Warmer winter favoured in southern WA

WA Seasonal Temperature Outlook: probabilities for Winter 2011, issued 24th May 2011

Warmer winter favoured in southern WA

The Western Australia outlook for maximum and minimum temperatures averaged over winter (June to August) favours warmer daytime and night-time temperatures over western and southern parts of the state. In contrast, cooler night-time temperatures are favoured in the north of the state.

This outlook is a result of cool conditions in the central and tropical Pacific Ocean, as well as warm conditions in the Indian Ocean.

The chance that the average winter maximum temperature will exceed the long-term median maximum temperature is between 60 to 70% for much of western and southern WA, rising to between 75 and 80% for inland western areas (see map). This means that for every ten years with ocean patterns like the ones currently observed, about six to eight June to August periods would be expected to be warmer than average in these areas, with about two to four being cooler.

probability of exceeding median maximum temperature - click on the map for a larger version of the map

Outlook confidence is related to how consistently the Pacific and Indian Oceans affect Australian temperatures. During the June to August period, history shows the effect on maximum temperatures to be consistent over most of WA, apart from parts of the eastern Pilbara and Interior where the effect is only weak or very weak (see background information).

probability of exceeding median minimum temperature - click on the map for a larger version of the map

The average minimum temperature for winter is favoured to be above the long-term median minimum temperature across much of western and southern WA, with probabilities between 60 and 70%, rising to between 75 and 80% for inland western areas. In contrast, the outlook favours cooler night-time temperatures over the Kimberley, far east Pilbara and northern Interior where there is a 60 to 75% chance of cooler than normal night-time temperatures.

History shows the oceans' effect on minimum temperatures during the June to August period to be moderately consistent over most of Western Australia, apart from parts of the far southeast, inland Pilbara, inland Gascoyne and coastal Kimberley where the effect is weakly or very weakly consistent.


Click on the maps above for larger versions of the maps. Use the reload/refresh button to ensure the latest forecast maps are displayed.


More information on this outlook is available from 8.30am to 4.30pm (WST) Monday to Friday by contacting the Climate Services Centre in the Bureau's Perth Office: (08) 9263 2222.



Corresponding rainfall outlook

Maximum temperature departures from average for February to April 2011 - base period 1961-1990

Minimum temperature departures from average for February to April 2011 - base period 1961-1990


Background Information

  • The Bureau's seasonal outlooks are general statements about the probability or risk of wetter or drier than average weather over a three-month period. The outlooks are based on the statistics of chance (the odds) taken from Australian rainfall/temperatures and sea surface temperature records for the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. They are not, however, categorical predictions about future rainfall, and they are not about rainfall within individual months of the three-month outlook period. The temperature outlooks are for the average maximum and minimum temperatures for the entire three-month outlook period. Information about whether individual days or weeks may be unusually hot or cold, is unavailable.

  • This outlook is a summary. More detail is available from the contact people.

  • Probability outlooks should not be used as if they were categorical forecasts. More on probabilities is contained in the booklet The Seasonal Climate Outlook - What it is and how to use it, available from the National Climate Centre. These outlooks should be used as a tool in risk management and decision making. The benefits accrue from long-term use, say over 10 years. At any given time, the probabilities may seem inaccurate, but taken over several years, the advantages of taking account of the risks should outweigh the disadvantages. For more information on the use of probabilities, farmers could contact their local departments of agriculture or primary industry.

  • Model Consistency and Outlook Confidence: Strong consistency means that tests of the model on historical data show a high correlation between the most likely outlook category (above/below median) and the verifying observation (above/below median). In this situation relatively high confidence can be placed in the outlook probabilities. Low consistency means the historical relationship, and therefore outlook confidence, is weak. In the places and seasons where the outlooks are most skilful, the category of the eventual outcome (above or below median) is consistent with the category favoured in the outlook about 75% of the time. In the least skilful areas, the outlooks perform no better than random chance or guessing. The rainfall outlooks perform best in eastern and northern Australia between July and January, but are less useful in autumn and in the west of the continent. The skill at predicting seasonal maximum temperature peaks in early winter and drops off marginally during the second half of the year. The lowest point in skill occurs in early autumn. The skill at predicting seasonal minimum temperature peaks in late autumn and again in mid-spring. There are also two distinct periods when the skill is lowest - namely late summer and mid-winter. However, it must always be remembered that the outlooks are statements of chance or risk. For example, if you were told there was a 50:50 chance of a horse winning a race but it ran second, the original assessment of a 50:50 chance could still have been correct.

  • The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is calculated using the barometric pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin. The SOI is one indicator of the stage of El Niño or La Niña events in the tropical Pacific Ocean. It is best considered in conjunction with sea-surface temperatures, which form the basis of the outlooks. A moderate to strongly negative SOI (persistently below −10) is usually characteristic of El Niño, which is often associated with below average rainfall over eastern Australia, and a weaker than normal monsoon in the north. A moderate to strongly positive SOI (persistently above +10) is usually characteristic of La Niña, which is often associated with above average rainfall over parts of tropical and eastern Australia, and an earlier than normal start to the northern monsoon season. The Australian impacts of past El Niño events since 1900 are summarized on the Bureau's web site (El Niño - Detailed Australian Analysis), and past La Niña events (La Niña - Detailed Australian Analysis)

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