South Australia in spring 2015: dry with above average temperatures

Spring was generally drier and warmer than normal across much of South Australia. It was particularly dry across the southeast and it was warmer than normal across the whole State. Night time temperatures were the warmest on record when averaged across the State.

  • Warmer than average days, with record mid-season heat
  • Warmest spring nights on record
  • Below average spring rainfall across southern cropping areas

Spring rainfall was below average for South Australia as a whole, with particularly dry areas across the southeast and western agricultural and pastoral parts of the State. Several locations had their lowest total spring rainfall on record while some other sites had their lowest total spring rainfall for at least 20 years. Most of the spring total rainfall was recorded in just 4 days over the season; on the 2nd and 3rd of September and on again the 4th and 5th of November, the latter of which resulted in some sites having their highest spring daily rainfall on record.

Both spring mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures were very much above average across South Australia, owing to particularly warm conditions through October and November. In early October, temperature anomalies in excess of +12 °C extended across large areas of South Australia with many stations recording early season temperature records. The warmer conditions through that period resulted in some sites having their highest spring mean temperature on record and their highest spring mean daily maximum temperature on record or their highest spring mean daily minimum temperature on record.

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Extremes in spring 2015
Hottest day 45.8 °C at Ceduna AMO on 18 Nov
Warmest days on average 33.1 °C at Oodnadatta Airport
Coolest days on average 18.4 °C at Cape Willoughby
18.4 °C at Neptune Island
Coldest day 7.8 °C at Mount Lofty on 2 Sep
Coldest night -3.6 °C at Keith (Munkora) on 23 Sep
Coolest nights on average 7.3 °C at Naracoorte Aerodrome
Warmest nights on average 17.0 °C at Moomba Airport
Warmest night 29.1 °C at Oodnadatta Airport on 30 Nov
Warmest on average overall 24.9 °C at Oodnadatta Airport
Coolest on average overall 13.8 °C at Mount Lofty
Wettest overall 162.4 mm at Mount Lofty
Wettest day 88.4 mm at Jamestown on 5 Nov
Strongest wind gust 93 km/h at Neptune Island on 6 Sep
93 km/h at Mount Crawford AWS on 30 Nov

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record highest spring daily rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Jamestown 88.4 on 5 Nov 64.3 on 6 Nov 1934 132
Tarlee 69.6 on 5 Nov 64.4 on 31 Oct 1997 132
Arno Bay 45.0 on 4 Nov 41.6 on 26 Nov 2002 109
Darke Peak 67.0 on 4 Nov 41.7 on 23 Oct 1920 102
Jamestown Pirsa 81.2 on 5 Nov 70.2 on 31 Oct 1997 65
Stockport (Clifton) 70.4 on 5 Nov 60.6 on 31 Oct 1997 57
Cleve Aerodrome 54.2 on 4 Nov 44.7 on 18 Nov 1964 52
Lameroo (Desford) 59.6 on 5 Nov 39.4 on 6 Oct 1980 40
Whyalla Aero 57.6 on 4 Nov 52.0 on 27 Sep 1979 33



Record lowest spring total rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Goolwa Council Depot 32.0 40.5 in 1967 153 114.5
Willunga 48.6 51.8 in 1982 151 152.4
Mount Pleasant 50.2 55.3 in 1938 138 167.1
Mount Compass 65.6 66.6 in 1938 89 193.1
Goolwa Barrage 32.4 43.6 in 1995 24 106.8

Lowest spring total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
lower
Average for
spring
Birdwood 59.8 58.5 in 1914* 177.7
Palmer 32.5 27.6 in 1938* 107.3
Finniss 38.8 37.2 in 1938* 124.0
Victor Harbor (Rivington Grange) 64.0 55.9 in 1967 165.4
Echunga Golf Course 78.4 73.6 in 1967* 199.1
Port Elliot Caravan Park 48.6 42.5 in 1967* 122.4
Adelaide (Brighton) 43.4 35.0 in 1938* 123.2
Blackwood (Wittunga) 71.6 71.1 in 1982* 165.1
Happy Valley Reservoir 63.8 55.6 in 1982* 147.3
Adelaide (Seaton) 40.5 39.6 in 1982* 109.5

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported.




Record highest spring mean daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Mount Barker 23.1 22.9 in 2014 113 19.5
Oodnadatta Airport 33.1 33.0 in 2013 65 30.3
Keith 24.7 24.4 in 2014 61 21.7
Parafield Airport 25.0 = 25.0 in 2014 58 22.1
Andamooka 30.6 30.5 in 2014 45 28.3
Adelaide (Kent Town)** 24.6 24.5 in 2014 38 22.1
Loxton Research Centre 26.8 26.3 in 2014 31 24.2
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 20.1 = 20.1 in 2014 23 18.7
Coober Pedy Airport 31.2 31.1 in 2014 21 28.8
Mount Crawford AWS 20.9 = 20.9 in 2014 21 18.5
Renmark Aero 27.6 27.2 in 2014 20 25.5



Record highest spring daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Nullarbor 26.6 on 18 Nov 25.8 on 31 Oct 1987 30 10.3



Record highest spring mean daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Woomera Aerodrome 14.5 14.3 in 2009 66 12.4
Eudunda 9.9 9.6 in 2009 50 8.3
Andamooka 15.4 15.2 in 2009 45 13.7
Nullarbor 11.5 = 11.5 in 2013 27 10.3
Coober Pedy Airport 15.7 15.5 in 2006 21 14.4
Moomba Airport 17.0 16.7 in 2000 20 15.8



Record highest spring mean temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Mount Barker 16.0 15.9 in 2014 112 13.4
Yongala 16.4 16.3 in 1944 86 14.2
Mount Gambier Aero 14.4 = 14.4 in 2009 73 12.7
Woomera Aerodrome 21.8 21.6 in 2014 66 19.4
Oodnadatta Airport 24.9 = 24.9 in 2006 65 22.7
Keith 17.0 16.7 in 2014 60 15.1
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 17.1 = 17.1 in 2007 53 15.4
Eudunda 16.7 16.4 in 2014 50 14.5
Andamooka 23.0 22.6 in 2014 45 21.0
Leigh Creek Airport 21.8 = 21.8 in 2014 31 19.9
Coonawarra 15.1 14.9 in 2009 29 13.6
Coober Pedy Airport 23.4 23.2 in 2014 21 21.6
Mount Crawford AWS 15.4 15.1 in 2014 21 13.7
Moomba Airport 24.8 24.6 in 2014 20 23.3



Summary statistics for spring 2015
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
spring
2015
Diff
from
average
Highest for
spring
2015
Mean for
spring
2015
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
spring
2015
Total for
spring
2015
Average
for
spring
Rank of
spring
2015
Fraction of
spring
average
Northwest (district 16)
Andamooka 30.6 +2.3 42.5 19 Nov 15.4 +1.7 7.5 5 Sep 20.4 44.8 low 46%
Coober Pedy Airport 31.2 +2.4 44.3 19 Nov 15.7 +1.3 4.8 7 Sep 10.6 31.5 low 34%
Ernabella (Pukatja) 31.2 +2.2 41.5 19 Nov 15.5 +1.5 4.5 25 Sep 11.4 55.4 v low 21%
Mount Ive 28.1   43.0 19 Nov 11.9   -1.0 24 Sep 53.5 64.4 average 83%
Roxby Downs (Olympic Dam Aerodrome) 30.7 +2.1 43.5 19 Nov 14.0 +1.2 4.6 19 Sep 8.8 36.2 low 24%
Tarcoola Aero 30.4 +1.9 44.8 19 Nov 13.7 +1.6 3.0 15 Sep 42.6 43.7 average 97%
Woomera Aerodrome 29.2 +2.9 43.6 19 Nov 14.5 +2.1 5.3 8 Sep 16.8 46.1 low 36%
Far North (district 17)
Arkaroola 28.8 +2.0 40.6 19 Nov     2.5 5 Sep 32.9 51.4 average 64%
Leigh Creek Airport 29.6 +2.6 41.9 19 Nov 14.0 +1.3 5.3 16 Sep 44.8 52.8 average 85%
Marree Aero 32.1 +2.0 43.0 19 Nov 14.8 +0.6 4.7 24 Sep 26.8 33.1 average 81%
Moomba Airport 32.5 +1.7 43.6 20 Nov 17.0 +1.2 7.6 24 Sep 1.0 41.7 v low 2%
Oodnadatta Airport 33.1 +2.8 44.0 25 Nov 16.7 +1.6 5.7 25 Sep 7.6 35.5 low 21%
Western Agricultural (district 18)
Ceduna AMO 25.9 +2.1 45.8 18 Nov 11.2 +1.2 -0.2 25 Sep 30.6 70.9 low 43%
Cleve 23.7 +1.5 37.9 18 Nov 11.9 +1.5 4.5 7 Sep 96.8 105.3 average 92%
Cleve Aerodrome 23.8 +0.7 39.7 18 Nov 10.7 +0.4 4.5 5 Sep 84.4 85.2 average 99%
Coulta (Coles Point) 22.5 +1.2 35.4 18 Nov 10.4 0.0 1.2 29 Sep 67.0 72.0 average 93%
Cummins Aero 24.1   40.5 18 Nov 8.6   0.4 30 Sep 59.4
Elliston 22.9 +1.4 38.7 18 Nov 12.1 +0.9 4.4 24 Sep 74.8 88.7 average 84%
Kimba 26.1 +2.3 40.5 19 Nov 10.6 +1.2 2.8 7 Sep 58.8 89.8 average 65%
Kyancutta 27.8 +2.5 42.1 18 Nov 9.5 +1.0 -1.1 23 Sep 73.7 78.1 average 94%
Minnipa Pirsa 26.5 +1.2 41.5 18 Nov 11.0 +0.7 2.1 7 Sep 72.2 64.6 average 112%
Neptune Island 18.4 +0.8 28.9 18 Nov 13.3 +0.8 9.9 2 Sep 63.8 90.5 low 70%
North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) 21.9 +1.0 40.6 18 Nov 10.5 +0.6 3.6 29 Sep 50.6 81.5 low 62%
Nullarbor 25.9 +1.5 43.9 17 Nov 11.5 +1.2 3.1 15 Sep 30.2 52.6 average 57%
Port Augusta Aero 28.3 +1.1 45.4 19 Nov 12.9 +1.0 3.5 5 Sep 27.2 54.1 average 50%
Streaky Bay 25.2 +2.3 40.5 18 Nov 12.7 +1.1 5.0 24 Sep 62.7 79.8 average 79%
Whyalla Aero 25.0 +0.9 41.9 18 Nov 12.1 +1.2 3.1 5 Sep 98.0 71.1 high 138%
Wudinna Aero 27.4 +1.4 42.7 18 Nov 9.5 +0.2 -1.8 24 Sep 61.4 59.2 average 104%
Upper North (district 19)
Hawker 28.2 +2.5 41.5 19 Nov 10.7 +0.7 0.5 16 Sep 41.4 75.0 average 55%
Yongala 24.6 +2.7 38.1 19 Nov 8.2 +1.8 -0.4 25 Sep 60.4 98.7 low 61%
Northeast (district 20)
Gluepot Reserve (Gluepot) 27.9 +2.0 43.2 19 Nov 9.5 +0.3 -0.2 23 Sep 42.1 71.9 average 59%
Lower North (district 21)
Clare High School 23.2 +2.1 37.4 18 Nov 9.0 +0.7 1.0 5 Sep 122.0 138.8 average 88%
Port Pirie Aerodrome AWS 26.6   40.6 19 Nov 10.5   1.6 23 Sep 115.8
Snowtown (Rayville Park) 26.1 +1.7 40.8 18 Nov 8.5 +0.9 -1.0 30 Sep 62.8 91.7 average 68%
Yorke Peninsula (district 22A)
Edithburgh 21.6 +1.4 40.4 18 Nov 11.7 +0.8 2.8 5 Sep 48.8 84.9 low 57%
Kadina AWS 24.9 +0.6 39.8 18 Nov 8.6 +0.1 -0.2 23 Sep 59.8 69.0 average 87%
Minlaton Aero 24.1 +1.6 40.4 18 Nov 10.0 +0.2 0.6 29 Sep 57.0 80.3 average 71%
Stenhouse Bay 20.8 +0.7 38.6 18 Nov 12.5 +0.6 5.2 5 Sep 56.2 92.4 low 61%
Warooka 22.4 +1.7 35.2 18 Nov 11.5 +1.2 4.0 5 Sep 52.8 103.2 low 51%
Kangaroo Island (district 22B)
Cape Borda 19.0 +0.6 31.4 18 Nov 10.5 0.0 5.0 19 Sep 36.6 98.3 v low 37%
Cape Willoughby 18.4 +0.8 36.4 18 Nov 12.6 +1.0 8.8 24 Sep 28.6 124.5 lowest 23%
Kingscote Aero 21.6 +1.3 37.6 18 Nov 8.1 +0.4 0.3 14 Oct 54.6 94.7 low 58%
Parndana Cfs AWS 19.9   36.3 18 Nov 8.9   3.7 7 Sep 71.6
Adelaide Plains (district 23A)
Adelaide (Kent Town)** 24.6 +2.5 40.1 18 Nov 12.5 +0.7 4.3 5 Sep 71.0 128.4 low 55%
Adelaide Airport 23.1 +2.0 39.3 18 Nov 11.9 +1.1 3.5 5 Sep 33.6 105.4 v low 32%
Edinburgh RAAF 24.7 +2.4 40.6 18 Nov 11.2 +0.9 1.8 19 Sep
Parafield Airport 25.0 +2.9 40.5 18 Nov 10.9 +0.5 2.0 19 Sep 56.8 110.0 v low 52%
Roseworthy AWS 25.4 +1.7 41.6 18 Nov 8.8 +0.5 -0.8 24 Sep 63.2 99.2 average 64%
County Light (district 23B)
Nuriootpa Viticultural 23.3 +1.8 38.9 19 Nov 9.0 +0.4 1.0 5 Sep 71.5 121.3 low 59%
Rosedale (Turretfield Research Centre) 24.9 +2.8 40.4 18 Nov 9.5 +0.8 0.4 30 Sep 66.2 124.7 low 53%
Mount Lofty Ranges (district 23C)
Hindmarsh Island AWS 22.2 +1.1 38.8 18 Nov 11.7 +0.6 5.3 19 Sep 29.6 84.0 v low 35%
Kuitpo Forest Reserve 20.5 +1.4 35.3 18 Nov 10.2 +0.7 4.2 23 Sep 102.2 151.4 low 68%
Mount Barker 23.1 +3.6 36.0 18 Nov 8.9 +1.6 1.0 8 Sep 85.4 190.1 v low 45%
Mount Crawford AWS 20.9 +2.4 36.0 18 Nov 10.0 +1.2 1.2 23 Sep 76.8 145.8 low 53%
Mount Lofty 18.6 +3.8 33.4 18 Nov 9.1 +1.6 1.2 23 Sep 162.4
Noarlunga 22.8 +1.2 37.5 18 Nov 12.4 +0.4 4.8 29 Sep 44.2 98.5 low 45%
Parawa (Second Valley Forest AWS) 18.5 +1.6 33.7 18 Nov 10.0 +0.8 4.9 5 Sep 89.0 181.4 low 49%
Victor Harbor (Encounter Bay) 21.5 +1.0 38.5 18 Nov 9.7 +0.3 1.4 19 Sep 52.0 120.6 v low 43%
Upper Murray Valley (district 24A)
Loxton Research Centre 26.8 +2.6 41.6 19 Nov 9.6 +0.9 0.6 1 Sep 72.6 70.9 average 102%
Renmark Aero 27.6 +2.1 42.7 19 Nov 9.9 +0.6 -0.4 1 Sep 45.0 68.5 average 66%
Lower Murray Valley (district 24B)
Eudunda 23.7 +2.9 38.2 19 Nov 9.9 +1.6 1.5 5 Sep 73.2 118.1 low 62%
Meningie 22.5 +1.9 37.0 18 Nov 10.2 +0.5 1.4 23 Sep 56.8 113.8 v low 50%
Murray Bridge (Pallamana Aerodrome) 25.0   39.3 18 Nov 8.6   -0.9 16 Sep 54.6 66.8 average 82%
Strathalbyn Racecourse 23.2 +1.6 38.2 18 Nov 9.8 +0.5 1.4 23 Sep 58.8 103.9 low 57%
Murray Mallee (district 25A)
Karoonda     40.2 18 Nov 9.1 +0.5 1.3 6 Sep 57.0 90.5 low 63%
Upper Southeast (district 25B)
Keith 24.7 +3.0 40.0 18 Nov 9.3 +0.9 -1.2 23 Sep 83.4 122.7 low 68%
Keith (Munkora) 24.7 +2.0 40.8 18 Nov 8.0 +1.4 -3.6 23 Sep 76.4 91.4 low 84%
Lameroo (Austin Plains) 25.2 +1.3 40.3 18 Nov 8.7 +1.0 -0.3 29 Sep 73.8 73.5 average 100%
Lower Southeast (district 26)
Cape Jaffa (The Limestone) 20.1 +1.4 34.5 18 Nov 9.6 +0.1 2.3 10 Sep 56.8 103.6 low 55%
Coonawarra 22.0 +2.3 36.2 18 Nov 8.2 +0.7 1.1 30 Sep 63.2 138.1 v low 46%
Mount Gambier Aero 20.7 +2.6 35.4 18 Nov 8.1 +0.8 1.0 25 Sep 79.8 178.3 v low 45%
Naracoorte Aerodrome 23.1 +2.1 38.0 18 Nov 7.3 0.0 -1.1 25 Sep 63.8 119.4 low 53%
Padthaway South 23.1 +2.0 37.2 18 Nov 8.0 -0.2 -0.4 23 Sep 51.8 104.9 low 49%
Robe Airfield 20.1 +1.0 34.4 18 Nov 8.8 -0.2 0.7 10 Sep 69.2 111.4 low 62%

** note: Instrument failure on the 21st means that the actual monthly mean temperatures at Adelaide (Kent Town) may differ from the values reported in these tables


Notes

The Seasonal climate summary lists the main features of the weather in South Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

A climate summary is generally published on the first working day of each month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 10 am on Tuesday 1 December 2015. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

The ACORN-SAT dataset is used for temperature area averages.

Further information

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Enquiries

Climate

Service notice

Network problems on 8 January disrupted processing of observations, affecting some climate information. Missing data are being retrieved and will be processed into our systems over coming weeks.