.6 +1.6 28.9 30th 4.9 -0.4 -1.4 27th 26.0 83.6 low 31%
Wangaratta Aero 23.9 +2.4 33.8 24th 4.8 -1.6 -0.6 27th 6.8 47.0 v low 14%
Upper Northeast (district 83)
Mount Buller 10.4 +1.7 19.2 24th 2.6 +1.2 -5.2 9th 70.4 134.0 low 53%
Mount Hotham 9.1 +1.5 17.7 30th 1.6 +0.8 -6.2 9th 118.9
Omeo 20.2 +1.1 30.1 31st 4.0 -1.0 -1.3 20th 14.0 55.5 low 25%
East Gippsland (district 84)
Combienbar AWS 19.7 +1.1 33.7 31st 8.6 +0.6 3.4 1st 47.2 88.8 v low 53%
Gabo Island Lighthouse 17.9 +0.7 30.2 25th 11.2 0.0 8.5 1st 40.4 73.7 low 55%
Gelantipy 18.2 +1.6 29.0 31st 5.8 -0.2 0.3 1st 15.6 69.6 v low 22%
Lakes Entrance (Eastern Beach Road) 19.8 +0.1 33.9 6th 9.0 -0.4 3.4 13th 10.2 57.0 v low 18%
Mallacoota 20.0 +0.9 32.8 25th 9.5 -0.4 4.8 1st 52.0 77.3 average 67%
Mount Nowa Nowa 20.5 +1.3 35.0 31st 9.6 +0.5 4.5 9th 19.0 69.2 v low 27%
Orbost     33.7 6th 8.3 -0.8 2.7 1st
Point Hicks (Lighthouse) 19.5 +0.8 32.1 25th 10.8 -0.2 7.0 5th 59.7 74.8 average 80%
West Gippsland (district 85)
Bairnsdale Airport 21.7 +1.8 35.8 31st 6.9 -0.6 0.3 1st 11.4 59.2 v low 19%
Corner Inlet (Yanakie) 18.4   30.1 31st 8.8   2.6 1st 52.4
East Sale 21.4 +2.0 34.9 31st 7.4 -0.1 2.5 2nd 18.6 56.3 v low 33%
East Sale Airport 21.8   35.7 31st 7.5   2.8 13th 14.0
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) 20.6 +1.0 33.2 31st 7.0 -0.5 1.3 1st 28.6 68.7 low 42%
Mount Baw Baw 10.6 +1.7 20.4 24th     -3.0 9th 65.8 142.6 low 46%
Mount Moornapa 21.0 +2.2 34.5 31st 9.0 +0.8 4.2 1st 23.8 78.8 v low 30%
Nilma North (Warragul) 19.9   31.3 24th 7.9   1.1 1st 66.2
Pound Creek 19.4 +0.6 31.1 24th 8.4 +0.1 1.7 23rd 49.2 66.3 average 74%
Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse 17.5 +1.7 31.6 31st 10.4 +0.4 6.8 17th 58.6 91.3 low 64%
Yarram Airport 20.0 +0.1 32.9 31st 6.5 -1.1 0.1 23rd 36.2 42.9 average 84%
East Central (district 86)
Cerberus 20.2 +1.6 33.1 31st 9.0 +0.2 2.0 1st 23.4 64.2 low 36%
Coldstream 21.2 +1.4 31.6 30th 6.6 0.0 -0.7 1st 35.2 64.4 low 55%
Essendon Airport 21.7 +2.3 33.7 24th 9.2 +0.9 2.7 1st 25.4 58.5 low 43%
Ferny Creek 17.5   27.7 24th 8.2   3.3 1st 67.6
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 21.3   33.8 24th 10.7   4.2 1st 24.0
Melbourne Airport 21.6 +2.1 33.6 31st 8.5 0.0 1.0 1st 32.6 52.6 average 62%
Moorabbin Airport 21.1 +1.8 34.2 24th 9.5 +0.2 2.6 1st 28.0 67.7 low 41%
Rhyll 19.6 +1.6 30.4 24th 10.5 -0.1 6.7 1st 41.8 57.9 low 72%
Scoresby Research Institute 20.9 +1.7 32.3 24th 8.9 +0.1 1.1 1st 55.2 82.4 average 67%
Viewbank 21.8 +1.2 33.5 24th 9.1 +0.2 1.6 1st 24.6 59.5 low 41%
West Central (district 87)
Avalon Airport 21.9 +1.6 35.6 31st 7.9 -0.1 0.4 1st 22.6 46.7 low 48%
Breakwater (Geelong Racecourse) 21.3   34.4 24th 8.6   2.2 1st 24.2
Laverton RAAF 21.8 +2.4 34.8 31st 8.9 +0.6 0.5 1st 10.8 54.4 v low 20%
North Central (district 88)
Castlemaine Prison 20.8 +1.4 32.5 30th 7.6 +0.9 0.5 18th 12.3 55.7 v low 22%
Eildon Fire Tower 18.6 +1.6 28.3 24th 8.1 +0.7 2.9 9th 18.0 45.8 low 39%
Lake Eildon 21.9 +1.8 31.9 24th     2.9 10th 35.6 76.8 low 46%
Mangalore Airport 23.1 +2.5 34.3 24th 6.4 -0.8 -0.6 27th 21.0 44.9 low 47%
Maryborough 22.4 +2.3 34.1 24th 7.5 +0.3 0.8 1st 6.2 48.4 v low 13%
Puckapunyal Lyon Hill (Defence) 22.9   34.4 24th 9.4   3.3 18th 12.2
Puckapunyal West (Defence) 21.6   33.0 30th 8.6   2.8 18th 13.0
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 18.2 +1.9 29.8 30th 7.8 +0.9 2.6 18th 21.2 49.7 low 43%
Western Plains (district 89)
Ararat Prison 20.6 +2.2 32.8 24th 7.0 +0.9 -1.0 1st 21.0 54.7 low 38%
Ballarat Aerodrome 18.6 +1.9 29.8 30th 6.8 +0.6 0.3 1st 30.0 65.7 low 46%
Westmere 19.2 -0.4 31.8 24th 5.4 0.0 -1.5 1st 32.8 39.2 average 84%
West Coast (district 90)
Aireys Inlet 20.1 +1.8 34.3 24th 9.3 -0.1 5.0 1st 30.4 57.1 low 53%
Cape Nelson Lighthouse 18.4 +1.0 35.0 24th 10.5 0.0 7.2 1st 61.8 47.0 high 131%
Cape Otway Lighthouse 18.0 +1.0 32.8 24th 9.8 +0.2 6.3 26th 52.2 80.1 low 65%
Casterton 19.6 +0.2 32.2 24th 6.8 -0.2 0.2 1st 42.6 44.6 average 96%
Colac (Mount Gellibrand) 18.3 +1.0 31.4 31st 8.0 +0.4 4.2 1st 47.8 51.3 average 93%
Dartmoor 20.3 +0.8 33.9 31st 7.5 -0.3 1.1 1st 44.4 49.2 average 90%
Hamilton Airport 18.9 +0.9 32.0 24th 6.8 +0.2 2.2 1st 35.6 54.3 low 66%
Mortlake Racecourse 19.5 +1.3 32.1 24th 6.3 -0.1 -0.5 1st 51.0 49.8 average 102%
Port Fairy AWS 19.1 +0.8 33.3 24th 9.0 -0.4 3.1 1st 46.6 51.2 average 91%
Portland (Cashmore Airport) 18.5 +1.5 32.8 24th 8.3 0.0 2.4 1st 48.2 59.9 average 80%
Warrnambool Airport NDB 18.7 +0.6 31.0 24th 7.2 -0.2 0.4 1st 71.6 61.8 average 116%

Notes

The Monthly climate summary, generally published on the first working day of each month, lists the main features of the weather in Victoria using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 10 am on Friday 1 November 2019. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the rainfall is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries