Victoria in summer 2015-16: Third-warmest summer on record

It was Victoria's third-warmest summer on record, with both daytime and night time temperatures well above average. Overall rainfall was near average, ranging from below average in coastal and central districts and in the northwest of the State, to above average in isolated patches of the north and east.

  • Daytime temperatures were well above average for most of Victoria
  • Very much above average minimum temperatures across the State
  • Near average rainfall overall
  • Generally drier than normal in coastal and central districts and in the northwest
  • Patches of above average rainfall in the north and east

Overall, Victorian rainfall was near normal for February at 7% below the long-term average. January ended with heavy rain across many districts. Areas around Geelong, in the Western Plains and the central and northern districts recorded up to half their summer rainfall during the last five days of January. Wilsons Promontory and Carboor, each with over 100 years of rainfall data, had their highest summer daily rainfall on record.

The summer season began with the hottest December on record. Above average temperatures continued across large parts of the State during January and February, resulting in the third warmest summer on record for Victoria as a whole (+1.73 °C above average). Several sites had their warmest summer on record, highest summer mean daily maximum temperature on record, or highest summer mean daily minimum temperature on record. Warracknabeal recorded its lowest summer temperature on record in early December, but warmth later saw it end the summer with a seasonal average more than 1 °C above normal. On 20 December, several sites in the Mallee and central districts reported their warmest summer night on record.

Further information

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Extremes in summer 2015-16
Hottest day 45.6 °C at Echuca Aerodrome on 13 Jan 2016
Warmest days on average 33.9 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest days on average 16.3 °C at Mount Hotham
Coldest day 5.2 °C at Mount Baw Baw on 16 Feb 2016
Coldest night −3.6 °C at Mount Hotham on 2 Dec 2015
Coolest nights on average 7.7 °C at Mount Hotham
Warmest nights on average 17.6 °C at Mildura Airport
Warmest night 31.9 °C at Mildura Airport on 20 Dec 2015
Warmest on average overall 25.8 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest on average overall 12.0 °C at Mount Hotham
Wettest overall 523.2 mm at Reeves Knob
Driest overall 29.8 mm at Manangatang (Eureka East)
Wettest day 125.0 mm at Carboor on 9 Dec 2015
Strongest wind gust 113 km/h at Mount Hotham on 20 Dec 2015

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record highest summer daily rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse 121.0 on 31 Jan 2016 92.5 on 18 Feb 1919 145
Carboor 125.0 on 9 Dec 2015 96.3 on 20 Feb 1973 107



Highest summer total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
higher
Average for
summer
Dargo 261.8 496.8 in 1970* 178.0

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.




Record highest summer mean daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
summer
Scoresby Research Institute 28.0 27.9 in 2000 55 25.6
Ararat Prison 28.7 = 28.7 in 2000 46 26.2
Mortlake Racecourse 27.7 27.5 in 2000 24 25.2
Rhyll 25.0 24.5 in 2000 24 23.2
Sheoaks 26.9 = 26.9 in 2000 24 24.9
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 26.4 26.3 in 2012 22 23.8
Coldstream 28.8 28.7 in 2000 21 26.8

Highest summer mean daily maximum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Average for
summer
Maryborough 30.3 30.7 in 1950* 28.0
Ballarat Aerodrome 27.2 27.5 in 1980* 24.2

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.




Record highest summer daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
summer
Mildura Airport 31.9 on 20 Dec 2015 30.9 on 24 Jan 2001 70 16.0
Ouyen (Post Office) 31.1 on 20 Dec 2015 30.3 on 28 Jan 1957 60 14.8
Castlemaine Prison 28.5 on 20 Dec 2015 = 28.5 on 12 Jan 2010 48 12.5
Bendigo Airport 29.0 on 20 Dec 2015 28.6 on 16 Jan 2014 25 13.4



Record lowest summer temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
summer
Warracknabeal Museum 4.0 on 2 Dec 2015 = 4.0 on 8 Dec 1996 44 13.5



Record highest summer mean daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
summer
Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse 15.8 = 15.8 in 2000 133 13.8
Kyabram 15.6 = 15.6 in 2000 48 14.0
Essendon Airport 15.2 14.6 in 2007 45 13.1
Hamilton Airport 12.0 11.9 in 2000 31 10.6
Bendigo Airport 15.3 14.4 in 1998 24 13.4
Rhyll 16.0 15.9 in 2011 24 15.0
Redesdale 13.7 13.4 in 1994 22 12.1
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 12.9 12.8 in 2000 22 11.7
Mount Nowa Nowa 14.5 14.4 in 2000 20 13.5

Highest summer mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Average for
summer
Laverton RAAF 15.0 15.8 in 1980 13.3
Ballarat Aerodrome 12.2 12.9 in 1980* 10.6
Echuca Aerodrome 15.9 16.3 in 1980* 14.6
Kerang 16.6 16.8 in 1980* 14.6

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.




Record highest summer mean temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
summer
Kyabram 23.7 = 23.7 in 1980 48 21.7
Essendon Airport 21.3 21.1 in 2006 45 19.3
Portland (Cashmore Airport) 18.1 = 18.1 in 2000 33 16.7
Bendigo Airport 23.1 22.7 in 2013 24 21.1
Mortlake Racecourse 19.6 = 19.6 in 2000 24 17.9
Rhyll 20.5 20.2 in 2000 24 19.1
Redesdale 22.0 21.5 in 2013 22 20.2
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 19.6 19.3 in 2012 22 17.7
Coldstream 20.2 = 20.2 in 2000 21 19.0

Highest summer mean temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Average for
summer
Maryborough 22.2 22.5 in 1980 20.3
Ballarat Aerodrome 19.7 20.2 in 1980* 17.4
Echuca Aerodrome 24.2 24.7 in 1980* 22.4

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.




Summary statistics for summer 2015-16
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
summer
2015-16
Diff
from
average
Highest for
summer
2015-16
Mean for
summer
2015-16
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
summer
2015-16
Total for
summer
2015-16
Average
for
summer
Rank of
summer
2015-16
Fraction of
summer
average
North Mallee (district 76)
Mildura Airport 33.9 +2.5 44.5 13 Jan 2016 17.6 +1.6 6.5 2 Dec 2015 70.0 70.3 average 100%
Ouyen (Post Office) 33.6 +2.2 44.5 23 Feb 2016 16.6 +1.8 5.9 2 Dec 2015 42.8 70.5 low 61%
Walpeup Research 33.3 +2.3 44.3 23 Feb 2016 16.7 +1.9 5.9 2 Dec 2015 45.4 69.9 average 65%
South Mallee (district 77)
Hopetoun Airport 32.7 +0.9 44.3 13 Jan 2016 15.8 +1.5 4.8 12 Dec 2015 85.4 78.4 high 109%
Swan Hill Aerodrome 32.9 +1.0 45.2 13 Jan 2016 16.4 +1.2 6.2 12 Dec 2015 47.6 70.8 average 67%
North Wimmera (district 78)
Nhill Aerodrome 31.2 +1.0 42.7 19 Dec 2015 14.4 +1.3 3.9 2 Dec 2015 62.4 70.1 average 89%
Warracknabeal Museum 31.8 +1.7 43.0 19 Dec 2015 14.6 +1.1 4.0 2 Dec 2015 48.7 74.7 average 65%
South Wimmera (district 79)
Edenhope Airport 29.6 +1.3 42.0 19 Dec 2015 13.2 +0.7 2.2 2 Dec 2015 59.6 93.7 average 64%
Horsham Aerodrome 31.2 +1.2 44.0 19 Dec 2015 13.5 +1.7 2.1 12 Dec 2015 63.0 78.5 average 80%
Kanagulk 29.9 +1.4 42.4 19 Dec 2015 12.9 +0.8 2.7 2 Dec 2015 75.0 102.8 average 73%
Longerenong 31.4 +2.2 44.3 19 Dec 2015 14.1 +1.6 1.5 12 Dec 2015 53.4 75.0 average 71%
Stawell Aerodrome 29.4 +1.3 42.6 19 Dec 2015 13.8 +1.0 5.6 12 Dec 2015 64.2 102.1 low 63%
Lower North (district 80)
Charlton 32.1 +1.0 44.1 13 Jan 2016 15.8 +1.3 5.8 2 Dec 2015 69.0 79.8 average 86%
Echuca Aerodrome 32.5 +2.3 45.6 13 Jan 2016 15.9 +1.3 7.4 2 Dec 2015 60.5 82.8 average 73%
Kerang 32.7 +1.9 45.0 13 Jan 2016 16.6 +2.0 7.4 2 Dec 2015 74.2 74.6 average 99%
Kyabram 31.8 +2.4 44.8 13 Jan 2016 15.6 +1.6 6.2 12 Dec 2015 104.6 95.3 average 110%
Upper North (district 81)
Bendigo Airport 30.9 +2.1 42.3 13 Jan 2016 15.3 +1.9 5.0 12 Dec 2015 51.0 107.2 low 48%
Shepparton Airport 31.2 +0.6 44.0 13 Jan 2016 15.7 +1.4 7.2 12 Dec 2015 97.0 99.7 average 97%
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 30.4 +1.5 43.4 13 Jan 2016 15.1 +1.4 6.0 12 Dec 2015 82.2 101.5 average 81%
Lower Northeast (district 82)
Benalla Airport 31.2   43.7 13 Jan 2016 15.3   7.3 14 Dec 2015 101.2
Corryong Airport 31.0   41.3 13 Jan 2016 12.8   5.0 3 Dec 2015 196.5 197.7 average 99%
Dartmouth Reservoir 29.1 +0.6 39.1 13 Jan 2016 13.9 +0.8 4.5 12 Dec 2015 230.3 189.3 average 122%
Hunters Hill 25.3 +0.7 35.2 13 Jan 2016 14.2 +0.8 3.6 12 Dec 2015 231.8 219.6 average 106%
Rutherglen Research 31.9 +1.5 43.9 13 Jan 2016 13.7 +0.7 2.9 3 Dec 2015 112.0 120.3 average 93%
Strathbogie 27.8 +1.4 39.8 13 Jan 2016 12.1 +1.2 3.6 12 Dec 2015 133.2 148.9 average 89%
Wangaratta Aero 31.6 +1.0 42.7 13 Jan 2016 13.7 +0.5 5.7 13 Dec 2015 135.8 132.6 average 102%
Upper Northeast (district 83)
Falls Creek 17.2 +0.5 25.2 13 Jan 2016 8.4 +0.6 -2.3 2 Dec 2015 316.4 315.7 average 100%
Mount Buller 17.8 +1.5 27.7 13 Jan 2016 8.8 +0.9 -2.8 2 Dec 2015 188.0 253.5 low 74%
Mount Hotham 16.3 +1.1 25.0 13 Jan 2016 7.7 +0.6 -3.6 2 Dec 2015 376.2 318.6 high 118%
Omeo 26.0 +0.5 35.7 13 Jan 2016 10.5 +0.3 -0.7 12 Dec 2015 213.6 176.4 average 121%
East Gippsland (district 84)
Combienbar AWS 24.6 +0.3 38.5 19 Dec 2015 13.6 +0.9 4.0 2 Dec 2015 155.0 229.9 low 67%
Gabo Island Lighthouse 22.7 +1.8 33.9 19 Dec 2015 16.4 +0.9 10.2 2 Dec 2015 163.2 203.0 average 80%
Gelantipy 23.1 +0.4 35.4 13 Jan 2016 11.4 +0.5 1.6 2 Dec 2015 206.0 201.8 average 102%
Mallacoota 24.1 +0.7 37.4 20 Dec 2015 15.7 +0.8 8.3 4 Dec 2015 168.0 199.0 average 84%
Mount Nowa Nowa 24.6 +0.7 40.1 20 Dec 2015 14.5 +1.0 6.3 2 Dec 2015 181.8 211.6 average 86%
Orbost 25.6 +0.4 42.4 13 Jan 2016 14.9 +0.9 8.2 4 Dec 2015 116.0 170.2 low 68%
Point Hicks (Lighthouse) 24.6 +1.4 41.4 20 Dec 2015 16.0 +0.7 6.3 3 Dec 2015 173.8 191.4 average 91%
West Gippsland (district 85)
Bairnsdale Airport 25.6 +0.6 41.6 20 Dec 2015 13.2 +0.9 5.0 16 Jan 2016 168.0 157.5 average 107%
Corner Inlet (Yanakie) 24.1   40.2 23 Feb 2016 13.9   4.0 16 Jan 2016 117.0
East Sale Airport 26.0 +1.3 40.7 20 Dec 2015 13.3 +0.8 5.8 3 Dec 2015 157.6 142.4 average 111%
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) 27.7 +1.9 41.4 20 Dec 2015 13.3 +1.0 4.1 13 Dec 2015 137.2 159.8 average 86%
Mount Baw Baw 16.9 +0.8 28.9 13 Jan 2016 8.2 +0.7 -2.0 2 Dec 2015 305.4 368.4 average 83%
Mount Moornapa 25.2 +0.9 40.5 19 Dec 2015 13.4 +0.7 5.5 2 Dec 2015 268.0 197.0 average 136%
Pound Creek 25.7   42.6 19 Dec 2015 12.7   2.8 4 Dec 2015 104.8
Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse 21.0 +1.1 36.6 20 Dec 2015 15.8 +2.0 10.0 12 Dec 2015 251.4 162.5 v high 155%
Yarram Airport 25.9   42.4 19 Dec 2015 12.8   3.1 16 Jan 2016 142.2
East Central (district 86)
Bundoora (Latrobe University) 27.7 +1.6 43.1 13 Jan 2016 14.6 +1.0 6.8 12 Dec 2015 125.0 152.3 average 82%
Cerberus 25.4 +1.5 42.5 13 Jan 2016 13.9 +0.6 5.3 13 Dec 2015 81.4 129.4 low 63%
Coldstream 28.8 +2.0 42.6 13 Jan 2016 11.7 +0.6 2.3 2 Dec 2015 134.2 152.6 average 88%
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens 26.3 +1.4 41.8 19 Dec 2015 13.7 +0.6 5.7 13 Dec 2015 123.4 161.5 low 76%
Essendon Airport 27.5 +2.0 43.8 13 Jan 2016 15.2 +2.1 7.8 2 Dec 2015 101.0 139.5 average 72%
Ferny Creek 24.2   38.9 13 Jan 2016 13.0   4.6 2 Dec 2015 217.6
Frankston AWS 25.2 +1.2 39.7 31 Dec 2015 15.9 +0.8 9.8 13 Dec 2015
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 26.2   42.2 13 Jan 2016 16.1   9.2 2 Dec 2015 103.8
Melbourne Airport 27.8 +2.0 43.6 13 Jan 2016 14.5 +1.2 6.8 2 Dec 2015 88.6 131.2 low 68%
Moorabbin Airport 26.9 +1.7 42.9 13 Jan 2016 15.0 +1.3 8.2 13 Dec 2015 117.8 149.2 average 79%
Rhyll 25.0 +1.8 40.2 13 Jan 2016 16.0 +1.0 9.4 2 Dec 2015 89.8 121.7 low 74%
Scoresby Research Institute 28.0 +2.4 42.9 13 Jan 2016 14.2 +1.2 6.5 13 Dec 2015 143.6 181.5 average 79%
Viewbank 28.4 +1.5 43.8 13 Jan 2016 14.6 +0.7 7.5 12 Dec 2015 90.2 150.8 low 60%
Wonthaggi     41.7 19 Dec 2015 14.3 +1.6 6.7 13 Dec 2015 110.4 155.4 low 71%
West Central (district 87)
Avalon Airport 26.8 +1.2 45.0 19 Dec 2015 14.4 +1.0 6.7 2 Dec 2015 136.6 96.6 high 141%
Breakwater (Geelong Racecourse) 25.8   44.4 19 Dec 2015 14.6   7.0 2 Dec 2015 99.6
Laverton RAAF 26.5 +1.5 43.9 19 Dec 2015 15.0 +1.7 5.2 2 Dec 2015 101.8 131.2 average 78%
Sheoaks 26.9 +2.0 42.2 13 Jan 2016 12.7 +0.9 5.1 13 Dec 2015
North Central (district 88)
Castlemaine Prison 28.8 +1.4 40.3 13 Jan 2016 13.8 +1.3 2.0 12 Dec 2015 114.5 120.2 average 95%
Eildon Fire Tower 26.8 +0.8 39.3 13 Jan 2016 13.7 +0.9 4.0 12 Dec 2015 141.8 125.5 average 113%
Lake Eildon 29.9 +1.8 42.5 13 Jan 2016 13.4 +1.3 5.5 3 Dec 2015 166.0 147.0 average 113%
Mangalore Airport 30.3 +1.6 43.2 13 Jan 2016 14.8 +1.4 4.6 12 Dec 2015 193.2 118.5 v high 163%
Maryborough 30.3 +2.3 41.7 13 Jan 2016 14.0 +1.5 4.1 2 Dec 2015 55.4 101.2 low 55%
Redesdale 30.3 +2.0 43.0 13 Jan 2016 13.7 +1.6 2.5 12 Dec 2015 75.6 108.9 average 69%
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 26.4 +2.6 40.0 19 Dec 2015 12.9 +1.2 4.3 2 Dec 2015 117.4 143.7 average 82%
Western Plains (district 89)
Ararat Prison 28.7 +2.5 41.5 19 Dec 2015 12.1 +1.5 2.2 12 Dec 2015 110.3 109.6 average 101%
Ballarat Aerodrome 27.2 +3.0 40.6 19 Dec 2015 12.2 +1.6 2.5 2 Dec 2015 75.2 133.6 low 56%
Westmere 28.7   43.5 19 Dec 2015 11.2   1.5 2 Dec 2015 100.0 108.7 average 92%
West Coast (district 90)
Aireys Inlet 24.1 +1.8 43.0 19 Dec 2015 14.6 +1.0 6.8 2 Dec 2015 67.8 113.3 low 60%
Cape Nelson Lighthouse 21.7 +1.0 38.8 25 Dec 2015 15.0 +0.7 8.0 13 Dec 2015 104.6 100.4 average 104%
Cape Otway Lighthouse 21.6 +0.7 37.0 25 Dec 2015 14.7 +1.6 8.4 13 Dec 2015 112.0 138.9 average 81%
Casterton 28.5 +1.7 42.5 19 Dec 2015 12.5 +0.9 2.1 2 Dec 2015 75.2 112.2 average 67%
Colac (Mount Gellibrand) 26.5 +1.8 42.6 19 Dec 2015 12.9 +0.9 4.1 2 Dec 2015 68.4 102.5 low 67%
Dartmoor 27.4   43.2 19 Dec 2015 12.5   3.4 2 Dec 2015 74.2
Hamilton Airport 27.9 +2.2 42.3 19 Dec 2015 12.0 +1.4 2.3 2 Dec 2015 95.0 103.4 average 92%
Mortlake Racecourse 27.7 +2.5 43.4 19 Dec 2015 11.5 +1.0 2.1 2 Dec 2015 83.8 109.7 low 76%
Port Fairy AWS 22.8 +0.6 41.5 19 Dec 2015 14.2 +0.5 7.0 14 Dec 2015 74.8 103.8 low 72%
Portland (Cashmore Airport) 23.3 +1.8 39.3 19 Dec 2015 12.9 +0.9 2.8 13 Dec 2015 136.6 114.4 high 119%
Warrnambool Airport NDB 25.3 +1.4 43.0 19 Dec 2015 12.0 +0.6 4.2 14 Dec 2015 94.4 113.0 low 84%

Notes

The Seasonal climate summary lists the main features of the weather in Victoria using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

A climate summary is generally published on the first working day of each month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 10 am on Tuesday 1 March 2016. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

The ACORN-SAT dataset is used for temperature area averages.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries