Australia in spring 2023

In brief

  • Spring rainfall was 20.1% below the 1961–1990 average for Australia as a whole.
  • Rainfall in spring was below average for large parts of southern Western Australia, much of South Australia, Tasmania and south-western Victoria, areas in north-eastern and north-western New South Wales, coastal parts of Queensland including the Cape York Peninsula, and parts of the western Top End in the Northern Territory.
  • Rainfall was above average for parts of eastern Victoria and areas scattered across the Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales.
  • The national mean temperature was 1.69 °C above the 1961–1990 average, the fifth-warmest spring on record (since 1910).
  • It was the warmest spring on record for Western Australia.
  • The national mean maximum temperature was 2.29 °C above average and the national mean minimum temperature was 1.09 °C above average, the third- and ninth-warmest on record respectively.
  • Mean maximum temperatures for spring were warmer than average for most of Australia.
  • Mean minimum temperatures were warmer than average for much of southern Australia and generally close to average or below average for northern parts of the country.

Further information and tables of records for each state and the Northern Territory can be found in the individual regional climate summaries, to be released on 5 December. For discussion of events during spring, see the individual monthly climate summaries for Australia for September, October and November.

 

Temperatures

The national mean temperature was 1.69 °C above the 1961–1990 average for spring, the fifth-warmest on record since national observations began in 1910.

The season began with Australia's third-warmest September on record and finished with the ninth-warmest November on record. Australia's mean temperature for October was not in the top ten warmest on record, but was also above the 1961-1990 average.

For Western Australia, it was the warmest spring on record, at 2.28 °C above average, exceeding the previous record of 2.08 °C above average set in 2019. All other states and territories except the Northern Territory were in the top ten warmest on record.

Australia's area-averaged mean maximum temperature for spring was 2.29 °C warmer than average, the third-warmest for spring on record. The national mean minimum temperature was 1.09 °C warmer than average, the ninth-warmest on record.

For New South Wales and Western Australia, statewide mean maximum temperatures were the second-warmest on record at 3.20 °C and 2.90 °C above average respectively. Except for the Northern Territory, the statewide mean maximum temperatures for spring were in the top ten warmest on record for all remaining states.

Mean maximum temperatures for spring were above average across most of Australia. Daytime temperatures were amongst the highest 10% of historical observations (compared with all springs since 1910) for most of Western Australia, South Australia extending into southern Northern Territory, Tasmania, New South Wales, much of Victoria, large parts of Queensland and the Northern Territory's Top End. Most of the western half of Western Australia, south-eastern New South Wales, far eastern Victoria and a large area in north-western New South Wales and adjacent parts of South Australia had their warmest spring maximum temperatures on record. Many stations in these areas had their highest mean maximum temperature for spring on record.

Mean maximum temperatures for spring were below average only for an area in the central Northern Territory.

For Western Australia, the statewide mean minimum temperature for spring was the warmest on record. 

Mean minimum temperatures were above average for Tasmania, much of Western Australia, South Australia, southern and eastern Victoria, southern Queensland, northern and eastern New South Wales and parts of the Northern Territory and northern Queensland. Mean minimum temperatures were amongst the highest 10% of historical observations (compared with all springs since 1910) for much of Western Australia, western and northern South Australia extending into southern Queensland and north-western New South Wales, most of southern and eastern Victoria, and northern Tasmania and south-eastern New South Wales coast. Most of the western half of Western Australia and an area in north-eastern South Australia extending into south-western Queensland had their warmest spring minimum temperatures on record. Many stations in Western Australia had their highest mean minimum temperature for spring on record.

Mean minimum temperatures were below average for large parts of Western Australia's Kimberley and Northern Interior districts extending into western and central Northern Territory, parts of south-eastern South Australia, north-western Victoria and southern New South Wales and parts of eastern Northern Territory and northern Queensland. Mean minimum temperatures were amongst the lowest 10% of historical observations (compared with all springs since 1910) for parts of northern  and north-eastern Western Australia and adjacent parts of western Northern Territory.    

 

3-month temperature table ending November 2023
Areal average temperatures
  Maximum Temperature Minimum Temperature Mean Temperature
  Rank
(of 114)
Anomaly
(°C)
Comment Rank
(of 114)
Anomaly
(°C)
Comment Rank
(of 114)
Anomaly
(°C)
Comment
Australia 112 +2.29 3rd highest (record +2.47 °C in 2014) 106 +1.09 9th highest 110 +1.69 5th highest
Queensland 108 +1.84 7th highest 97 +1.17   = 107 +1.50 equal 7th highest
New South Wales 113 +3.20 2nd highest (record +3.29 °C in 2014) = 99 +1.20   109 +2.20 6th highest
Victoria 105 +1.85 10th highest = 97 +0.58   105 +1.22 10th highest
Tasmania 111 +1.37 4th highest (record +1.83 °C in 2015) 95 +0.38   108 +0.87 7th highest
South Australia 109 +2.47 6th highest 100 +1.04   108 +1.76 7th highest
Western Australia 113 +2.90 2nd highest (record +3.12 °C in 2019) 114 +1.65 highest (was +1.58 °C in 2006) 114 +2.28 highest (was +2.08 °C in 2019)
Northern Territory 99 +1.18   66 +0.01   81 +0.60  

Rank ranges from 1 (lowest) to 114 (highest). A rank marked with ’=‘ indicates the value is tied for that rank. Anomaly is the departure from the long-term (1961–1990) average.

 

Rainfall

For Australia as a whole, spring rainfall was 20.1% below the 1961–1990 average, following two wetter than average springs.

All states and territories had below average spring rainfall. For Tasmania, it was the fifth-driest spring on record.

The season began with Australia's driest September on record, followed by the fifth-driest October on record. Australia's rainfall in November was above average due to widespread thunderstorms and showers and some stations in the Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia had their highest spring daily rainfall on record during November.

Rainfall in spring was below average for large parts of the southern Western Australia, much of South Australia, Tasmania and western Victoria, areas in eastern and north-western New South Wales, coastal parts of Queensland including the Cape York Peninsula and parts of the western Top End in the Northern Territory. Rainfall was very much below average for spring (in the driest 10% of years since 1900) for parts of Western Australia's Southern Interior district and western and southern coasts extending inland, much of south-eastern South Australia, northern Tasmania, parts of western Victoria and Wide Bay and Brunett and Peninsula districts in Queensland and a small area in the far north-west of the Top End (Northern Territory).

Spring rainfall was above average for areas scattered across the Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales, parts of eastern Victoria and some smaller areas in Western Australia. Rainfall was very much above average for spring (in wettest 10% of years since 1900) for Victoria's West and South Gippsland and parts of the Central Highlands and Coalfields district in Queensland.

Significant weather and records

For discussion of events during spring, see the individual monthly climate summaries for Australia for September, October and November.

Further information and tables of records for each state and the Northern Territory can be found in the individual regional climate summaries, to be released on 5 December.

3-month rainfall table ending November 2023
Area-average rainfall
  Rank
(of 124)
Average
(mm)
Departure
from mean
Comment
Australia = 42 57.6 −20%  
Queensland 61 75.4 −10%  
New South Wales 52 107.2 −16%  
Victoria 45 155.4 −14%  
Tasmania 5 238.7 −33% 5th lowest
South Australia 17 24.6 −52%  
Western Australia 20 26.8 −32%  
Northern Territory 63 61.0 −9%  
Murray-Darling Basin 55 103.1 −12%  

Rank ranges from 1 (lowest) to 124 (highest). A rank marked with ’=‘ indicates the value is tied for that rank. Departure from mean is relative to the long-term (1961–1990) average.

Australian weather extremes in spring 2023
Hottest day 45.4°C at Mandora (WA) on the 19th November
Coldest day -1.6°C at Falls Creek (Vic.) on the 8th September
Coldest night -8.1°C at Perisher Valley AWS (NSW) on the 7th October
Warmest night 32.5°C at Roebourne Aero (WA) on the 7th November
Wettest day 226.8 mm at Jervis Bay (Point Perpendicular AWS) (NSW) on the 29th November

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