Victoria in autumn 2019: warm with below average rainfall

Both mean daytime and overnight temperatures were warmer than usual across most of Victoria during autumn, with mild temperatures lasting well into May. The State's mean temperature was the eight-warmest on record. Rainfall totals for autumn were below average across large parts of Victoria

Below average rainfall

  • Parts of the state recorded close to average rainfall for autumn, but most of western Victoria and parts of North Central, Upper North, East Central and West Gippsland had below average rainfall
  • Above average autumn rainfall was recorded in parts of the Northeast and Western Plains districts
  • Parts of the far northwest Victoria received less than 40% of the mean autumn rainfall
  • Averaged across the State, rainfall was 21% below the autumn average of 157 mm, continuing a run of five consecutive seasons of drier than average conditions in Victoria
  • The season began with a drier than average March, followed by a much drier than average April; May brought useful rains to large parts of the central and northeast Victoria
  • Falls Creek was the wettest place in Victoria during autumn, recording 458 mm
  • The highest daily rainfall total, 126 mm, was recorded also at Falls Creek to 9am on 3 May, when a complex low pressure system brought heavy rainfall to Victoria's northeast
  • Several sites had either their highest autumn daily rainfall on record or their highest total autumn rainfall since 1995

Above average temperatures

  • During this season, daytime temperatures very much above average were recorded in most of Victoria
  • The mean daytime temperature for Victoria over autumn was 1.15 °C above average
  • Several sites had their highest autumn mean daily maximum temperature on record
  • The highest daytime temperature recorded in Victoria this season was 41.5 °C in Hopetoun on 3 March, during a heatwave that started in the last week of February
  • Some sites had their highest autumn temperature on record on 1 and 4 March
  • Night-time temperatures were also above average across most of Victoria
  • The State mean minimum temperature was 0.93 °C above average, about 0.3 °C warmer than in autumn 2018
  • Mornings were particularly mild at the beginning of the season, and several sites had their warmest autumn night on record
  • The highest night-time temperature in Victoria this autumn was 26.5 °C at Cape Otway Lighthouse on 2 March
  • Despite the generally mild autumn, there were some cold nights and cool days scattered through the season
  • A series of cold fronts brought a sharp drop in temperatures across the State in the last week of the season
  • Falls Creek, Avalon Airport and Cape Nelson Lighthouse had their coldest autumn day on record on 29 May
  • Victoria's lowest minimum temperature for autumn of -6.4 °C was recorded at Mount Hotham on 30 May
  • The Victorian mean temperature in the first five months of 2019 has been the third-warmest on record

Strong winds flash floods, hail and snow

  • The strongest winds during autumn, associated with the passage of a cold front, were recorded on 26 April, with gusts of 144 km/h reported at Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse
  • A dust storm moved through Mildura on 7 May, fuelled by strong winds in a gust front with gusts over 80 km/h, reducing visibility to a few hundred meters; this phenomenon is usually seen in summer, however it was very dry start to the year in northwest Victoria
  • A cold front and a low pressure system which crossed the State on 9 and 10 May brought heavy rainfall and flash flooding to Ballarat and Geelong, as well as snowfalls in the Victorian Alps; Cape Paterson received showers of hail from a slow-moving thunderstorm cell on 10 May
  • More snow covered the Victorian Alps from cold fronts that crossed the State in the last several days of the season

Further information

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Extremes in autumn 2019
Hottest day 41.5 °C at Hopetoun Airport on 3 Mar
Warmest days on average 25.4 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest days on average 10.3 °C at Falls Creek
Coldest day -3.8 °C at Mount Hotham on 29 May
Coldest night -6.4 °C at Mount Hotham on 30 May
Coolest nights on average 4.0 °C at Falls Creek
Warmest nights on average 13.7 °C at Point Hicks (Lighthouse)
Warmest night 26.5 °C at Cape Otway Lighthouse on 2 Mar
Warmest on average overall 18.3 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest on average overall 7.2 °C at Falls Creek
Wettest overall 457.6 mm at Falls Creek (Rocky Valley)
Wettest day 126.0 mm at Falls Creek (Rocky Valley) on 3 May
Strongest wind gust 144 km/h at Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse on 26 Apr

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record highest autumn daily rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Dederang 120.0 on 3 May 83.0 on 17 May 1988 53
Gundowring Upper 124.6 on 3 May 105.2 on 2 Apr 1994 48
Mount Hotham 116.0 on 25 Mar 114.2 on 10 May 2016 25
Stawell Aerodrome 68.6 on 2 May 53.6 on 28 Apr 2007 24



Highest autumn total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
higher
Average for
autumn
Blackwood 212.5 280.2 in 1995* 217.3
Tawonga 341.4 345.0 in 1995* 238.9

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported




Record highest autumn temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
autumn
Kyabram 40.4 on 4 Mar = 40.4 on 7 Mar 2016 54 22.0
Edi Upper 37.8 on 4 Mar = 37.8 on 7 Mar 1986 33 21.5
Wangaratta Aero 39.4 on 4 Mar 39.2 on 12 Mar 2006 33 22.6
Rhyll 37.4 on 1 Mar 36.8 on 16 Mar 2008 28 19.5
Hunters Hill 32.8 on 4 Mar 32.7 on 8 Mar 2016 27 16.7
Shepparton Airport 40.3 on 4 Mar 39.7 on 12 Mar 1998 23 22.6
Warrnambool Airport NDB 40.9 on 1 Mar 40.7 on 17 Mar 2008 21 19.9



Record lowest autumn daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
autumn
Falls Creek -3.1 on 29 May -3.0 on 11 May 2011 29 10.1
Avalon Airport 9.4 on 29 May 10.8 on 28 May 2000 25 20.8
Cape Nelson Lighthouse 11.9 on 29 May 12.0 on 27 May 2000 24 18.3



Record highest autumn mean daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
autumn
Melbourne Airport 22.2 = 22.2 in 2016 48 20.4
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens 21.6 = 21.6 in 2007 29 20.0
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 19.1 = 19.1 in 2018 25 17.2
Coldstream 22.4 22.3 in 2018 24 20.9



Record highest autumn daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
autumn
Laverton RAAF 26.3 on 1 Mar 25.8 on 18 Mar 2008 76 10.1
Ararat Prison 23.5 on 3 Mar 23.4 on 14 Mar 1985 50 7.5
Melbourne Airport 25.4 on 1 Mar 24.3 on 13 Mar 2013 49 10.4
Moorabbin Airport 24.4 on 3 Mar 24.0 on 18 Mar 2008 48 10.7
Aireys Inlet 25.6 on 2 Mar 23.8 on 10 Apr 2005 28 11.7
Warrnambool Airport NDB 21.4 on 2 Mar = 21.4 on 4 Mar 2004 21 9.1



Summary statistics for autumn 2019
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
autumn
2019
Diff
from
average
Highest for
autumn
2019
Mean for
autumn
2019
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
autumn
2019
Total for
autumn
2019
Average
for
autumn
Rank of
autumn
2019
Fraction of
autumn
average
North Mallee (district 76)
Mildura Airport 25.4 +1.7 39.8 3 Mar 11.3 +0.8 0.8 30 May 52.2 63.7 average 82%
Ouyen (Post Office) 25.1 +1.4 40.7 3 Mar 10.9 +0.9 0.5 30 May 39.8 72.8 low 55%
Walpeup Research 25.1 +2.0 39.9 3 Mar 11.3 +0.9 0.8 30 May 23.6 74.2 v low 32%
South Mallee (district 77)
Hopetoun Airport 24.4 +0.5 41.5 3 Mar 9.6 +0.4 -0.8 27 Apr 41.0 60.4 low 68%
Swan Hill Aerodrome 24.4 +0.6 40.0 3 Mar 10.5 +1.0 2.7 30 May 58.0 62.8 average 92%
North Wimmera (district 78)
Kellalac (Warracknabeal Airport) 23.6   38.8 1 Mar 9.3   0.6 27 Apr 68.6
Nhill Aerodrome 23.0 +0.3 39.2 1 Mar 9.5 +0.3 2.1 10 Apr 48.8 63.9 average 76%
Warracknabeal Museum 23.4 +0.9 38.5 3 Mar 9.1 -0.1 0.6 27 Apr 69.5 85.3 average 81%
South Wimmera (district 79)
Edenhope Airport 21.9 +0.6 39.5 1 Mar 8.8 -0.6 0.7 30 May 79.2 104.0 low 76%
Grampians (Mount William) 13.6 +0.7 31.0 1 Mar 6.2 +0.1 -2.1 30 May 272.2 262.1 average 104%
Horsham Aerodrome 23.0 +0.7 39.6 1 Mar 7.9 +0.3 -0.2 27 Apr 66.2 72.7 average 91%
Kanagulk 21.8 +0.4 39.2 1 Mar 8.0 -0.8 1.1 18 May 91.4 103.7 low 88%
Longerenong 22.9 +1.2 39.1 1 Mar 8.8 +0.5 0.2 10 Apr 72.2 94.4 average 76%
Pyrenees (Ben Nevis) 17.1 +1.3 34.0 1 Mar 8.3 +0.2 -1.0 30 May 188.0 160.9 high 117%
Stawell Aerodrome 21.3 +0.4 37.3 1 Mar 9.3 +0.5 1.5 30 May 138.6 90.4 high 153%
Lower North (district 80)
Charlton 23.5 +0.3 39.4 3 Mar 10.0 +0.5 2.0 27 Apr 127.6 81.9 v high 156%
Echuca Aerodrome 23.9 +1.5 39.6 4 Mar 10.1 +0.5 2.0 30 Apr 58.4 102.9 low 57%
Kerang 24.4 +1.5 39.5 3 Mar 11.1 +1.4 1.9 30 May 47.6 88.3 low 54%
Kyabram 23.5 +1.5 40.4 4 Mar 10.0 +0.9 1.4 30 May 76.4 107.6 average 71%
Upper North (district 81)
Bendigo Airport 22.7 +1.3 37.6 3 Mar 9.3 +0.9 0.4 30 May 78.0 106.5 average 73%
Shepparton Airport 23.5 +0.9 40.3 4 Mar 10.2 +1.3 1.4 30 May 73.0 97.3 average 75%
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 22.7 +1.0 39.0 4 Mar 9.6 +0.9 0.5 27 Apr 86.6 112.3 average 77%
Yarrawonga 23.9 +0.8 39.6 4 Mar 10.6 +1.3 0.8 30 May 73.6 100.4 average 73%
Lower Northeast (district 82)
Benalla Airport 23.5 +0.8 39.5 4 Mar 9.2 +0.6 1.2 27 Apr 89.1 141.7 low 63%
Corryong Airport     35.6 4 Mar 7.1 +0.5 -2.4 16 May 201.0 183.2 average 110%
Dartmouth Reservoir 21.2 +0.3 35.5 1 Mar 8.1 +0.5 0.0 27 Apr 268.0 204.5 high 131%
Hunters Hill 17.3 +0.6 32.8 4 Mar 8.9 +0.4 -1.3 30 May 307.0 234.8 high 131%
Rutherglen Research 23.6 +1.5 39.0 4 Mar 8.9 +1.5 -0.7 30 May 110.4 130.2 average 85%
Strathbogie 20.2 +1.1 36.0 4 Mar 7.1 +0.9 -0.9 15 May 172.2 217.4 average 79%
Wangaratta Aero 23.2 +0.6 39.4 4 Mar 8.5 +1.2 0.7 17 May 114.0 139.7 average 82%
Upper Northeast (district 83)
Falls Creek 10.3 +0.2 23.6 1 Mar 4.0 +0.7 -5.9 30 May
Mount Buller 10.5 +0.3 24.5 1 Mar 4.1 +0.3 -5.3 30 May 342.4 321.7 average 106%
Omeo 19.3 +0.3 34.5 1 Mar 6.5 +0.8 -2.2 23 May 187.8 126.4 high 149%
East Gippsland (district 84)
Combienbar AWS 19.0 +1.0 34.1 3 Mar 10.6 +0.8 2.4 30 May 285.2 225.5 high 126%
Gabo Island Lighthouse 20.0 +0.9 28.5 25 Mar     7.8 27 May 199.6 254.6 average 78%
Gelantipy 17.9 +1.2 32.8 1 Mar 8.0 +0.7 0.8 7 May 179.4 164.4 average 109%
Mallacoota 20.9 +0.8 32.8 3 Mar 12.7 +0.9 4.8 29 May 175.8 246.4 average 71%
Mount Nowa Nowa 20.2 +0.9 36.8 3 Mar 11.6 +0.8 4.8 30 May 184.8 193.2 average 96%
Orbost 21.5 +0.5 37.1 3 Mar 11.2 +0.4 4.7 14 May 186.0 183.1 average 102%
Point Hicks (Lighthouse) 20.7 +1.0 34.0 2 Mar 13.7 +0.6 6.0 27 Mar 220.7 245.8 average 90%
West Gippsland (district 85)
Bairnsdale Airport 21.4 +0.6 36.9 3 Mar 9.9 +1.0 2.0 17 May 120.8 144.8 average 83%
Corner Inlet (Yanakie) 20.2   36.5 1 Mar 11.2   2.8 18 May 224.6
East Sale 21.6 +1.3 37.0 1 Mar 9.8 +1.0 2.5 17 May 82.0 146.3 low 56%
East Sale Airport 21.8   36.7 1 Mar 10.1   2.6 17 May 75.8
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) 21.8 +1.1 38.2 1 Mar 9.9 +1.1 1.4 17 May 118.6 156.9 low 76%
Mount Baw Baw 10.9 +0.7 25.4 4 Mar 4.3 +0.4 -4.1 30 May 402.4 370.9 average 108%
Mount Moornapa 19.7 +1.1 36.5 1 Mar 10.7 +0.7 3.3 30 May 150.6 184.5 average 82%
Nilma North (Warragul) 21.1   37.3 1 Mar 10.2   1.3 17 May 207.6
Pound Creek 21.0 +0.5 38.0 1 Mar 10.3 +0.5 0.6 12 Apr
Yarram Airport 21.1 +0.5 38.1 1 Mar 9.7 +0.6 1.1 18 May 115.0 141.4 average 81%
East Central (district 86)
Cerberus 21.3 +1.4 38.6 1 Mar 10.7 +0.4 1.8 18 May 119.4 173.7 low 69%
Coldstream 22.4 +1.5 38.3 1 Mar 8.5 +1.0 0.3 18 May 160.0 173.2 average 92%
Cranbourne Botanic Gardens 21.6 +1.6 38.5 1 Mar 11.0 +0.6 4.3 30 Apr 167.7 180.0 average 93%
Essendon Airport 22.2 +2.0 38.9 3 Mar 11.7 +1.6 4.1 18 May 90.6 141.3 low 64%
Ferny Creek 18.1   34.7 1 Mar 10.2   2.1 30 May 333.2
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 21.5   38.1 1 Mar 12.6   6.2 18 May 72.6
Melbourne Airport 22.2 +1.8 38.4 3 Mar 11.1 +0.7 4.6 30 May 70.8 119.0 v low 59%
Moorabbin Airport 21.9 +1.5 39.2 1 Mar 12.1 +1.4 3.8 17 May 114.2 173.4 low 66%
Rhyll 20.7 +1.2 37.4 1 Mar 13.2 +0.5 6.2 29 May 151.4 170.9 average 89%
Scoresby Research Institute 22.0 +1.8 39.2 1 Mar 11.2 +0.9 3.5 18 May 163.0 208.8 low 78%
Viewbank 22.4 +1.0 38.7 1 Mar 11.0 +0.7 3.2 17 May 103.8 147.7 v low 70%
West Central (district 87)
Avalon Airport 22.0 +1.2 40.1 1 Mar 10.8 +0.8 2.5 30 Apr 115.8 100.6 high 115%
Breakwater (Geelong Racecourse) 21.7   39.3 1 Mar 10.9   3.5 30 Apr 110.8
Laverton RAAF 21.9 +1.6 39.1 3 Mar 11.3 +1.2 3.2 18 May 68.6 124.7 v low 55%
Sheoaks 20.5 +1.2 38.3 1 Mar 10.2 +1.1 1.5 30 Apr 138.2 99.6 high 139%
North Central (district 88)
Castlemaine Prison 21.2 +1.0 36.0 5 Mar 8.9 +0.9 -1.0 30 May 125.9 131.5 average 96%
Eildon Fire Tower 19.2 +0.9 35.5 4 Mar 9.9 +0.7 0.9 30 May
Lake Eildon 21.9 +0.9 37.9 4 Mar 9.0 +0.8 2.6 30 May 157.6 189.8 average 83%
Mangalore Airport 22.8 +1.3 38.6 4 Mar 9.4 +0.4 -1.1 30 May 98.6 126.7 average 78%
Maryborough 22.1 +1.3 37.2 3 Mar 9.3 +0.8 1.1 30 May 106.2 118.6 average 90%
Puckapunyal Lyon Hill (Defence) 22.2   38.8 4 Mar 10.8   1.7 30 May 94.6
Puckapunyal West (Defence) 21.8   38.1 4 Mar 10.2   1.7 27 Apr 110.4
Redesdale 22.6 +1.8 38.4 4 Mar 8.2 +0.4 -0.5 27 Apr 78.2 128.9 low 61%
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 19.1 +1.9 34.8 1 Mar 9.7 +0.7 2.3 30 May 106.6 154.1 low 69%
Western Plains (district 89)
Ararat Prison 21.2 +1.5 37.0 1 Mar 8.2 +0.7 0.5 12 Apr 137.6 126.7 average 109%
Ballarat Aerodrome 19.5 +1.6 35.5 1 Mar 8.4 +0.7 0.6 17 May 168.4 157.6 average 107%
Westmere 20.8 +0.4 38.1 1 Mar 8.3 +0.2 0.0 19 Apr 171.4 112.5 v high 152%
West Coast (district 90)
Aireys Inlet 20.7 +1.6 40.6 1 Mar 11.7 0.0 5.0 30 May 186.6 139.2 high 134%
Cape Nelson Lighthouse 18.9 +0.6 39.8 2 Mar 12.0 -0.4 6.4 30 May 134.8 153.2 average 88%
Cape Otway Lighthouse 18.6 +0.6 38.5 1 Mar 12.3 +0.6 7.1 29 May 244.8 217.6 high 113%
Casterton 20.8 +0.2 39.6 1 Mar 8.5 -0.6 1.1 23 Apr 137.0 145.3 average 94%
Colac (Mount Gellibrand) 19.9 +0.7 38.0 1 Mar 10.2 +0.3 3.5 29 May 142.4 115.8 high 123%
Dartmoor 20.4 +0.2 41.2 2 Mar 9.0 -0.3 0.4 23 Apr 148.4 175.9 v low 84%
Hamilton Airport 20.5 +0.5 38.9 1 Mar 8.8 +0.4 2.5 30 May 115.4 128.5 average 90%
Mortlake Racecourse 21.3 +1.2 40.9 1 Mar 8.4 +0.2 0.5 19 Apr 177.6 132.2 high 134%
Port Fairy AWS 19.8 +0.5 40.9 1 Mar 10.9 -0.2 3.8 23 Apr 120.6 156.3 low 77%
Portland (Cashmore Airport) 19.0 +0.5 39.5 1 Mar 9.8 -0.2 2.1 23 Apr 149.4 188.9 low 79%
Warrnambool Airport NDB 20.2 +0.3 40.9 1 Mar 9.4 +0.3 1.3 23 Apr 187.6 175.0 average 107%

Notes

The Seasonal climate summary, generally published on the first working day of each month, lists the main features of the weather in Victoria using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 9 am on Monday 3 June 2019. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the rainfall is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries