Monday, 3 December 2012 - Seasonal Climate Summary for South Australia - Product code IDCKGC13R0
South Australia in spring 2012: Very warm and dry across the State
- Warmest spring days on record for South Australia.
- Third driest spring on record for the State.
- A hot finish results in temperatures records observed at several locations, and warmest spring night on record for the state.
Rainfall averaged across South Australia as a whole was very much below normal throughout spring 2012. September rainfall totals were below average across all parts of the State, except the far northern parts of the Pastoral districts where falls were generally near average. Drier than normal conditions persisted through to the end of spring with the fifth driest October on record and November rainfall the lowest in 16 years. This has resulted in the driest spring since 1967 and the third driest spring on record for South Australia.
The most significant rainfall events for spring occurred between the 5th and 7th of September as a deep low pressure system that tracked eastwards across ocean waters produced squally showers and isolated thunderstorms across southern parts of South Australia. Later, on October 10, a strong cold frontal system and associated cold air mass moved over the south of the State resulting in heavy rainfall, hail and a rare snow event for several locations about the Mt Lofty and Flinders Ranges. The passage of this cold frontal system brought rainfall totals of between 10 to 30 mm for central and southern parts of the State.
See a map of rainfall deciles.
Rainfall totals for spring as a whole were very low across the Pastorals generally ranging between 10 to 30mm. Ernabella (Pukatja) had the highest spring rainfall total in the Pastorals with 32.8 mm. Marla Police Station reported a record lowest spring rainfall total of 4.8mm, the lowest spring rainfall at this location since 1990 when only 6.4mm was observed.
Rainfall totals in the agricultural districts were very much below average across most of the agricultural districts, generally ranging from 40 to 60 mm in the eastern Agricultural, the Upper North and the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas. Falls increased to 100 mm about southeast coastal locations and the Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges. The wettest location overall in the agricultural districts and the state was at Kuitpo Forest Reserve in the Mount Lofty ranges with a spring rainfall total of 133.8 mm.Some sites had their lowest total spring rainfall on record. Some sites had their lowest total spring rainfall for at least 25 years.
Temperatures across South Australia were very much above average this spring. The mean temperature (the average of the maximum and minimum temperatures) for South Australia as a whole in spring was 1.8 °C above the long-term average, resulting in the warmest spring for the State since 2006 and the second warmest spring on record. By contrast spring 2011 was 1.1 °C warmer than average.
Averaged across the State as a whole, spring daytime temperatures were 2.7 °C above the long term average, resulting in the warmest spring days on record South Australia. See a map of maximum temperature anomalies. The previous warmest spring occurred in 2006. By contrast, daytime temperatures throughout spring in 2011 averaged 1.1°C above normal.
Many locations across the State experienced maximum temperatures in excess of 2°C above average throughout September and October. A heatwave, which affected large parts of southeastern Australia at the end of November, resulted in large areas of South Australia observing November average maximum temperatures in excess of 3°C above normal.
Average maximum temperatures ranged from 17.9°C at Mount Lofty and Parawa to 33.2°C at Moomba Airport in the Far North. Oodnadatta Airport, reported a record highest spring average maximum temperature with 33.0°C.
The hottest spring day occurred on November 29; Marree Comparison observed 46.0°C which was the hottest day for any location in the State, and the warmest spring day there since 2009 while Loxton Research Centre observed a record highest spring daytime temperature of 43.6°C.
The coldest day in spring was observed at Mount Lofty on October 11, where the maximum reached just 7.8 °C owing to the passage of a very cold airmass and cold frontal system.
Averaged across the State as a whole, spring minimum temperatures were 1°C warmer than normal. The northern and western parts of South Australia were the warmest, with several locations observing minimum temperatures in excess of 1.0 °C above average, while most agricultural areas saw slightly below average night-time temperatures. See a map of minimum temperature anomalies.
The eastern half of the State experienced cooler than normal nights through September and October, while western districts had warmer than normal nights. Nights warmed considerably through November, with parts across northern half of the State seeing nights 2 to 3 °C above average.
Spring average minimum temperatures ranged from 5.9°C at Keith (Munkora) to 16.5°C at Oodnadatta Airport. The lowest recorded minimum temperature through spring was -1.9°C at Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) on September 25; the warmest night was a State record for November with 32.3 °C at Oodnadatta Airport on November 29. Leigh Creek also observed a record warmest night on November 26 with a minimum of 29.4 °C.Some sites had their highest spring temperature on record. Some sites had their highest spring mean daily maximum temperature on record. Some sites had their warmest spring night (highest daily minimum temperature) on record.
|Extremes in spring 2012|
|Hottest day||46.0 °C at Marree Comparison on 29 Nov|
|Warmest days on average||33.2 °C at Moomba Airport|
|Coolest days on average||
17.9 °C at Mount Lofty|
17.9 °C at Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS)
|Coldest day||7.8 °C at Mount Lofty on 11 Oct|
|Coldest night||-1.9 °C at Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) on 25 Sep|
|Coolest nights on average||5.9 °C at Keith (Munkora)|
|Warmest nights on average||16.5 °C at Oodnadatta Airport|
|Warmest night||32.3 °C at Oodnadatta Airport on 29 Nov|
|Warmest on average overall||24.7 °C at Oodnadatta Airport|
|Coolest on average overall||12.9 °C at Mount Lofty|
|Wettest overall||133.8 mm at Kuitpo Forest Reserve|
1.2 mm at Leigh Creek (Pfitzners Well)|
1.2 mm at Moomba Airport
|Wettest day|| 32 mm at Piccadilly (Woodhouse) on 7 Sep
32 mm at Todmorden on 7 Nov
|Highest wind gust||119 km/h at Cape Borda on 5 Sep|
|Record lowest total spring rainfall|
for spring 2012 (mm)
|Adelaide (Tea Tree Gully Council)||43.9||47.9||in 2006||126||160.8|
|Parachilna (Motpena)||10.4||= 10.4||in 2006||44||57.6|
|Beltana Roadhouse||5.3||7.2||in 2006||27||56.0|
|Marla Police Station||4.8||6.4||in 1990||25||55.5|
|Lowest total spring rainfall for at least 25 years|
for spring 2012 (mm)
Most recent spring
at least this dry
|Lameroo Comparison||27.2||16.8||in 1938||74||105.6|
|Adelaide (Pooraka)||40.4||30.1||in 1938*||73||118.6|
|Gawler Council Depot||36.0||26.7||in 1896*||65||119.8|
|Ceduna AMO||15.6||9.2||in 1963||49||72.4|
|Tailem Bend||33.7||27.2||in 1967*||44||102.6|
|Cooke Plains||42.4||42.2||in 1967*||43||102.1|
|Hamley Bridge||46.8||35.8||in 1967*||42||113.6|
|Port Wakefield||37.0||34.8||in 1982*||29||83.5|
|Iron Knob||14.8||12.0||in 1982*||26||58.7|
|Mount Bryan||41.6||31.0||in 1982*||26||123.3|
* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported.
|Record highest spring temperature|
in spring 2012 (°C)
|Loxton Research Centre||43.6||on 29 Nov||43.0||on 18 Nov 2009||29||24.0|
|Record highest spring mean daily maximum temperature|
Mean daily maximum
for spring 2012 (°C)
|Oodnadatta Airport||33.0||= 33.0||in 2006||62||30.2|
|Andamooka||30.4||= 30.4||in 2006||42||28.1|
|Hawker||28.2||= 28.2||in 2006||37||25.5|
|Record highest spring daily minimum temperature|
Highest daily minimum
in spring 2012 (°C)
|Oodnadatta Airport||32.3||on 29 Nov||32.2||on 30 Nov 2006||63||15.0|
|Leigh Creek Airport||29.4||on 26 Nov||29.3||on 27 Nov 2006||29||12.6|
|Summary statistics for spring 2012|
|Northwest (district 16)|
|Andamooka||30.4||+2.3||43.9||25 Nov||14.5||+0.9||4.6||1 Sep||5.8||46.7||v low||12%|
|Coober Pedy Airport||31.1||44.8||25 Nov||15.0||4.2||1 Sep||10.0|
|Ernabella (Pukatja)||31.1||41.8||25 Nov||14.8||2.3||10 Sep||32.8|
|Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome)||30.4||43.3||25 Nov||12.5||-1.1||1 Sep||1.6|
|Tarcoola Aero||30.6||44.3||4 Nov||12.1||1.8||1 Sep||3.0|
|Woomera Aerodrome||28.9||+2.7||42.6||25 Nov||13.3||+0.9||4.4||8 Sep||16.2||47.5||low||34%|
|Far North (district 17)|
|Arkaroola||43.2||29 Nov||12.0||+0.4||0.5||8 Sep||5.3||52.5||low||10%|
|Leigh Creek Airport||29.6||+2.8||43.1||29 Nov||13.3||+0.7||3.0||12 Oct||5.0||55.9||v low||9%|
|Marree Aero||31.6||45.5||26 Nov||14.1||2.9||1 Sep||4.6|
|Marree Comparison||32.4||+3.0||46.0||29 Nov||14.4||+1.1||4.6||1 Sep||5.5||35.8||low||15%|
|Moomba Airport||33.2||45.7||30 Nov||15.4||4.7||12 Oct||1.2|
|Oodnadatta Airport||33.0||+2.8||45.6||25 Nov||16.5||+1.5||4.2||1 Sep||5.4||36.8||low||15%|
|Western Agricultural (district 18)|
|Ceduna AMO||25.8||+2.1||44.0||4 Nov||10.4||+0.4||0.1||9 Sep||15.6||72.4||v low||22%|
|Cleve||23.9||+1.7||38.6||4 Nov||11.1||+0.8||3.4||18 Sep||51.4||106.2||low||48%|
|Cleve Aerodrome||24.0||39.6||4 Nov||10.1||3.1||18 Sep||41.2||86.8||low||47%|
|Coulta (Coles Point)||22.3||+1.2||37.5||4 Nov||9.9||-0.5||1.5||12 Oct||45.8|
|Cummins Aero||24.1||38.6||4 Nov||7.3||-1.0||12 Oct||47.6|
|Elliston||22.7||+1.3||37.7||4 Nov||11.4||+0.2||3.0||10 Sep||39.3||89.6||v low||44%|
|Kimba||25.9||+2.3||40.0||4 Nov||2.0||14 Oct||29.2||91.2||v low||32%|
|Kyancutta||27.8||+2.6||42.4||4 Nov||8.3||-0.1||-0.5||18 Sep||17.7||79.3||v low||22%|
|Minnipa Pirsa||26.7||42.4||4 Nov||10.5||2.6||12 Oct||24.0|
|Neptune Island||18.2||+0.6||26.1||29 Nov||12.8||+0.3||7.1||11 Oct||49.6||91.7||low||54%|
|North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS)||22.0||+1.3||36.4||11 Nov||9.4||-0.5||2.9||17 Oct||48.2|
|Nullarbor||25.5||+1.3||42.8||4 Nov||10.8||+0.6||1.9||24 Sep||23.2||52.9||low||44%|
|Port Augusta Aero||28.6||42.5||4 Nov||11.5||0.0||1 Sep||24.2|
|Streaky Bay||24.7||+1.9||40.4||4 Nov||11.9||+0.4||4.5||18 Sep||36.9||80.6||low||46%|
|Whyalla Aero||25.3||+1.4||41.9||4 Nov||11.1||+0.2||0.5||1 Sep||35.0||73.1||low||48%|
|Wudinna Aero||27.6||42.4||4 Nov||8.2||-1.0||12 Oct||22.4|
|Upper North (district 19)|
|Hawker||28.2||+2.7||42.5||29 Nov||11.1||+1.1||0.5||9 Sep||27.0||75.5||low||36%|
|Yongala||24.6||+2.8||39.5||29 Nov||6.9||+0.5||-1.4||2 Sep||33.8||100.0||v low||34%|
|Northeast (district 20)|
|Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot)||27.1||44.4||29 Nov||8.5||-1.7||10 Sep||23.1|
|Yunta Airstrip||26.9||42.8||29 Nov||9.4||-0.8||30 Sep||18.0|
|Lower North (district 21)|
|Clare High School||22.7||38.1||29 Nov||8.1||0.3||1 Sep||63.4|
|Port Pirie Aerodrome||26.1||39.8||4 Nov||9.8||-0.6||1 Sep||40.2|
|Snowtown (Rayville Park)||25.7||39.9||29 Nov||7.5||-1.8||1 Sep||39.8|
|Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)|
|Edithburgh||21.0||37.2||20 Nov||10.6||1.8||10 Sep||47.6|
|Kadina AWS||25.2||39.9||4 Nov||7.6||-1.1||1 Sep||28.6|
|Maitland||23.3||+2.0||38.0||4 Nov||11.0||+0.8||4.6||1 Sep||64.2||119.5||low||54%|
|Minlaton Aero||23.5||37.2||4 Nov||9.1||1.5||10 Sep||41.6|
|Stenhouse Bay||20.8||35.1||20 Nov||11.8||4.9||1 Sep||48.0|
|Warooka||21.8||+1.2||34.4||4 Nov||10.6||+0.3||4.0||29 Sep||49.6||104.3||low||48%|
|Kangaroo Island (district 22B)|
|Cape Borda||18.5||30.9||4 Nov||10.1||5.6||22 Oct||61.2|
|Cape Willoughby||18.4||+0.9||31.0||20 Nov||12.0||+0.4||5.1||11 Oct||66.6||125.8||low||53%|
|Kingscote Aero||21.2||33.7||29 Nov||7.0||0.4||25 Sep||47.6|
|Parndana Cfs AWS||19.5||32.8||20 Nov||8.0||2.8||29 Sep||82.6|
|Adelaide Plains (district 23A)|
|Adelaide (Kent Town)||23.5||+1.5||38.0||29 Nov||11.9||+0.2||4.9||11 Oct||59.4||135.4||v low||44%|
|Adelaide Airport||22.5||+1.5||36.8||29 Nov||11.0||+0.2||3.8||25 Sep||45.0||108.3||v low||42%|
|Edinburgh RAAF||24.0||+1.8||38.5||29 Nov||10.3||0.0||1.9||18 Sep||50.2||111.4||v low||45%|
|Parafield Airport||24.1||+2.2||38.2||29 Nov||10.6||+0.2||1.8||18 Sep||56.6||112.5||v low||50%|
|Roseworthy AWS||25.1||41.0||29 Nov||7.7||-0.9||7 Oct||55.4|
|County Light (district 23B)|
|Nuriootpa Viticultural||22.9||39.8||29 Nov||8.5||0.5||18 Sep||60.2|
|Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre)||24.2||+2.3||40.6||29 Nov||8.6||-0.1||-0.5||1 Sep||62.2||126.1||v low||49%|
|Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)|
|Hindmarsh Island AWS||35.8||20 Nov||10.8||4.8||3 Sep||67.2|
|Kuitpo Forest Reserve||19.6||33.5||29 Nov||9.5||2.7||11 Oct||133.8|
|Mount Barker||21.0||+1.5||37.0||29 Nov||8.5||+1.2||2.2||25 Sep||109.8||191.8||v low||57%|
|Mount Crawford (Mt Crawford AWS)||19.9||36.5||29 Nov||8.9||1.1||11 Oct||62.6|
|Mount Lofty||17.9||33.0||29 Nov||8.0||0.4||11 Oct||95.6|
|Noarlunga||22.2||36.4||29 Nov||11.8||5.4||11 Oct||76.8|
|Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS)||17.9||32.5||29 Nov||9.2||2.9||12 Oct||114.2|
|Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay)||20.9||35.9||20 Nov||8.6||1.9||25 Sep||101.8|
|Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)|
|Loxton Research Centre||26.0||+2.0||43.6||29 Nov||8.8||+0.2||0.6||10 Sep||20.3||72.3||v low||28%|
|Renmark Aero||26.7||45.3||29 Nov||9.0||-0.7||10 Sep||16.2|
|Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)|
|Eudunda||23.3||+2.6||39.6||29 Nov||8.6||+0.4||2.2||24 Sep||48.2||119.2||v low||40%|
|Meningie||21.7||+1.2||37.9||29 Nov||9.6||-0.1||2.0||25 Sep||59.6||114.7||low||52%|
|Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome)||24.0||40.6||29 Nov||7.3||-1.9||25 Sep||41.0|
|Murray Bridge Comparison||24.5||+1.8||40.6||29 Nov||9.3||+0.1||1.0||25 Sep||48.6||96.1||v low||51%|
|Strathalbyn Racecourse||22.0||38.5||29 Nov||9.3||2.4||25 Sep||66.0|
|Murray Mallee (district 25A)|
|Karoonda||24.5||42.6||29 Nov||8.3||0.0||25 Sep||35.7||91.8||v low||39%|
|Upper Southeast (district 25B)|
|Keith||22.9||+1.2||40.2||29 Nov||8.4||0.0||0.5||25 Sep||54.2||124.3||v low||44%|
|Keith (Munkora)||23.0||41.3||29 Nov||5.9||-1.7||10 Nov||56.0|
|Lameroo (Austin Plains)||24.3||42.5||29 Nov||7.3||-0.8||25 Sep||31.4|
|Lameroo Comparison||24.0||+1.3||41.5||29 Nov||8.7||+0.8||2.0||7 Oct||27.2||105.6||v low||26%|
|Lower Southeast (district 26)|
|Cape Jaffa (The Limestone)||18.8||+0.1||33.4||29 Nov||9.1||-0.4||2.9||25 Sep||102.6|
|Coonawarra||20.4||+0.8||37.4||29 Nov||6.9||-0.6||0.3||28 Oct||102.4||141.5||low||72%|
|Mount Gambier Aero||19.6||+1.6||37.4||29 Nov||7.4||+0.1||0.4||19 Sep||102.2||180.4||v low||57%|
|Naracoorte Aerodrome||21.0||39.1||29 Nov||6.9||0.2||28 Oct||71.6|
|Padthaway South||21.3||38.7||29 Nov||7.4||0.1||25 Sep||66.2|
|Robe Airfield||19.1||33.0||20 Nov||8.4||1.0||11 Sep||105.0|
|Robe Comparison||18.3||+0.7||29.0||29 Nov||10.4||+0.1||4.4||9 Oct||109.4||133.5||average||82%|
A Seasonal Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.
This statement has been prepared based on information available at 8 am on Monday 3 December 2012. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.
Averages are long-term means based on observations from
all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site.
They are not shown for sites with less than 20 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.
The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site,
based on the
(very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3,
average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9
and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.