Victoria in spring 2019: dry with warm days

Victoria in spring 2019 was drier than average, with areas of very much below average rainfall totals across the State's north. Daytime temperatures were warmer than average across most of Victoria, except for the southwest, and very much warmer than average in East Gippsland. Night-time temperatures were below to very much below average in most of Victoria's west and north, with an area of lowest on record night-time temperatures between Nhill and Warracknabeal in the State's west

Below average rainfall

  • Total rainfall for spring was below average in most of Victoria, and very much below average in large areas across the State's north; rainfall was below average in September, well below average in October (Victoria's eight-driest October on record), and close to average in November
  • State-wide, average rainfall was 39% below the long-term spring mean of 181 mm
  • A low pressure systems and associated troughs brought widespread moderate totals across Victoria between 2 and 8 November, with locally heavy falls mostly in the Alpine and southern parts of the State
  • The State's highest daily rainfall total of 76.0 mm was recorded at Falls Creek on 8 November
  • Wangaratta Aero had its lowest total spring rainfall on record, while Wodonga had its lowest total spring rainfall since 1938

Mostly above average daytime temperatures

  • Daytime temperatures in spring were warmer than average across most of the State, and very much warmer than average in East Gippsland
  • Victoria's mean maximum temperature was 1.01 °C warmer than the long-term average for spring
  • Mean maximum temperatures were above average in September, much above average in October (Victoria's eight-warmest October on record), and close to average in November
  • Temperatures reached into the 40s at many locations (including Greater Melbourne) on 21 November, and many sites had their highest spring temperature on record
  • The warmest temperature in the State during the spring was 43.6 °C recorded at both Kyabram and Swan Hill Aerodrome on 21 November
  • Night-time temperatures were below to very much below average in most of Victoria's west and north, with an area of lowest on record night-time temperatures between Nhill and Warracknabeal, in the State's west.
  • State-wide mean minimum temperature was 0.25 °C below the long-term average for spring, the coolest spring since 2003
  • Night-time temperatures were cold in September and November, and close to average in October
  • Victoria's overall mean temperature for spring was 0.38 °C above average, 0.4 °C cooler than spring 2018

Strong winds, fires and snow

  • The passage of cold fronts brought strong and gusty winds to Victoria on a number of days during spring
  • The strongest wind gust was on 21 September, when a gust of 139 km/h was recorded at Mount Hotham
  • Areas of raised dust were observed across the northwest of Victoria on 25 and 26 October, with visibility at Mildura Airport at times reduced to 3 km or less
  • A series of cold fronts that crossed the State between 4 and 9 November brought snow to the Victorian Alps, with further snow falling on the 25th
  • The highest possible fire danger rating, a Code Red Day was declared for the Mallee and Northern Country regions on 21 November due to the extreme heat, and many schools and childcare centres in these areas were closed; the last time a Code Red Day was declared in Victoria was in January 2010;
  • A cold front and associated trough crossed Victoria on 21 November generating a line of thunderstorms; lightning strikes and hot, gusty winds resulted in more than 60 fires across the State
  • In East Gippsland, fires near Bruthen, Ensay and Gelantipy have burnt thousands of hectares of bush
  • Strong winds on 21 November smashed debris into powerlines, leaving thousands of Victorians without a power, and caused a dust storm which affected the Mildura region, with visibility at Mildura Airport occasionally reduced to as low as 500 m

Further information

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Extremes in spring 2019
Hottest day 43.6 °C at Kyabram on 21 Nov
43.6 °C at Swan Hill Aerodrome on 21 Nov
Warmest days on average 25.6 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest days on average 7.9 °C at Mount Hotham
Coldest day -4.0 °C at Mount Hotham on 9 Sep
Coldest night -7.8 °C at Mount Hotham on 17 Sep
Coolest nights on average 0.8 °C at Mount Hotham
Warmest nights on average 11.1 °C at Gabo Island Lighthouse
Warmest night 27.4 °C at Ouyen (Post Office) on 21 Nov
Warmest on average overall 17.6 °C at Mildura Airport
Coolest on average overall 4.4 °C at Mount Hotham
Wettest overall 480.2 mm at Mount Baw Baw
Wettest day 76.0 mm at Falls Creek (Rocky Valley) on 8 Nov
Strongest wind gust 139 km/h at Mount Hotham on 21 Sep

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record lowest spring total rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Wangaratta Aero 53.8 60.8 in 2006 32 146.3

Lowest spring total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
lower
Average for
spring
Wodonga 54.4 32.6 in 1938* 178.0

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported




Record highest spring temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse 38.0 on 21 Nov 36.7 on 20 Nov 2007 110 15.8
Laverton RAAF 42.4 on 21 Nov 40.3 on 26 Nov 1997 77 19.3
East Sale 40.8 on 21 Nov 39.8 on 26 Nov 1997 75 19.3
Mangalore Airport 42.2 on 21 Nov 41.0 on 24 Nov 1982 61 20.7
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 42.1 on 21 Nov 40.3 on 19 Nov 2009 55 21.2
Scoresby Research Institute 39.4 on 21 Nov 39.1 on 26 Nov 1997 54 19.1
Kyabram 43.6 on 21 Nov 42.3 on 17 Nov 1980 53 21.5
Point Hicks (Lighthouse) 43.4 on 21 Nov 39.0 on 18 Nov 1980 53 18.6
Castlemaine Prison 40.1 on 21 Nov 38.8 on 24 Nov 1982 52 19.3
Wonthaggi 36.6 on 21 Nov 36.1 on 26 Nov 1997 51 18.2
Essendon Airport 41.5 on 21 Nov 39.3 on 29 Nov 2012 50 19.4
Melbourne Airport 41.6 on 21 Nov 39.6 on 24 Nov 1982 50 19.4
Moorabbin Airport 40.7 on 21 Nov 39.5 on 29 Nov 2012 49 19.3
Bendigo Airport 41.9 on 21 Nov 40.3 on 26 Nov 1997 29 20.9
Aireys Inlet 38.9 on 21 Nov 37.1 on 26 Nov 1997 28 18.1
Cerberus 38.8 on 21 Nov 36.8 on 20 Nov 2009 28 18.6
Sheoaks 39.1 on 21 Nov 38.3 on 29 Nov 2012 28 18.4
Gelantipy 34.9 on 21 Nov 34.1 on 20 Nov 2009 27 16.5
Mallacoota 40.7 on 21 Nov 37.8 on 21 Nov 2006 27 19.1
Redesdale 41.1 on 21 Nov 38.4 on 19 Nov 2009 27 20.1
Yarrawonga 42.4 on 21 Nov 42.0 on 19 Nov 2009 27 22.9
Coldstream 38.2 on 21 Nov 37.7 on 26 Nov 1997 26 20.0
Combienbar AWS 39.6 on 21 Nov 38.4 on 26 Nov 1997 26 18.5
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 38.1 on 21 Nov 34.9 on 29 Nov 2012 26 16.4
Avalon Airport 41.8 on 21 Nov 39.5 on 29 Nov 2012 25 20.2
Mount Nowa Nowa 39.3 on 21 Nov 38.9 on 21 Nov 2006 25 19.1
Shepparton Airport 42.9 on 21 Nov 41.2 on 19 Nov 2009 24 22.2
Viewbank 41.5 on 21 Nov 39.1 on 29 Nov 2012 21 20.6



Record lowest spring daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Combienbar AWS 5.6 on 9 Sep = 5.6 on 2 Sep 2014 26 18.5



Record highest spring daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Ouyen (Post Office) 27.4 on 21 Nov 26.8 on 26 Nov 1997 63 9.1
Aireys Inlet 22.6 on 1 Nov 21.6 on 8 Nov 2014 28 9.5
Port Fairy AWS 20.8 on 1 Nov 20.0 on 30 Nov 2003 28 9.6



Record lowest spring mean daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Rutherglen Research 4.7 = 4.7 in 1936 105 6.3
Horsham Aerodrome 5.1 = 5.1 in 2003 21 6.2

Lowest spring mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
lower
Average for
spring
Longerenong 5.2 4.5 in 1904* 6.9
Dartmouth Reservoir 5.9 5.5 in 1994 7.1

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported




Summary statistics for spring 2019
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
spring
2019
Diff
from
average
Highest for
spring
2019
Mean for
spring
2019
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
spring
2019
Total for
spring
2019
Average
for
spring
Rank of
spring
2019
Fraction of
spring
average
North Mallee (district 76)
Mildura Airport 25.6 +1.5 43.1 20 Nov 9.7 -0.2 0.9 11 Sep 25.8 80.7 low 32%
Ouyen (Post Office) 25.1 +1.2 43.0 20 Nov 8.8 -0.3 0.7 29 Sep 47.9 94.1 low 51%
Walpeup Research 24.8 +1.5 39.9 21 Nov 8.4 -0.7 -1.0 28 Sep 37.8 91.2 low 41%
South Mallee (district 77)
Hopetoun Airport 24.0 -0.5 41.9 20 Nov 6.4 -1.4 -2.9 10 Sep 46.4 77.5 average 60%
Swan Hill Aerodrome 24.6 +0.3 43.6 21 Nov 7.4 -1.1 -1.4 11 Sep 37.0 88.5 v low 42%
North Wimmera (district 78)
Kellalac (Warracknabeal Airport) 22.4   39.9 20 Nov 6.0   -1.2 11 Sep 55.0
Nhill Aerodrome 21.6 -1.0 40.8 20 Nov 6.7 -1.1 -1.6 17 Sep 63.8 86.0 average 74%
South Wimmera (district 79)
Edenhope Airport 19.5 -1.3 39.4 20 Nov     -1.3 17 Sep
Grampians (Mount William) 12.1 -0.6 27.5 21 Nov 3.6 -0.6 -2.7 17 Sep 256.6 262.5 average 98%
Horsham Aerodrome 21.5 -0.5 39.4 20 Nov 5.1 -1.1 -2.1 17 Sep 58.4 96.6 low 60%
Kanagulk 19.4 -1.1 37.9 20 Nov 5.8 -1.4 -0.9 17 Sep 128.2 106.0 average 121%
Longerenong 21.6 +0.6 39.0 20 Nov 5.2 -1.7 -2.3 17 Sep 52.8 111.5 low 47%
Pyrenees (Ben Nevis) 15.4 -0.5 33.3 21 Nov 5.5 -0.8 -0.3 17 Sep 126.4 175.2 average 72%
Stawell Aerodrome 19.8 -0.4 37.8 21 Nov 6.9 -0.9 -1.0 18 Sep 54.2 122.6 v low 44%
Lower North (district 80)
Charlton 22.8 -0.7 41.0 21 Nov 6.7 -1.3 -1.2 11 Sep 48.6 94.1 average 52%
Echuca Aerodrome 23.5 +1.3 42.6 21 Nov 7.5 -1.2 -0.2 18 Sep 40.4 112.1 v low 36%
Kerang 24.1 +1.2 42.3 21 Nov 8.6 -0.3 0.6 11 Sep 44.2 101.7 low 43%
Kyabram 23.2 +1.7 43.6 21 Nov 7.2 -0.5 -0.7 11 Sep 20.2 115.7 lowest 17%
Upper North (district 81)
Bendigo Airport 21.7 +0.8 41.9 21 Nov 6.5 -0.5 -0.5 11 Sep 81.0 137.1 low 59%
Shepparton Airport 23.0 +0.8 42.9 21 Nov 7.7 -0.2 -0.7 11 Sep 43.0 113.7 v low 38%
Tatura Inst Sustainable Ag 22.1 +0.9 42.1 21 Nov 7.5 -0.3 -0.7 11 Sep 34.2 128.1 v low 27%
Yarrawonga 23.8 +0.9 42.4 21 Nov 7.0 -0.8 -1.8 11 Sep 53.2 121.3 v low 44%
Lower Northeast (district 82)
Benalla Airport 22.3 0.0 41.0 21 Nov 6.1 -1.4 -1.7 11 Sep 80.1 124.3 low 64%
Dartmouth Reservoir 21.1 +0.7 36.7 21 Nov 5.9 -1.2 -1.0 10 Sep 130.4 268.4 v low 49%
Hunters Hill 16.8 +0.7 32.8 21 Nov 7.0 -0.2 -0.8 9 Nov 140.0 291.9 v low 48%
Rutherglen Research 23.0 +1.8 41.6 21 Nov 4.7 -1.6 -2.5 10 Sep 69.6 156.0 v low 45%
Strathbogie 18.3 +0.3 36.6 21 Nov 4.8 -0.7 -2.0 11 Sep 136.2 241.6 low 56%
Wangaratta Aero 22.6 +0.9 41.0 21 Nov 5.4 -1.4 -0.8 11 Sep 53.8 146.3 lowest 37%
Upper Northeast (district 83)
Mount Buller 8.7 0.0 23.8 21 Nov 1.5 -0.3 -6.9 17 Sep 354.6 419.1 average 85%
Mount Hotham 7.9 +0.4 22.6 21 Nov 0.8 -0.2 -7.8 17 Sep
Omeo 19.3 +0.4 34.7 21 Nov 4.4 -0.9 -2.9 11 Sep 125.6 180.0 v low 70%
East Gippsland (district 84)
Combienbar AWS 19.3 +0.8 39.6 21 Nov 8.0 -0.1 0.7 10 Sep 164.2 266.1 v low 62%
Gabo Island Lighthouse 17.8 +0.6 30.2 25 Oct 11.1 -0.1 6.1 18 Sep 116.4 218.7 v low 53%
Lakes Entrance (Eastern Beach Road) 19.3 -0.4 41.6 21 Nov 8.9 -0.7 1.6 1 Sep 133.4 176.0 low 76%
Mallacoota 19.6 +0.5 40.7 21 Nov 9.6 -0.5 2.5 18 Sep 165.2 242.1 low 68%
Mount Nowa Nowa 19.6 +0.5 39.3 21 Nov 9.0 -0.3 2.4 17 Sep 124.0 218.9 v low 57%
Orbost     35.0 31 Oct 8.4 -1.0 2.6 18 Sep
Point Hicks (Lighthouse) 19.1 +0.5 43.4 21 Nov 10.9 -0.2 5.6 9 Nov 216.9 231.2 average 94%
West Gippsland (district 85)
Bairnsdale Airport 21.0 +1.1 41.4 21 Nov 7.6 0.0 0.3 1 Oct 132.2 189.2 low 70%
Corner Inlet (Yanakie) 17.9   36.8 21 Nov 8.5   1.3 17 Sep 204.8
East Sale 20.7 +1.4 40.8 21 Nov 7.6 0.0 1.0 18 Sep 110.8 168.8 low 66%
East Sale Airport 21.1   40.8 21 Nov 7.8   1.2 18 Sep 109.2
Morwell (Latrobe Valley Airport) 19.9 +0.3 38.2 21 Nov 7.1 -0.5 -0.8 17 Sep 229.2 217.3 average 105%
Mount Moornapa 20.2 +1.4 39.1 21 Nov 8.2 -0.1 1.7 9 Sep 153.0 237.8 low 64%
Nilma North (Warragul) 19.0   36.8 21 Nov 7.4   0.0 17 Sep 349.8
Pound Creek 18.4 -0.4 35.8 21 Nov 8.4 -0.3 1.3 18 Sep 208.4 213.2 average 98%
Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse 16.8 +1.0 38.0 21 Nov 10.5 +0.4 6.8 17 Oct 220.0 260.8 average 84%
Yarram Airport 19.6 -0.1 40.4 21 Nov 6.6 -1.2 -0.3 18 Sep 169.2 163.2 average 104%
East Central (district 86)
Coldstream 20.2 +0.2 38.2 21 Nov 6.7 -0.3 -0.7 1 Oct 241.0 209.2 average 115%
Essendon Airport 20.6 +1.2 41.5 21 Nov 9.1 +0.7 2.3 18 Sep 112.0 167.8 low 67%
Ferny Creek 16.4   34.2 21 Nov 7.4   2.3 17 Sep
Melbourne (Olympic Park) 20.3   40.9 21 Nov 10.3   3.6 17 Sep 119.4
Melbourne Airport 20.5 +1.1 41.6 21 Nov 8.2 -0.5 1.0 1 Oct 119.0 160.7 low 74%
Moorabbin Airport 19.9 +0.6 40.7 21 Nov 9.5 0.0 1.5 17 Sep 155.2 194.7 average 80%
Rhyll 18.3 +0.2 33.3 21 Nov 10.4 -0.4 6.7 1 Oct 155.8 185.4 average 84%
Scoresby Research Institute 19.9 +0.8 39.4 21 Nov 8.7 -0.2 1.1 1 Oct 246.0 245.9 average 100%
Viewbank 20.8 +0.2 41.5 21 Nov 8.8 -0.6 1.0 17 Sep 159.8 187.2 average 85%
West Central (district 87)
Avalon Airport 20.6 +0.4 41.8 21 Nov 7.9 -0.5 0.4 1 Oct 92.4 140.3 low 66%
Breakwater (Geelong Racecourse) 20.0   39.2 21 Nov 8.7   2.0 18 Sep 116.8
Laverton RAAF 20.6 +1.3 42.4 21 Nov 8.6 +0.2 0.5 1 Oct 89.4 155.3 v low 58%
North Central (district 88)
Castlemaine Prison 19.7 +0.4 40.1 21 Nov 6.6 -0.4 0.0 10 Sep 89.6 161.8 low 55%
Eildon Fire Tower 17.2 0.0 35.9 21 Nov 7.0 -0.7 0.5 9 Sep 113.0 166.3 low 68%
Lake Eildon 20.6 +0.5 38.8 21 Nov     1.5 10 Sep 168.4 224.8 average 75%
Mangalore Airport 21.5 +0.8 42.2 21 Nov 6.5 -1.0 -0.6 27 Oct 88.8 147.6 low 60%
Maryborough 20.7 +0.5 39.5 21 Nov 6.9 -0.5 -0.3 18 Sep 61.6 139.9 v low 44%
Puckapunyal Lyon Hill (Defence) 21.3   42.3 21 Nov 8.5   2.6 11 Sep 77.0
Puckapunyal West (Defence) 20.3   40.4 21 Nov 7.6   2.4 17 Sep 85.0
Wallan (Kilmore Gap) 17.2 +0.8 38.1 21 Nov 7.0 -0.2 0.3 17 Sep 95.4 177.0 low 54%
Western Plains (district 89)
Ararat Prison 19.2 +0.8 37.4 21 Nov 6.0 -0.3 -2.0 18 Sep 100.6 159.8 low 63%
Ballarat Aerodrome 17.2 +0.4 35.3 21 Nov 5.9 -0.4 -0.7 18 Sep 137.8 192.3 low 72%
Westmere 18.3 -1.2 36.9 21 Nov 5.2 -0.9 -2.5 18 Sep 112.8 130.5 average 86%
West Coast (district 90)
Aireys Inlet 19.1 +1.0 38.9 21 Nov 9.0 -0.5 4.7 18 Sep 102.4 172.0 low 60%
Cape Nelson Lighthouse 17.0 -0.3 35.0 24 Oct 10.1 -0.6 3.2 17 Sep 207.2 164.6 high 126%
Cape Otway Lighthouse 16.6 -0.2 35.1 21 Nov 9.8 +0.2 5.7 18 Sep 203.8 233.0 average 87%
Casterton 18.4 -1.0 33.3 20 Nov 6.2 -1.2 -1.7 17 Sep 193.2 149.8 high 129%
Colac (Mount Gellibrand) 17.3 -0.2 36.6 21 Nov 7.4 -0.5 2.3 17 Sep 132.8 152.3 average 87%
Dartmoor 18.6 -0.9 36.9 20 Nov 7.2 -0.9 -1.7 17 Sep 190.0 161.9 average 117%
Hamilton Airport 17.7 -0.4 33.3 20 Nov 6.2 -0.7 -0.3 17 Sep 142.6 168.9 average 84%
Mortlake Racecourse 18.4 +0.1 33.9 21 Nov 6.1 -0.6 -1.0 18 Sep 149.2 154.8 average 96%
Port Fairy AWS 18.1 -0.2 33.5 20 Nov 8.9 -0.7 1.6 17 Sep 151.4 164.1 average 92%
Portland (Cashmore Airport) 17.1 +0.1 33.5 20 Nov 8.1 -0.5 -0.6 17 Sep 218.0 200.8 average 109%
Warrnambool Airport NDB 17.5 -0.8 32.9 20 Nov 7.2 -0.6 -0.1 17 Sep 189.2 182.7 average 104%

Notes

The Seasonal climate summary, generally published on the first working day of each month, lists the main features of the weather in Victoria using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 10 am on Monday 2 December 2019. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the rainfall is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

Media
(03) 9669 4057
Enquiries