Warmer days and cooler nights favoured for most of southeastern Australia

Southeastern Aust Seasonal Temperature Outlook: probabilities for April to June 2013, issued 20th March 2013

Warmer days and cooler nights favoured for most of southeastern Australia

The southeast Australian temperature outlook for April to June 2013 shows that:

  • warmer days are more likely over Victoria, Tasmania and southern South Australia
  • cooler days are favoured in northeastern New South Wales
  • cooler nights are more likely over Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and southwest New South Wales
  • warmer nights are favoured in northeastern New South Wales

This outlook is mostly a result of warmer than normal waters in the Indian Ocean, with near normal temperatures in the tropical Pacific Ocean having minimal influence.

probability of exceeding median maximum temperature - click on the map for a larger version of the map

The chance that the April to June maximum temperature will exceed the long-term median maximum temperature is greater than 60% over Victoria, Tasmania, southeast SA and southern NSW. Such odds mean that for every ten years with similar ocean patterns to those currently observed, about six or seven April to June periods would be expected to be warmer than average over these areas, while about three or four years would be cooler.

In contrast in northeast NSW there is a 30 to 40% chance of warmer than normal days (that is, a 60 to 70% chance of cooler than normal days).

probability of exceeding median minimum temperature - click on the map for a larger version of the map

For minimum temperatures, the pattern is reversed, with the chance that the average minimum temperature for April to June will exceed the long-term median minimum temperature above 60% in northeastern NSW. In contrast, Victoria, SA, Tasmania and southwestern NSW have a less than 40% chance of warmer than usual nights, and near the Victoria-SA border that drops to 20 to 25%.

History shows that the Pacific and Indian Oceans have a moderately consistent effect on maximum temperatures over northeast NSW, western Victoria and most of Tasmania during the April to June period, but in the rest of southeast Australia the effect is only weakly consistent. The effect on minimum temperatures is moderately consistent over northern and eastern NSW and western SA, but only weakly consistent elsewhere in the southeast (see background information). Caution must be exercised in areas of low skill.


Click on the maps above for larger versions of the maps. Use the reload/refresh button to ensure the latest forecast maps are displayed.


More information on this outlook is available Monday to Friday from 9.00am to 5.00pm local time by contacting the Bureau's Climate Services sections in Queensland, NSW, SA, Victoria and Tasmania at the following numbers:

Sydney -(02) 9296 1555
Adelaide -(08) 8366 2664
Melbourne -(03) 9669 4949
Hobart -(03) 6221 2043



Corresponding rainfall outlook

Maximum temperature departures from average for December 2012 to February 2013 - base period 1961-1990

Minimum temperature departures from average for December 2012 to February 2013 - base period 1961-1990


Background Information

  • The Bureau's seasonal outlooks are general statements about the probability or risk of wetter or drier than average weather over a three-month period. The outlooks are based on the statistics of chance (the odds) taken from Australian rainfall/temperatures and sea surface temperature records for the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. They are not, however, categorical predictions about future rainfall, and they are not about rainfall within individual months of the three-month outlook period. The temperature outlooks are for the average maximum and minimum temperatures for the entire three-month outlook period. Information about whether individual days or weeks may be unusually hot or cold, is unavailable.

  • This outlook is a summary. More detail is available from the contact people.

  • Probability outlooks should not be used as if they were categorical forecasts. These outlooks should be used as a tool in risk management and decision making. The benefits accrue from long-term use, say over 10 years. At any given time, the probabilities may seem inaccurate, but taken over several years, the advantages of taking account of the risks should outweigh the disadvantages. For more information on the use of probabilities, farmers could contact their local departments of agriculture or primary industry.

  • Model Consistency and Outlook Confidence: Strong consistency means that tests of the model on historical data show a high correlation between the most likely outlook category (above/below median) and the verifying observation (above/below median). In this situation relatively high confidence can be placed in the outlook probabilities. Low consistency means the historical relationship, and therefore outlook confidence, is weak. In the places and seasons where the outlooks are most skilful, the category of the eventual outcome (above or below median) is consistent with the category favoured in the outlook about 75% of the time. In the least skilful areas, the outlooks perform no better than random chance or guessing. The rainfall outlooks perform best in eastern and northern Australia between July and January, but are less useful in autumn and in the west of the continent. The skill at predicting seasonal maximum temperature peaks in early winter and drops off marginally during the second half of the year. The lowest point in skill occurs in early autumn. The skill at predicting seasonal minimum temperature peaks in late autumn and again in mid-spring. There are also two distinct periods when the skill is lowest - namely late summer and mid-winter. However, it must always be remembered that the outlooks are statements of chance or risk. For example, if you were told there was a 50:50 chance of a horse winning a race but it ran second, the original assessment of a 50:50 chance could still have been correct.

  • The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is calculated using the barometric pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin. The SOI is one indicator of the stage of El Niño or La Niña events in the tropical Pacific Ocean. It is best considered in conjunction with sea-surface temperatures, which form the basis of the outlooks. A moderate to strongly negative SOI (persistently below −10) is usually characteristic of El Niño, which is often associated with below average rainfall over eastern Australia, and a weaker than normal monsoon in the north. A moderate to strongly positive SOI (persistently above +10) is usually characteristic of La Niña, which is often associated with above average rainfall over parts of tropical and eastern Australia, and an earlier than normal start to the northern monsoon season. The Australian impacts of past El Niño events since 1900 are summarized on the Bureau's web site (El Niño - Detailed Australian Analysis), and past La Niña events (La Niña - Detailed Australian Analysis)

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