South Australia in spring 2019: drier than average

Rainfall in spring was below average over most of South Australia, making it the State's third-driest spring on record and lowest spring rainfall total since 1967. Daytime temperatures in spring were warmer that average, particularly in the west, with the State's mean maximum temperature the sixth-highest on record for spring. Night-time temperatures were generally closer to average, though above average in the west and some areas of below average mean minimum temperatures in the Riverland, Mid North, and South East districts

Third-driest spring on record

  • Rainfall in spring was below average over most of South Australia, with only small, isolated patches of near-average rainfall scattered across the State
  • Rainfall for South Australia was 70% below average, the State's third-driest spring on record and lowest spring total since 1967
  • The highest totals were in the Mount Lofty Ranges and Lower South East district, where 208.2 mm was recorded at Mount Schank (Jethia)
  • The Pastoral districts had less than 25 mm for the season and large areas of the north had totals that were more than 80% below average, including Moomba Airport, which recorded only 1.8 mm during spring (1.4 mm of which was recorded in one day on 4 November)
  • More than 99% of South Australia by area had below median spring rainfall, including more than half the State with very much below average rainfall (lowest 10% of years)
  • The State's wettest days of the season were on 20 and 21 September, with widespread totals of more than 10 mm across the Agricultural districts and 56.4 mm recorded at Ungarra on the Eyre Peninsula
  • On 20 September, Ungarra and Yeelana (Booker) had their highest spring daily rainfall on record
  • Several sites had their lowest total spring rainfall on record or their lowest total spring rainfall for at least 20 years

Sixth-warmest daytime temperature

Further information

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Extremes in spring 2019
Hottest day 46.6 °C at Nullarbor on 20 Nov
Warmest days on average 32.3 °C at Oodnadatta Airport
Coolest days on average 17.0 °C at Mount Lofty
Coldest day 7.2 °C at Mount Lofty on 6 Sep
Coldest night -4.0 °C at Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) on 18 Sep
Coolest nights on average 5.5 °C at Keith (Munkora)
Warmest nights on average 15.1 °C at Moomba Airport
Warmest night 28.0 °C at Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) on 21 Nov
Warmest on average overall 23.6 °C at Oodnadatta Airport
Coolest on average overall 12.3 °C at Mount Lofty
Wettest overall 208.2 mm at Mount Schank (Jethia)
Driest overall 1.8 mm at Moomba Airport
Wettest day 56.4 mm at Ungarra on 20 Sep
Strongest wind gust 106 km/h at Tarcoola Aero on 24 Oct

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record highest spring daily rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Ungarra 56.4 on 20 Sep 56.0 on 27 Sep 1979 106
Yeelana (Brooker) 41.8 on 20 Sep 39.4 on 5 Nov 1921 106



Record lowest spring total rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Orroroo 14.1 21.8 in 2006 147 88.6
Wirrabara 33.6 36.4 in 2014 141 127.9
Andamooka 2.4 3.0 in 2007 55 43.4
Ernabella (Pukatja) 6.4 9.6 in 2013 22 60.8

Lowest spring total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
lower
Average for
spring
Palmer 30.6 27.6 in 1938* 106.7
Riverton 56.8 40.6 in 1967* 140.3
Nullarbor 5.8 0.0 in 1963* 52.8
Orroroo (Black Rock) 19.0 18.4 in 1982 84.2

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported




Record highest spring temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Parafield Airport 44.3 on 20 Nov 44.1 on 19 Nov 2009 63 22.2
Neptune Island 34.4 on 20 Nov 33.7 on 22 Nov 1966 58 17.6
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 44.1 on 20 Nov 44.0 on 19 Nov 2009 58 22.1
Edinburgh RAAF 44.5 on 20 Nov = 44.5 on 19 Nov 2009 48 22.4
Nullarbor 46.6 on 20 Nov 45.3 on 20 Nov 2006 34 24.4
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 38.4 on 20 Nov 37.4 on 29 Nov 2017 28 18.8
Clare High School 40.8 on 20 Nov 40.6 on 19 Nov 2009 26 21.2
Kingscote Aero 41.0 on 20 Nov 38.8 on 15 Nov 2009 26 20.4
Nuriootpa Pirsa 42.1 on 20 Nov 41.5 on 19 Nov 2009 24 21.5
Strathalbyn Racecourse 43.1 on 20 Nov 42.4 on 19 Nov 2009 24 21.6
Naracoorte Aerodrome 40.3 on 20 Nov 39.6 on 30 Nov 2014 22 21.0
Padthaway South 40.7 on 20 Nov 38.7 on 29 Nov 2012 20 21.1



Record lowest spring daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Tarcoola Aero 13.0 on 20 Sep 14.0 on 18 Oct 1997 23 28.5



Record highest spring daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Loxton Research Centre 27.6 on 21 Nov 25.2 on 2 Nov 1987 36 8.7
Coonawarra 23.3 on 1 Nov 22.7 on 26 Nov 1997 35 7.6
Renmark Aero 27.3 on 21 Nov 26.2 on 28 Nov 2000 25 9.4
Yunta Airstrip 27.1 on 21 Nov 25.5 on 12 Nov 2010 22 9.5
Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) 28.0 on 21 Nov 27.0 on 28 Nov 2000 21 9.1



Record lowest spring temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Ceduna AMO -1.8 on 8 Sep -1.2 on 1 Sep 2007 79 10.1
Parafield Airport -0.2 on 17 Sep 0.0 on 1 Sep 1987 63 10.4
Kingscote Aero -2.2 on 18 Sep -2.0 on 5 Sep 2007 26 7.8
Strathalbyn Racecourse -0.2 on 18 Sep 0.2 on 25 Sep 2018 24 9.3
Tarcoola Aero -0.1 on 7 Sep 0.3 on 16 Sep 2018 23 12.2
Yunta Airstrip -3.2 on 18 Sep -2.5 on 5 Sep 2007 22 9.5
Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) -4.0 on 18 Sep -3.2 on 4 Sep 2018 21 9.1
Noarlunga 3.5 on 17 Sep 4.0 on 29 Sep 2003 20 12.0
Padthaway South -1.7 on 17 Sep -1.0 on 29 Sep 2018 20 8.2



Record lowest spring mean daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Edithburgh 9.5 10.0 in 2016 26 10.9
Nuriootpa Pirsa 7.0 7.1 in 2016 23 8.6
Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) 7.9 8.0 in 2018 20 9.1

Lowest spring mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
lower
Average for
spring
Keith 7.4 7.2 in 1971* 8.4
Streaky Bay 10.6 10.4 in 1971* 11.6

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported




Summary statistics for spring 2019
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
spring
2019
Diff
from
average
Highest for
spring
2019
Mean for
spring
2019
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
spring
2019
Total for
spring
2019
Average
for
spring
Rank of
spring
2019
Fraction of
spring
average
Northwest (district 16)
Andamooka 30.0 +1.7 43.5 20 Nov 13.7 0.0 5.5 1 Sep 2.4 43.4 lowest 6%
Coober Pedy Airport 30.7 +1.8 43.4 20 Nov 14.3 -0.1 4.4 7 Sep 3.8 33.7 lowest 11%
Ernabella (Pukatja) 30.9 +1.9 41.0 20 Nov 14.9 +1.0 2.1 10 Sep 6.4 60.8 lowest 11%
Mount Ive 27.9   43.0 20 Nov 10.7   1.0 8 Sep 15.8 63.3 v low 25%
Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome) 29.7 +1.0 43.2 20 Nov 12.6 -0.2 2.0 10 Sep 2.2 33.6 v low 7%
Tarcoola Aero 30.2 +1.7 44.2 20 Nov 11.9 -0.3 -0.1 7 Sep 14.4 45.4 low 32%
Woomera Aerodrome 28.7 +2.3 43.2 20 Nov 12.9 +0.4 4.7 7 Sep 13.2 45.6 low 29%
Far North (district 17)
Leigh Creek Airport 29.0 +1.9 42.4 20 Nov 12.5 -0.2 3.7 8 Sep 9.8 51.3 low 19%
Marree Aero 30.9 +0.8 44.2 20 Nov 13.2 -0.9 3.9 12 Sep 4.8 30.6 low 16%
Moomba Airport 31.1 +0.3 44.0 20 Nov 15.1 -0.7 4.4 8 Sep 1.8 41.3 low 4%
Oodnadatta Airport 32.3 +2.0 43.6 20 Nov 14.9 -0.2 4.9 7 Sep 4.2 36.2 v low 12%
Western Agricultural (district 18)
Ceduna AMO 26.0 +2.1 46.2 20 Nov 10.6 +0.5 -1.8 8 Sep 23.0 69.6 v low 33%
Cleve 23.8 +1.5 42.0 20 Nov 10.8 +0.4 4.4 24 Sep 47.6 105.1 v low 45%
Cleve Aerodrome 24.0 +0.9 42.6 20 Nov 10.1 -0.2 2.9 17 Sep 41.2 84.7 low 49%
Coffin Bay (Point Avoid) 20.9   35.8 20 Nov 11.3   4.9 10 Sep 37.6
Cultana (Defence) 26.9   43.5 20 Nov 11.6   4.9 22 Sep 30.0
Cummins Aero 23.0 -0.2 44.4 20 Nov 7.2 -1.3 -0.6 17 Sep 67.6 77.1 average 88%
Elliston 23.5 +2.0 42.9 20 Nov 11.5 +0.2 1.6 17 Sep 43.6 88.5 low 49%
Kimba 25.7 +1.8 42.0 20 Nov     2.5 17 Sep 37.4 88.9 low 42%
Kyancutta 27.4 +2.1 44.4 20 Nov 8.6 +0.1 -0.2 9 Sep 74.4 77.9 average 96%
Minnipa Pirsa 26.1 +0.9 43.8 20 Nov 10.4 +0.1 1.7 17 Sep 64.0 64.4 average 99%
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 22.1 +1.2 44.9 20 Nov 9.0 -0.9 1.9 10 Sep 62.6 81.9 average 76%
Nullarbor 26.6 +2.2 46.6 20 Nov 10.0 -0.3 0.0 7 Sep 5.8 52.8 v low 11%
Port Augusta Aero 27.7 +0.5 45.1 20 Nov 11.9 +0.1 3.6 2 Sep 20.6 51.8 low 40%
Streaky Bay 24.7 +1.8 41.2 20 Nov 10.6 -1.0 2.4 17 Sep 39.9 79.4 low 50%
Whyalla Aero 24.9 +0.8 44.5 20 Nov 11.1 +0.1 2.0 18 Sep 35.0 69.0 low 51%
Wudinna Aero 26.9 +0.9 44.3 20 Nov 8.5 -0.7 -0.8 9 Sep 70.0 60.8 average 115%
Upper North (district 19)
Hawker 27.1 +1.4 42.1 20 Nov 10.9 +0.9 1.9 8 Sep 12.1 73.8 v low 16%
Yongala     40.0 20 Nov 7.2 +0.7 -1.0 18 Sep 32.8 98.0 v low 33%
Northeast (district 20)
Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) 26.3 +0.4 44.4 20 Nov 7.9 -1.2 -4.0 18 Sep 44.6 72.2 average 62%
Yunta Airstrip 26.3 +1.0 42.2 20 Nov 8.9 -0.6 -3.2 18 Sep 3.4 59.6 lowest 6%
Lower North (district 21)
Clare High School 22.4 +1.2 40.8 20 Nov 7.3 -1.0 0.2 18 Oct 52.8 137.2 v low 38%
Port Pirie Aerodrome AWS 25.9   43.8 20 Nov 9.6   0.4 9 Sep 31.2
Snowtown (Rayville Park) 25.4 +1.0 43.5 20 Nov 7.0 -0.5 -2.3 18 Sep
Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)
Edithburgh 20.9 +0.6 43.9 20 Nov 9.5 -1.4 2.0 11 Sep 93.4 88.4 average 106%
Kadina AWS 23.6 -0.5 42.8 20 Nov 8.1 -0.4 -2.6 17 Sep 58.6 70.1 average 84%
Minlaton Aero 22.7 +0.1 43.2 20 Nov 8.9 -0.8 0.5 17 Sep 66.6 79.3 average 84%
Stenhouse Bay 20.2 +0.2 37.2 24 Oct 11.2 -0.7 4.5 10 Sep 87.4 93.2 average 94%
Warooka     36.9 20 Nov 9.9 -0.4 5.0 17 Sep 73.8 103.0 low 72%
Kangaroo Island (district 22B)
Cape Borda 18.0 -0.4 31.1 24 Oct 9.9 -0.5 2.6 17 Sep 65.4 103.4 low 63%
Cape Willoughby 18.3 +0.7 34.3 20 Nov 11.5 -0.2 5.8 22 Sep 79.8 124.8 low 64%
Kingscote Aero 20.8 +0.4 41.0 20 Nov 6.7 -1.1 -2.2 18 Sep 57.2 95.2 low 60%
Parndana Cfs AWS 19.3   40.6 20 Nov 7.3   0.8 17 Sep 78.2
Adelaide Plains (district 23A)
Adelaide (Kent Town) 22.7 +0.5 42.2 20 Nov 11.2 -0.6 4.0 10 Sep 82.2 129.0 low 64%
Adelaide (West Terrace / ngayirdapira) 22.1 +0.7 41.6 20 Nov 11.2 0.0 3.4 10 Sep 83.2 125.4 low 66%
Adelaide Airport 21.6 +0.5 39.6 20 Nov 11.0 +0.1 2.9 17 Sep 71.4 105.3 low 68%
Edinburgh RAAF 23.1 +0.7 44.5 20 Nov 10.3 0.0 2.0 18 Sep 56.6 108.2 low 52%
Parafield Airport 23.6 +1.4 44.3 20 Nov 9.5 -0.9 -0.2 17 Sep 67.2 109.8 low 61%
Roseworthy AWS 24.1 +0.4 44.6 20 Nov 7.6 -0.7 -2.1 17 Sep 58.0 99.5 low 58%
County Light (district 23B)
Nuriootpa Pirsa 22.1 +0.6 42.1 20 Nov 7.0 -1.6 0.1 18 Oct 65.6 125.3 v low 52%
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 23.1 +1.0 44.1 20 Nov 8.7 0.0 -0.6 17 Sep 73.2 124.5 low 59%
Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)
Hindmarsh Island AWS 21.3 +0.2 41.8 20 Nov 10.7 -0.4 2.7 18 Sep 79.2 86.8 average 91%
Kuitpo Forest Reserve 19.0 -0.1 38.1 20 Nov 9.2 -0.3 3.0 17 Sep 133.2 159.0 average 84%
Mount Barker 20.8 +1.2 39.2 20 Nov 7.7 +0.3 0.2 17 Sep 116.0 190.5 low 61%
Mount Crawford AWS 19.0 +0.4 39.5 20 Nov 8.5 -0.3 0.8 17 Sep 94.4 148.7 low 63%
Mount Lofty 17.0 +1.9 35.8 20 Nov 7.7 +0.1 0.3 17 Sep 144.0 214.4 low 67%
Noarlunga 21.5 -0.1 39.9 20 Nov 11.3 -0.7 3.5 17 Sep 72.0 95.1 average 76%
Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) 17.4 +0.4 36.7 20 Nov 8.7 -0.5 3.5 18 Sep 141.2 181.5 average 78%
Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay) 20.8 +0.2 41.2 20 Nov 8.4 -1.0 -1.6 18 Sep 90.4 125.3 low 72%
Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)
Loxton Research Centre 25.1 +0.8 43.5 20 Nov 8.6 -0.1 -0.9 2 Sep 42.9 72.2 average 59%
Renmark Aero 25.9 +0.4 45.0 20 Nov 9.1 -0.3 -1.6 18 Sep 41.4 68.6 average 60%
Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)
Eudunda 22.5 +1.6 41.2 20 Nov 7.9 -0.4 0.7 17 Sep 49.2 117.5 v low 42%
Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) 23.6 -0.3 45.3 20 Nov 7.4 -0.4 -3.1 18 Sep 51.6 70.2 average 74%
Strathalbyn Racecourse 22.2 +0.6 43.1 20 Nov 8.6 -0.7 -0.2 18 Sep 69.4 105.5 low 66%
Upper Southeast (district 25B)
Keith 21.8 0.0 43.2 20 Nov 7.4 -1.0 -1.5 17 Sep 105.1 122.5 average 86%
Keith (Munkora) 22.0 -0.7 44.3 20 Nov 5.5 -1.2 -3.5 17 Sep 57.2 93.2 low 61%
Lameroo (Austin Plains) 23.2 -0.6 44.0 20 Nov 6.8 -0.9 -1.3 2 Sep 56.2 78.4 average 72%
Lower Southeast (district 26)
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 18.4 -0.4 38.4 20 Nov 9.1 -0.5 1.2 18 Sep 101.4 105.3 average 96%
Coonawarra 19.2 -0.6 37.5 20 Nov 6.6 -1.0 -0.9 17 Sep 133.6 140.2 average 95%
Mount Gambier Aero 18.0 -0.2 35.8 20 Nov 7.0 -0.3 -1.3 17 Sep 159.4 178.6 average 89%
Naracoorte Aerodrome 20.2 -0.8 40.3 20 Nov 6.6 -0.8 -2.5 17 Sep 103.2 123.0 average 84%
Padthaway South 20.2 -0.9 40.7 20 Nov 6.8 -1.4 -1.7 17 Sep 106.6 109.2 average 98%
Robe Airfield 18.2 -0.9 38.0 20 Nov 8.2 -0.9 0.8 17 Sep 135.0 118.0 average 114%

Notes

The Seasonal climate summary, generally published on the first working day of each month, lists the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 9 am on Monday 2 December 2019. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the rainfall is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries