Western Australia in 2013: Warmest year on record

  • Maximum temperature: highest on record for WA; fourth highest for southwest WA
  • Minimum temperature: second highest on record for WA and southwest WA
  • Rainfall: above average for WA; near average for southwest WA

Introduction

Averaged across the State as a whole, 2013 was WA's warmest year since comparable records commenced in 1910. Maximum temperatures were very much above average across most of the State, with a few sites in southern parts of WA recording their warmest year on record.

WA also recorded its second highest annual mean minimum temperature on record. Minimum temperatures were similarly very much above average across most of WA, with a number of sites, particularly in southern WA, recording their warmest year on record in terms of overnight temperatures.

Rainfall in WA during 2013 was above average for the State as a whole, with above average rainfall reported across large parts of northern WA, and to a lesser extent southeast WA, with record annual rainfall reported at a few sites in the Kimberley, Pilbara, and Southeast Coastal. Overall near average rainfall was reported in southwest WA in 2013.

Extremes Maps Records Summaries Important notes the top

Rainfall

Areas of very much above average rainfall were reported in the west Kimberley, east Pilbara, and Northern Interior in 2013, largely as a result of the passage of tropical cyclone Rusty through the region in late February and tropical cyclone Christine towards the end of December, along with significant Northwest Cloudband events in May and June bringing unseasonal heavy rainfall. As a result, Pardoo Station in the Pilbara recorded its highest annual rainfall in a 98 year recording history. Port Hedland Airport, and Cape Leveque in the Kimberley, also reported their wettest year on record. The southern Goldfields and Southeast Coastal also reported very much above average rainfall, mainly as a result of frequent rain events in March, as well as significant events in May and September. Erinair, west of Esperance, recorded its wettest year in its 44 years of record. In contrast, the west Gascoyne and parts of the Central West recorded below to very much below average rainfall in 2013, mainly as a result of a lack of winter rainfall in the region.

Averaged across WA as a whole, rainfall during 2013 was above average. Wet months were observed in May and June, as significant Northwest Cloudband events occurred across the northern half of the State, September, with significant rainfall across the southern half of WA, November, with early wet season rainfall in the Kimberley and the passage of tropical cyclone Alessia near the north Kimberley coast, and December, with heavy rainfall in parts of the Kimberley due to a nearby weak tropical low, then the west Kimberley and east Pilbara with the passage of tropical cyclone Christine. Only August saw below average rainfall for the State as a whole, with little, if any, rainfall reported outside the Southwest Land Division (SWLD).

The Lower Southwest (southwest of a line from Jurien Bay to Bremer Bay) saw near average rainfall in 2013, as a result of above average rainfall in March, May, and August, and the fourth wettest September on record, the wettest month of 2013 for the Lower Southwest, combined with below average rainfall in April, and the second driest June on record. The SWLD similarly recorded a near average year largely due to above average rainfall in autumn and spring in combination with the ninth driest winter since comparable records commenced in 1900.

Significant rainfall events during the year were as follows:

  • Tropical cyclone Peta moved over the central Pilbara coast as a category one system on 23 January and brought some localised heavy falls, the highest daily total being 261.6 mm at Hooley on 24 January, which was the highest daily total in 30 years of recording at the site. Flooding impacts were generally localised and mostly minor.
  • Severe tropical cyclone Rusty crossed the coast east of Port Hedland on 27 February and brought heavy rainfall to the east Pilbara and west Kimberley in the last week of February. The highest daily fall reported during the event was 263.4 mm at Bamboo Creek in the east Pilbara on the 28th, although the rain gauge overflowed so the actual total was likely higher than this. It was the highest daily rainfall total reported in WA in 2013. Major flooding of the De Grey river was reported as a result of the slow moving severe tropical cyclone. Ex-tropical cyclone Rusty moved through central parts of the State in early March and brought heavy rainfall to the Southern Interior and Goldfields, and several sites in these districts observed their wettest autumn day on record on the 1st and 2nd, whilst Glen-Ayle (Southern Interior) recorded a daily total of 177.5 mm in the 24 hours to 9am on the 1st, its wettest day in 64 years of record.
  • Numerous unseasonal rainfall events occurred across northern WA in May 2013. Rain and thunderstorms were common across the Kimberley from the 12th to 24th with some heavy falls reported. Very heavy rainfall in excess of 150 mm was reported on the northern Dampier Penninsula on the 19th and 20th as Cygnet Bay observed 155.4 mm in the 24 hours to 9am on the 21st, its wettest May day in 50 years of record, and Lombadina Airstrip reported 182.5 mm, the highest daily rainfall total in WA for autumn 2013. Cape Leveque recorded 157.7 mm on the 21st, which contributed significantly to its autumn total rainfall of 409.9 mm, the highest autumn 2013 total rainfall in WA.
  • A weak tropical low drifting close to the west Kimberley coast on 5 and 6 June brought thunderstorms and the re-intensification of a cloudband over northern WA with extremely heavy falls reported in the west Kimberley as a result, and a number of sites registered their highest daily rainfall on record for winter in the 24 hours to 9am on the 6th or 7th. West Roebuck, near Broome, recorded 202.0 mm in the 24 hours to 9am on the 6th, which was the highest daily total recorded during the event. Broome Airport recorded 146.4 mm on the 6th exceeding the previous winter daily record at the airport of 127.0 mm on 24 June 1968, and also exceeding the highest winter daily rainfall at the Broome Post Office of 143.0 mm on 15 June 1901, thus becoming the wettest winter day in the town since recording began in 1889.
  • A number of sites in the Pilbara saw exceptionally heavy rainfall from late on 23 June to the morning of 25 June as a cloudband developed over the northwest. Roebourne recorded 223.6 mm on the 25th, the highest winter daily fall at the site since records commenced in 1887, and the second highest daily fall at the site for any month, only slightly behind 233.7 mm on 7 March 1945. It was also the highest daily fall in winter 2013 in WA. A number of other sites in the Pilbara also reported their highest winter daily rainfall as result of this event.
  • A complex low pressure system moved across the southern half of WA between 11 and 13 July bringing widespread significant rainfall to the SWLD and adjacent Gascoyne and Goldfields. Several sites in the northern Great Southern and southern Central Wheat Belt recorded their wettest winter day on record on the 12th, including Kondinin in the Great Southern, which recorded 71.0 mm, its wettest winter day in 97 years of record.
  • A slow moving cold front moved through the SWLD on 15 July bringing widespread heavy showers to the region, and falls of 60 mm to 100 mm were reported in the Margaret River region of the Southwest district with some localised flooding reported. A daily total of 99.4 mm at Witchcliffe on the 15th was the highest daily rainfall in July in the State.
  • Numerous cold fronts impacted southwest WA in September with notable events on the 7th and 8th, 13th and 14th , 21st to 23rd, and 29th, producing heavy rainfall and a number of record breaking daily falls for September.
  • Frequent thunderstorm activity occurred in the Kimberley during November with heavy falls reported, including 120.0 mm at Emma Gorge on the 22nd, the highest daily fall in WA during spring 2013. Tropical cyclone Alessia brought moderate to heavy falls to the north Kimberley coast on the 23rd and 24th November. Cygnet Bay recorded its highest spring daily fall in 50 years of record with 41.0 mm on the 23rd.
  • Severe tropical cyclone Christine made landfall on the Pilbara coast between Whim Creek and Roebourne as a category three system on 30 December and brought heavy rainfall to the west Kimberley and central and east Pilbara, the highest daily total being 168.6 mm at Abydos North on the 31st.

Maximum temperature

Maximum temperatures were well above average across most of WA in 2013, with only parts of the Pilbara recording near average mean maxima. A few sites in the SWLD and Eucla recorded their hottest year on record, including Narrogin in the Great Southern with 82 years of record.

Averaged across WA as a whole, the annual mean maximum temperature for 2013 was the highest since comparable records commenced in 1910. The previous hottest year for WA was 2002. Almost all months in 2013 saw mean maxima for the State above the average, with five months ranked in the top 12 hottest for their respective month: January (eleventh highest),  April (third), August (second), September (tenth), and October (second). Only June was below the long-term average for WA as a result of Northwest Cloudband activity and rainfall across the northern half of the State. WA has recorded only one below average month in terms of the mean maximum temperature for the State since April 2012.

The Lower Southwest (southwest of a line from Jurien Bay to Bremer Bay) saw a very much above average annual mean maximum temperature in 2013, recording its fourth-warmest year since comparable records commenced in 1910.  The Lower Southwest recorded its warmest year on record in 2010, and second warmest year in 2012. With the exception of a cool March, the Lower Southwest saw monthly mean maximum temperatures above the long-term average for all other months in 2013, notably in February (sixth highest on record), April (third), August (fourth), and November (eighth) . A run of above average monthly mean maximum temperatures has extended back to 2009 for the region, with only three months below the average since September 2009.

A significant heat event impacted Australia in the first half of January (Special Climate Statement 43), and brought very high temperatures to southern, central, and eastern parts of WA with numerous daily maximum temperature records broken. The first few days of January 2013 saw very high temperatures across southern WA as Eyre in the Eucla district recorded a maximum of 47.7 ºC on the 2nd, followed by Eucla on the 3rd with 48.2 ºC, the highest temperatures at these sites in 31 and 57 years of record respectively. Very high temperatures cleared southern WA the following day but persisted over eastern inland WA before intensifying across central and eastern WA on the 6th and 7th. On the 8th, temperatures were reported in the 47 ºC to 48 ºC range in the inland Gascoyne, northern Goldfields, and Southern Interior, with several sites recording their highest temperature on record, including Meekatharra Airport with a maximum of 47.1 ºC, its highest temperature in 64 years of recording. Very high temperatures persisted on the 9th and Leonora recorded a maximum of 49.0 ºC, the highest temperature in WA during the event and for the 2013 year. The maximum temperatures at Leonora of 47.8 ºC (7th), 48.3 ºC (8th), and 49.0 ºC (9th), initially equalled the previous daily record at the site in 57 years of recording, then broke it on consecutive days. High temperatures became confined to central eastern parts of the State on the 10th and eased before returning to central eastern parts of WA in the middle of the month. On the 16th, Giles Meteorological Office recorded a maximum of 45.7 ºC, its highest temperature in 58 years of recording.

Another notable hot spell occurred in the middle of December as a strong high moved slowly through the Bight bringing prolonged hot conditions to southern WA. Daily maximum temperatures above 35 °C started in western parts of the SWLD on the 12th and intensified and gradually shifted south and east and ended in the Eucla district on the 18th. Temperatures above 44 °C were reported in the Central West, Central Wheat Belt, Goldfields, Southeast Coastal, and Eucla during the event with sites in the Central West and Southeast Coastal recording their highest December temperatures on record. Also later in December, a trough directed very hot northerly winds over southeastern WA on the 27th and Eucla recorded a maximum temperature of 47.4 °C, its highest December temperature in 52 years of record, and the highest temperature in WA for December 2013.

Wet and cloudy conditions on 7 July in the Goldfields and southern Gascoyne resulted in a cold day in the region. Yeelirrie in the Goldfields recorded the lowest maximum temperature in the State in July 2013, as well as the year as a whole, with 9.3 °C on the 7th, its second coldest July day in 39 years of record, only behind a maximum of 9.0 °C on 13 July 2004.

Minimum temperature

Minimum temperatures were also very much above average across most of WA in 2013, with only parts of the Kimberley recording a near average year. A number of sites in the SWLD, Goldfields, and Eucla, as well as Onslow in the Pilbara, recorded their warmest year on record in terms of overnight temperatures. Albany recorded its highest annual mean minimum temperature in its 93 year recording history, exceeding the previous record set in 2011.

Averaged across WA, the annual mean minimum temperature ranked as second highest on record, only behind the record warm year of 1998. All months in 2013 saw above average monthly mean minima for WA, and six months ranked at the top ten warmest for their respective month: January (third warmest), April (fifth), May (equal ninth), September (equal fourth), October (ninth) and November (eighth). Since September 2012, WA has recorded consecutive above average monthly mean minimum temperatures for the State.

For the Lower Southwest (southwest of a line from Jurien Bay to Bremer Bay), the annual mean minimum temperature was also very much above average during 2013, also ranking as second highest on record. Most months in 2013 saw above average mean minima, with only June and July below average, and six ranked at the top 12 for their respective month: January (eighth highest), February (eleventh), April (highest on record), August (third highest), September (second), November (second).

A significant heat event in the first half of January 2013 across central and southern WA led to a number of record high minimum temperatures. Merredin in the Central Wheat Belt and Jarrahwood in the Southwest registered record high minimum temperatures on the 8th as cloud moved over the SWLD following a hot day on the 7th. The minimum of 29.7 ºC at Merredin was the highest minimum temperature in the town in 48 years of record. Very high minima were also recorded in the Goldfields and Southern Interior on the 9th and 10th, with overnight temperatures in the low 30s. Wiluna recorded the highest minimum temperature in WA for the year with 33.5 ºC on the 9th, only falling short of the record for the town by 0.1 ºC, whilst Carnegie registered 33.1 ºC, its warmest night in 25 years of record. With the return of very high day-time temperatures in the middle of January in central eastern WA, overnight temperatures were consequently also high in the region and Warburton Airfield recorded a minimum of 32.5 ºC on the 17th, the highest minimum at the site in 28 years of record.

Cold nights were reported across southern WA from the 5th to the 9th as a result of generally clear skies and light winds. Many sub-zero temperatures were reported, aided by particularly dry soils following an extremely dry June, and a number of sites in the SWLD experienced their coldest or equal coldest night in July on record on the 8th. Wandering in the Great Southern recorded a minimum of -4.8 °C on the 8th, the lowest temperature recorded in WA in July 2013, whilst Beverley, also in the Great Southern recorded a minimum of -3.8 °C, its coldest night in 45 years of record.

The lowest temperature recorded in WA in 2013 was -5.0 °C at Eyre in the Eucla on 14 October. This broke the record for the lowest temperature on record for WA in October, exceeding the previous record of -4.3 ºC at Eyre on 24 October 1995.

Other notable events in WA in 2013

  • Severe tropical cyclone Narelle formed well north of the Australian coast on 8 January and took a general southwesterly track, intensifying to a category four system on the 11th north-northwest of Exmouth. Narelle moved south-southwest off the WA west coast and was downgraded to a low early on the 15th, over 500 km to the west of Geraldton. Although threatening the Pilbara and Gascoyne coasts and disrupting shipping and offshore industries, Narelle remained far enough offshore not to directly impact the northwest coast. A tidal surge was recorded from Onslow to Busselton as a result of Narelle, causing some inundation of low lying areas, though any impacts were minor.
  • With the passage off the WA west coast of ex-tropical cyclone Narelle on 15 January, a number of severe thunderstorms were reported in southwest WA. Just after 0600 WST on the 15th, a thunderstorm crossed the coast to the southwest of Capel in the Southwest district, in the vicinity of the Ludlow State Forest. A report from the area noted that large trees were down with a trail that was approximately 400 metres wide, the likely result of a tornado. Tuart Drive was blocked by large trees, and debris was also across the Bussell Highway. Later that day, high temperatures along with high humidity resulted in severe thunderstorms through the Central Wheat Belt, Great Southern, and Southeast Coastal districts during the afternoon. A thunderstorm moved through Karlgarin in the Great Southern around 1700 WST leaving approximately 10 buildings damaged (some significantly) and trees and power lines down. At Amrista Park, about 20 km south-southwest of Karlgarin, 38.4 mm of rain fell in 30 minutes, a greater than one in 100 year event, with a significant number of trees and fences down. The same storm system went on to produce 22.4 mm in ten minutes between 1834 WST and 1843 WST at Ravensthorpe (DAFWA) in the Southeast Coastal district, about 130 km southeast of Amrista Park, an almost one in 100 year event.
  • A tropical low formed over the Kimberley on 20 January and tracked southwest through the west Kimberley then close to and parallel with the Pilbara coast before turning to the southwest towards the coast early on the 23rd. The system intensified into tropical cyclone Peta on the morning of the 23rd and crossed the Pilbara coast near Roebourne as a category one system, then weakened to a tropical low in the afternoon on the 23rd. Although tropical cyclone Peta was short-lived and relatively weak, its proximity to the coast resulted in disruptions to shipping and offshore industries. There was also very heavy rainfall along parts of the Pilbara coastline and in the Fortescue River catchment, with accumulated falls over 300 mm reported, leading to minor flooding.
  • A tropical low developed in the waters off northwest WA on 22 February and was named tropical cyclone Rusty in the afternoon on the 24th, about 360km north of Port Hedland. Rusty continued to intensify as it moved slowly in a south to southeasterly direction towards the east Pilbara coast and became a severe tropical cyclone on the 25th, reaching category four for a brief period on the morning of the 27th. Rusty crossed the Pilbara coast about 10km east of Pardoo Station in the afternoon on the 27th and after landfall moved southward and weakened rapidly to below tropical cyclone intensity on the 28th over the east Pilbara but continued to produce heavy rainfall along its path. Water and structural damage to buildings was reported from both Pardoo Station and Pardoo Roadhouse, with many trees down and significant flooding. Pardoo Station also reported cattle loss as a result of hypothermia. Port Hedland Airport recorded sustained gale force winds for 39 hours from midnight on the 25th to 3 pm on the 27th (based on three-hourly synoptic observations), which is unprecedented in the wind record at the Airport that goes back to 1942. The highest wind gusts recorded were 124km/h at Bedout Island and 119km/h at Port Hedland Airport. Only minor damage was reported in Port Hedland but there was a significant disruption to shipping and offshore industries with Port Hedland port closed for 86 hours, as well as onshore mining operations near the path of Rusty. Major flooding occurred in the De Grey River catchment as a result of the prolonged heavy rainfall.
  • On 9 June, a low moving along the WA south coast triggered a line of thunderstorms near Albany. A line of damage approximately 500 metres long and 80 metres wide was reported from Elleker, west of Albany town, and hail the size of olives to golf balls was reported.
  • Early on 25 June, a tornado reportedly moved through the Port Hedland port and then a construction area, causing some localised damage to vehicles and signs.
  • A series of cold fronts moved through the SWLD between 15 and 17 July, bringing heavy rainfall and damaging winds to southern WA districts. Flash flooding was reported in the Southwest as rainfall totals in the 60 mm to 100 mm range were reported on the morning of the 15th and a river crossing was washed away as a result. Severe wind gusts of 100 km/h to 115 km/h were recorded at coastal sites in the Lower West, Southwest, and Southeast Coastal on the 16th and 17th, resulting in more than 6000 homes in the Perth metropolitan area and southwest WA to be without power. The WA Department of Fire and Emergency Services (DFES) received more than 138 calls for assistance.
  • Numerous damaging wind gusts (between 90 km/h and 102 km/h) were recorded across southern WA from 25 to 27 July as a strong cut off low and associated cold front passed over the region. DFES received a total 53 calls for help during this period, with damage reported in the Mandurah suburbs of Halls Head and Silver Sands, as well as in Kalgoorlie, Moora, and York. In the Perth metropolitan area, 22 calls for assistance were received overnight on the 26th and on the morning of the 27th with damage occurring in the northern suburbs of Heathridge and Beldon.
  • A suspected waterspout crossed the Perth metropolitan coast near North Coogee on 6 August, causing injury to 6 people (two serious) when scaffolding on a building site collapsed. Buildings were damaged and a heavy concrete building slab was lifted up.
  • A series of strong cold fronts, associated with a deep, complex low pressure system, affected the SWLD from early 22 September until 24 September. A wind gust of 146km/h was recorded at Cape Leeuwin on the 22nd, the highest wind gust recorded in WA in 2013. A tornado was also reported in the southeast suburbs of Perth at Maddington, where significant structural damage occurred. The second, and strongest, cold front moved over the southwest region in the early hours of the 23rd as widespread damaging winds were experienced. About 20,000 properties were without electricity, in areas around Perth, Manjimup, Busselton, Pemberton, and Bunbury. SES Service volunteers responded to more than 88 calls for help, including at least 30 in the Gosnells and Maddington area. Flooding forced the closure of a northbound lane of the Kwinana Freeway in Como as a significant storm surge occurred along the southwest WA coast.
  • A tropical low developed south of Java on 20 November and moved to the southeast and intensified into a category one tropical cyclone in the evening of the 22nd off the west Kimberley coast and was named Alessia. The system tracked eastward near the north Kimberley coast on the 23rd and 24th before weakening below tropical cyclone intensity on the evening of the 24th as it crossed the western Top End of the Northern Territory. The impacts of Alessia were generally minor with some heavy rainfall and a wind gust to 94 km/h reported at Troughton Island at 0011 WST on the 24th.
  • A tropical low off the northwest coast intensified into tropical cyclone Christine in the evening of the 28th and made landfall as a category three tropical cyclone on the Pilbara coast between Whim Creek and Roebourne on the 30th. Christine brought heavy rainfall to the west Kimberley and central and east Pilbara, with numerous daily totals between 100 mm and 170 mm, and destructive winds to the Pilbara region. Roebourne Airport recorded a wind gust of 172 km/h in the late evening on the 30th, the highest recorded wind gust during the passage of Christine.

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Extremes in 2013
Hottest day 49.0 °C at Leonora on 9 Jan
Warmest days on average 36.8 °C at Fitzroy Crossing Aero
Coolest days on average 20.3 °C at Albany
Coldest day 9.3 °C at Yeelirrie on 7 Jul
Coldest night -5.0 °C at Eyre on 14 Oct
Coolest nights on average 9.3 °C at Collie East
9.3 °C at Wandering
Warmest nights on average 26.3 °C at Troughton Island
23.4 °C at Wyndham
Warmest night 33.5 °C at Wiluna on 9 Jan
Warmest on average overall 29.8 °C at Wyndham Aero
Coolest on average overall 15.9 °C at Rocky Gully
Wettest overall 1766.6 mm at Cape Leveque
Driest overall 79.2 mm at Carnarvon Airport
Wettest day 261.6 mm at Hooley on 24 Jan
Highest wind gust 172 km/h at Roebourne Aero on 30 Dec

Maps

Observed Anomaly Decile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Record highest daily rainfall
Highest daily rainfall
in 2013 (mm)
Previous annual
wettest
Years of
record
Cocos Island Airport 416.0 on 25 Feb 322.6 on 6 Oct 1910 106
Glen-Ayle 177.5 on 1 Mar 169.0 on 2 Feb 1997 64
Hooley 261.6 on 24 Jan 159.5 on 22 Feb 2001 30



Record highest total annual rainfall
Total rainfall
for 2013 (mm)
Previous annual
wettest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Pardoo Station 1074.4 815.7 in 1942 98 315.7
Cape Leveque 1766.6 1533.2 in 1984 77 783.4
Port Hedland Airport 721.6 626.8 in 1956 71 321.1
Erinair 812.5 782.2 in 1999 45 552.0



Record highest temperature
Highest temperature
in 2013 (°C)
Previous annual
warmest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Meekatharra Airport 47.1 on 8 Jan 45.7 on 5 Jan 2008 64 28.9
Giles Meteorological Office 45.7 on 16 Jan 44.8 on 28 Jan 2011 58 29.3
Eucla 48.2 on 3 Jan 47.9 on 3 Jan 1979 57 22.8
Leonora 49.0 on 9 Jan 47.8 on 17 Jan 1958 57 27.9
Wiluna 48.0 on 8 Jan 46.9 on 25 Dec 1990 57 29.1
Yeelirrie 47.9 on 8 Jan 46.0 on 11 Feb 1991 41 28.7
Paynes Find 47.2 on 8 Jan 46.6 on 3 Feb 2007 36 27.8
Eyre 47.7 on 2 Jan 47.6 on 16 Jan 1998 31 22.8



Record highest annual mean daily maximum temperature
Mean daily maximum
temperature
for 2013 (°C)
Previous annual
warmest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Narrogin 23.7 23.6 in 2012 82 22.4
Geraldton Airport Comparison 27.3 27.2 in 2011 68 25.9
Eucla 24.9 24.3 in 1994 55 22.8
Pearce RAAF 26.5 26.4 in 1972 49 25.1
Eyre 24.9 24.8 in 2012 47 22.8
Merredin 26.5 = 26.5 in 2010 47 25.0

Highest annual mean daily maximum temperature for at least 30 years
Mean daily maximum
temperature
for 2013 (°C)
Most recent annual
at least this warm
Years since
warmer
Annual
average
Leonora 28.9 29.8 in 1961* 50 27.9

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.




Record highest daily minimum temperature
Highest daily minimum
temperature
in 2013 (°C)
Previous annual
warmest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Merredin 29.7 on 8 Jan 29.4 on 27 Feb 1997 48 11.4
Jarrahwood 26.0 on 8 Jan 24.4 on 6 Mar 1990 38 8.6



Record lowest temperature
Lowest temperature
in 2013 (°C)
Previous annual
coolest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Beverley -3.8 on 8 Jul -3.6 on 16 Jun 2006 45 10.2



Record highest annual mean daily minimum temperature
Mean daily minimum
temperature
for 2013 (°C)
Previous annual
warmest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Albany 13.4 13.1 in 2011 93 11.7
Kalgoorlie-Boulder Airport 12.7 = 12.7 in 2011 70 11.7
Bencubbin 12.8 12.5 in 1983 54 11.6
Eucla 13.2 13.1 in 2011 53 12.2
Albany Airport Comparison 11.4 11.2 in 2011 47 10.5
Onslow Airport 20.5 20.1 in 2010 44 19.0
Esperance 13.0 12.8 in 2011 43 12.0
Ongerup 10.6 10.5 in 2011 42 9.8
Wagin 10.9 10.5 in 1991 37 9.7



Record highest annual mean temperature
Mean daily
temperature
for 2013 (°C)
Previous annual
warmest
Years of
record
Annual
average
Albany 16.9 = 16.9 in 2012 93 15.6
Narrogin 17.1 17.0 in 2011 79 15.9
Carnarvon Airport 23.4 23.3 in 1988 65 22.2
Eucla 19.1 18.4 in 2005 53 17.5
Albany Airport Comparison 16.1 = 16.1 in 1983 47 15.4
Eyre 17.7 17.5 in 1914 47 16.8
Brookton 17.9 = 17.9 in 2011 44 17.0
Onslow Airport 26.7 26.5 in 2007 44 25.5
Esperance 17.7 = 17.7 in 2011 43 17.0
Ongerup 16.6 = 16.6 in 2012 42 15.8
Wongan Hills 19.6 = 19.6 in 2011 42 18.8
Beverley 18.8 18.7 in 2011 40 17.8
Pingelly 17.8 = 17.8 in 2011 40 16.9
Wagin 17.3 17.0 in 1972 35 16.3

Highest annual mean temperature for at least 30 years
Mean daily
temperature
for 2013 (°C)
Most recent annual
at least this warm
Years since
warmer
Annual
average
Leonora 21.9 22.4 in 1959* 50 20.9

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.




Summary statistics for 2013
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean
for
2013
Diff
from
average
Highest
for
2013
Mean
for
2013
Diff
from
average
Lowest
for
2013
Total
for
2013
Average
annual
total
Rank
of
2013
Fraction
of annual
average
North Kimberley (district 01)
Doongan 33.4 +0.4 40.0 10 Oct         1043.8 1157.9 average 90%
Kalumburu 34.7 +0.6 40.7 25 Sep         1141.8 1214.7 average 94%
Troughton Island 31.7 +0.7 35.2 7 Feb 26.3 +1.0 19.6 27 Jul 951.0 837.1 average 114%
Wyndham 36.0 +0.4 42.5 3 Nov 23.4 +0.3 10.7 27 Jul 1040.1 822.6 high 126%
Wyndham Aero 36.6 +0.9 43.2 3 Nov 22.9 +0.7 8.5 26 Jul 1006.8 841.1 high 120%
East Kimberley (district 02)
Argyle Aerodrome 35.9 +1.3 42.6 9 Oct 23.0 +0.9 10.0 25 Jul 671.2 761.2 average 88%
Halls Creek Airport 34.3 +0.7 41.9 10 Oct 21.0 +1.0 6.8 27 Jul 608.4 567.0 average 107%
Kununurra Aero 36.1 +1.3 43.1 25 Jan 21.0 -0.2 6.4 27 Jul 819.8 828.0 average 99%
Warmun 35.9 +0.9 42.8 16 Jan 21.4 +1.1 5.5 27 Jul 663.2 722.5 average 92%
West Kimberley (district 03)
Bidyadanga 33.8 +0.5 44.7 4 Nov 21.5 +0.7 7.2 25 Jul 741.1 516.3 high 144%
Broome Airport 32.6 +0.4 42.8 3 Nov 22.2 +1.0 8.8 26 Jul 963.4 612.2 high 157%
Curtin Aero 36.0 +0.5 43.4 11 Nov 21.1 +0.1 8.2 8 Aug 790.0 859.6 average 92%
Fitzroy Crossing Aero 36.8 +0.9 44.8 18 Oct 20.7 +0.7 4.8 25 Jul 665.0 721.1 average 92%
De Grey (district 04)
Karratha Aero 32.8 +0.5 44.8 5 Nov 21.2 +0.5 9.9 18 Jul 594.8 303.7 v high 196%
Legendre Island 30.4   43.0 5 Nov 23.3   14.9 21 Jul
Mandora 34.2 +0.1 44.3 4 Nov 20.2 +0.9 6.7 6 Aug        
Marble Bar         20.2 -0.1 7.4 26 Jul        
Port Hedland Airport 33.5 +0.3 43.8 4 Nov 20.4 +1.0 8.4 21 Jul 721.6 321.1 highest 225%
Roebourne 34.9 +0.9 46.4 5 Nov 20.9 +0.4 10.3 26 Jul 721.6 315.6 v high 229%
Fortescue (district 05)
Learmonth Airport 32.4 +0.5 46.9 6 Feb 18.4 +0.7 5.0 22 Jul 257.0 252.0 average 102%
Mardie 33.9 0.0 46.3 6 Feb 20.0 +1.2 8.0 19 Jul 348.3 278.5 high 125%
Onslow Airport 32.8 +0.9 46.8 8 Jan 20.5 +1.5 9.3 22 Jul 273.2 319.7 average 85%
Wittenoom 33.5 +0.6 45.0 9 Jan 20.0 +0.3 6.5 21 Jun 704.8 465.6 high 151%
West Gascoyne (district 06)
Carnarvon Airport 28.9 +1.7 44.9 1 Feb 17.9 +0.7 4.0 22 Jul 79.2 228.3 v low 35%
Emu Creek Station 34.3 +0.5 46.2 28 Dec         321.5 299.5 average 107%
Murchison                 139.0 234.1 v low 59%
Shark Bay Airport 29.8 +0.8 45.2 1 Feb 16.9 +0.6 4.3 22 Jul 159.6 205.7 average 78%
East Gascoyne (district 07)
Newman Aero 32.3 +0.4 45.6 8 Jan 17.4 +1.2 2.3 22 Jun 322.8 325.8 average 99%
Paraburdoo Aero 33.9 +0.5 46.4 8 Jan 19.0 +1.0 6.6 22 Jun
Murchison (district 07A)
Meekatharra Airport 30.1 +1.2 47.1 8 Jan 16.5 +0.6 2.1 18 Jul 246.2 239.1 average 103%
Mount Magnet Aero 29.8 +1.4 47.4 8 Jan 15.8 +0.8 0.3 18 Jul 170.6 256.3 low 67%
North Coast (district 08)
Dalwallinu 26.8 +0.6 43.9 8 Jan 12.3 +0.6 0.6 21 Jul 294.0 293.8 average 100%
Geraldton Airport 27.3   44.0 9 Feb 14.0   2.3 19 Jul 346.0
Kalbarri 28.7 +1.0 44.9 1 Feb 15.1 +0.5 1.2 19 Jul 235.4 347.6 v low 68%
Mullewa 29.4 +1.5 44.6 21 Feb 14.6 +1.4 3.4 19 Jul 220.1 333.3 low 66%
Wongan Hills 26.6 +0.9 44.7 8 Jan 12.6 +0.7 1.1 5 Jul 373.6 388.3 average 96%
Central Coast (district 09)
Badgingarra Research Stn 26.1 +0.2 42.7 16 Dec 12.5 +0.6 3.2 12 Jul        
Bickley 23.1 +0.5 39.0 12 Feb 12.0 +0.8 1.7 8 Jul 1192.8 1082.2 average 110%
Champion Lakes 24.9   39.8 12 Feb 14.3   3.7 18 Jul 788.0
Garden Island HSF 23.1 +0.4 38.7 21 Feb 15.7 +0.8 6.5 8 Jul 707.8 614.3 high 115%
Gingin Aero 26.0 +0.5 42.0 14 Dec 11.8 +0.9 -1.4 8 Jul
Jandakot Aero 25.2 +0.7 41.3 12 Feb 12.4 +1.1 -1.2 8 Jul 892.6 829.1 average 108%
Karnet 23.0 +0.5 39.0 12 Feb 11.5 +0.9 0.3 8 Jul 1184.7 1170.4 average 101%
Lancelin 25.4 +1.3 42.0 10 Feb        
Pearce RAAF 26.5 +1.4 43.2 21 Feb 12.7 +0.5 -0.9 18 Jul 632.3 655.0 average 97%
Perth Airport 25.8 +1.3 41.1 21 Feb 13.0 +0.9 -0.3 18 Jul 704.2 772.2 average 91%
Perth Metro 25.5 +0.8 40.5 21 Feb 13.7 +1.0 1.4 18 Jul 782.4 848.3 average 92%
Rottnest Island 23.0 +0.8 38.5 21 Feb 16.4 +0.7 9.2 17 Jul 631.6 682.7 average 93%
Swanbourne 25.2 +1.2 40.9 20 Feb 14.6 +0.7 4.4 8 Jul
South Coast (district 09A)
Albany 20.3 +0.8 38.1 6 Jan 13.4 +1.7 5.2 16 Jun 967.8 931.5 average 104%
Albany Airport 21.1   40.6 1 Jan 11.2   1.8 16 Jun 872.2
Bridgetown         9.5 +1.0 -2.6 8 Jul
Bunbury 23.5 +0.4 38.6 12 Feb 12.0 +1.0 -1.1 8 Jul 815.4 733.9 high 111%
Busselton Aero 23.6 +0.5 38.3 7 Jan 11.0 +0.8 0.6 7 Jul
Cape Leeuwin 20.8 +1.1 35.2 21 Feb 15.2 +1.1 7.5 21 Jul 982.8 967.6 average 102%
Cape Naturaliste 22.3 +1.6 36.6 7 Jan 13.7 +1.0 6.2 7 Jul 798.6 808.8 average 99%
Collie East 23.3 +0.2 39.6 12 Feb 9.3 +0.9 -3.7 8 Jul
Dwellingup 23.1 +1.3 39.4 12 Feb 10.7 +1.2 -1.7 8 Jul 1187.2 1242.3 average 96%
Esperance 22.5 +0.6 45.4 1 Jan 13.0 +1.0 3.6 8 Jul 799.6 620.2 high 129%
Esperance Aero 23.2 +1.1 45.6 17 Dec 11.8 +0.5 3.0 8 Jul 701.8 568.8 v high 123%
Harvey 24.2 +0.5 40.0 12 Feb         1032.4 865.6 high 119%
Jarrahwood 23.5 +1.0 40.6 12 Feb 9.4 +0.8 -3.0 7 Jul 1138.6 930.5 v high 122%
Mandurah 23.7 +0.5 38.6 20 Feb 15.4 +0.7 6.0 21 Jul 650.4 671.2 average 97%
Manjimup 21.7 +1.3 41.1 8 Jan 10.6 +0.9 1.1 7 Jul        
North Walpole 20.7   39.3 8 Jan 12.2   4.9 11 Jun  
Pemberton 21.5 +1.2 40.1 8 Jan 11.3 +1.2 1.6 8 Jul 1236.8 1189.3 average 104%
Rocky Gully 21.6 +0.7 41.2 8 Jan 10.1 +0.5 -0.3 7 Jul
Windy Harbour 20.8 +0.6 35.4 8 Jan 12.2 +0.8 2.2 17 Jul 1238.7 1071.8 v high 116%
Witchcliffe 22.3 +1.0 39.4 12 Feb 11.2 +0.6 0.9 21 Jul
North Central (district 10)
Bencubbin 26.4 +1.0 44.6 15 Dec 12.8 +1.2 0.0 8 Jul 285.5 315.9 average 90%
Cunderdin Airfield 26.5 +0.6 44.0 15 Dec 11.3 +0.9 -3.7 8 Jul 303.8 295.7 average 103%
Kellerberrin                 416.5 329.7 high 126%
Merredin 26.5 +1.5 43.9 8 Jan 12.1 +0.7 0.0 18 Jun 308.8 325.8 average 95%
Northam 26.4 +1.1 44.7 15 Dec 11.7 +0.8 -3.2 8 Jul 410.7 428.0 average 96%
York 26.2 +0.7 44.8 15 Dec 10.1 +0.6 -4.5 5 Jul 416.5 381.1 average 109%
South Central (district 10A)
Beverley 26.5 +1.2 44.4 16 Dec 11.1 +0.9 -3.8 8 Jul 371.4 418.4 average 89%
Brookton 25.1 +0.9 43.3 16 Dec 10.6 +0.9 -2.6 8 Jul 461.2 452.1 average 102%
Corrigin 25.0 +1.3 43.7 16 Dec 10.9 +0.9 -4.2 8 Jul 444.2 372.6 high 119%
Hyden 25.7 +0.6 44.5 1 Jan         399.3 340.2 high 117%
Katanning 22.8 +0.4 42.5 15 Jan 10.2 +0.7 -2.0 8 Jul
Lake Grace 24.0 +0.5 43.1 1 Jan 11.2 +0.9 -2.5 8 Jul 317.4 330.3 average 96%
Narembeen 25.9 +0.7 43.1 8 Jan     -2.0 6 Jul 380.0 332.9 high 114%
Narrogin 23.7 +1.3 41.7 8 Jan 10.5 +1.1 -2.7 8 Jul 431.8 494.4 low 87%
Newdegate Research Station 23.9 +0.6 44.2 1 Jan 9.4 +0.7 -3.8 8 Jul 330.8 369.7 average 89%
Ongerup 22.6 +0.8 43.0 1 Jan 10.6 +0.8 -0.5 7 Jul 387.1 385.5 average 100%
Pingelly 24.5 +1.2 42.6 16 Dec 11.1 +0.7 -1.1 8 Jul 473.5 446.2 average 106%
Ravensthorpe 23.3 +0.6 43.8 1 Jan 11.3 +0.8 1.7 8 Jul 621.1 426.0 v high 146%
Wagin 23.7 +0.8 42.4 15 Dec 10.9 +1.2 -2.2 8 Jul 412.9 433.8 average 95%
Wandering 24.1 +0.4 41.7 15 Dec 9.3 +0.9 -4.8 8 Jul 566.4 511.5 high 111%
Eucla (district 11)
Eucla 24.9 +2.1 48.2 3 Jan 13.2 +1.0 2.1 8 Jul 254.0 272.0 average 93%
Eyre 24.9 +2.1 47.7 2 Jan 10.5 -0.3 -5.0 14 Oct 375.4 310.6 high 121%
South East (district 12)
Bulga Downs 29.7 +1.0 47.9 8 Jan 14.1 +0.5 -1.3 18 Jul 143.6 233.6 low 61%
Kalgoorlie-Boulder Airport 26.1 +0.8 46.1 9 Jan 12.7 +1.0 -2.3 6 Jul 369.2 265.6 high 139%
Laverton Aero 28.7 +1.9 47.6 8 Jan 15.0 +1.1 1.7 20 Jun 254.6 290.9 average 88%
Leinster Aero 29.1 +1.1 47.8 8 Jan 15.4 +0.8 0.9 22 Jul 207.4 257.8 average 80%
Leonora 28.9 +1.0 49.0 9 Jan 14.9 +1.0 0.9 6 Jul 221.1 236.4 average 94%
Leonora Aero 28.9   48.3 8 Jan 15.0   0.0 22 Jul 201.4
Munglinup West 23.5 +0.4 46.1 1 Jan 11.2 +0.6 2.6 8 Jul
Norseman Aero 25.2 +0.1 43.9 8 Jan 10.6 +0.8 -3.9 8 Jul 454.2 303.1 v high 150%
Salmon Gums Res.Stn. 24.4 +1.0 45.1 17 Dec 9.8 +0.8 -4.4 8 Jul 448.2 354.4 high 126%
Southern Cross Airfield 26.6 +0.8 45.7 30 Dec 11.7 +1.5 -2.9 6 Jul 224.2 303.6 low 74%
North East (district 13)
Giles Meteorological Office 30.6 +1.3 45.7 16 Jan 16.8 +1.0 2.1 20 Jul 296.4 287.4 average 103%
Telfer Aero 34.1 0.0 46.8 7 Jan 20.2 +0.8 6.5 26 Jul 602.8 369.8 high 163%
Warburton Airfield 31.3 +1.5 47.7 10 Jan 16.5 +1.8 0.2 17 Aug 242.0 246.3 average 98%
Wiluna 30.5 +1.4 48.0 8 Jan         354.9 257.4 high 138%
Offshore Islands (district 200)
Christmas Island Aero 27.8 +0.6 30.0 11 Mar 23.3 +0.5 19.0 29 Sep        
Cocos Island Airport 29.3 +0.3 31.6 19 Feb 25.1 +0.5 22.0 13 Oct 2671.6 1984.2 high 135%
Varanus Island                 250.6 258.6 average 97%
Month by month
January
  • Rainfall: near average; above average in southwest WA
  • Maximum temperature: 11th highest on record
  • Minimum temperature: 3rd highest on record

A cloudband associated with ex-tropical cyclone Narelle produced unseasonal rainfall in western and southern WA in the middle of the month, whilst tropical cyclone Peta crossed the Pilbara coast resulting record high daily rainfall for some Pilbara sites late in the month. Exceptionally hot conditions were observed in the first half of the month in central and eastern WA with several sites breaking their January maximum temperature record. It was the third warmest January in terms of minimum temperatures with some notable daily and monthly records in southern WA.


Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
February
  • Rainfall: near average for WA; below average for southwest WA
  • Maximum temperature: 6th hottest for southwest WA
  • Minimum temperature:11th warmest for southwest WA

Severe tropical cyclone Rusty brought prolonged heavy rainfall and destructive winds to the Pilbara coast with a number of record high daily rainfalls in the latter part of the month. Record warm ocean temperatures off southwest WA led to Cape Leeuwin equaling its 116 year monthly mean maximum temperature record.

 

Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
March
  • Rainfall: near average for WA; very much above average for southwest WA
  • Maximum temperature: near average for WA; below average for southwest WA
  • Minimum temperature:above average for WA; near average for southwest WA

Ex-tropical cyclone Rusty moved through central WA at the start of March with several sites in the western Southern Interior and Goldfields observing their wettest March day on record. Also, a number of sites in the Lower Southwest recorded their highest March monthly rainfall on record. A maximum temperature of 46.0 °C at Roebourne (Pilbara) on the 20th was the latest occurrence of a daily maximum temperature of 46.0 °C or higher in autumn in Australia..

Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
April
  • Rainfall: near average for WA; below average for southwest WA
  • Maximum temperature: 3rd warmest on record for WA and southwest WA
  • Minimum temperature: 5th warmest on record for WA; warmest on record for southwest WA

A weak tropical low brought moderate to heavy falls to the Kimberley with a number of new record high daily rainfalls at the start of the month. Several sites in the western SWLD broke their April daily maximum temperature records in the first half of month, and many sites in southern WA witnessed their warmest April.

Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
May
  • Rainfall: above average for WA; near average for southwest WA
  • Maximum temperature: near average for WA
  • Minimum temperature: 9th warmest on record for WA

Northwest Cloudbands produced moderate to heavy rainfall in the Kimberley and Pilbara in the middle and latter part of the month, whilst a cold front brought record high daily rainfall and sub-zero overnight temperatures to a number of sites in the SWLD at the end of the month.

Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
June
  • Rainfall: above average for WA; driest on record for the SWLD
  • Maximum temperature: near average for WA; above average for southwest WA
  • Minimum temperature: above average for WA; near average for southwest WA

June 2013 saw unseasonally wet conditions in the north, largely due to heavy rainfall events as a result of a series of Northwest Cloudbands impacting the region, contrasting with a record dry month in the SWLD due to a lack of cold frontal activity. A significant number of sites in the SWLD, particularly in central and northern parts saw their lowest June rainfall on record, with many recording less than 10 mm for the month.

Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
July
  • Rainfall:below average for WA
  • Maximum temperature: above average for WA
  • Minimum temperature: near average for WA

A number of sites in the SWLD recorded their wettest July day on record on the 12th and 13th due to a slow moving low pressure system.

Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
August
  • Rainfall: below average rainfall for WA, near average for southwest WA
  • Maximum temperature: 2nd warmest for WA, 4th warmest for southwest WA
  • Minimum temperature: above average for WA, 3rd warmest for southwest WA

Very much above average mean maximum temperatures were observed across almost all of WA in August 2013, with a number of sites in the Perth area observing their warmest August on record. Most of the southern half of WA saw very much above average mean minimum temperatures with several sites in the SWLD recording their highest mean minimum on record .

Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
September
  • Rainfall: above average rainfall for WA, 6th wettest for southwest WA
  • Maximum temperature: 10th warmest for WA, near average for southwest WA
  • Minimum temperature: 4th warmest for WA, 2nd warmest on record for southwest WA

Many sites in the Lower Southwest observed their wettest September on record as a result of persistent westerly winds in the region with the frequent passage of cold fronts, lows and troughs. A number of sites in eastern WA recorded their warmest September on record in terms of maximum temperatures, whilst it was the second warmest September on record for the Lower Southwest, in terms of overnight temperatures, and a number of sites in the SWLD recorded their highest mean minimum temperature on record.

Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

October

  • Rainfall: near average rainfall for WA, below average for southwest WA
  • Maximum temperature: 2nd warmest for WA; Fitzroy Crossing breaks national October record
  • Minimum temperature: 9th warmest for WA; Eyre breaks WA October record

It was the the second warmest October on record for WA. Fitzroy Crossing Aerodrome saw 29 consecutive days with a maximum temperature of 40 °C or higher (1st to 29th), which is the longest October hot spell on record in Australia. A number of sites in the SWLD observed their hottest October day on record on the 30th, whilst Eyre broke the record for the lowest temperature in WA in October on the 14th.

Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

November

  • Rainfall: above average for WA; below average for southwest WA
  • Maximum temperature: above average for WA; 8th warmest on record for southwest WA
  • Minimum temperature: 8th warmest for WA; 2nd warmest on record for southwest WA

Tropical cyclone Alessia brought moderate to heavy rainfall to the north Kimberley coast in the latter part of the month. It was the second warmest November, in terms of overnight temperatures, in the Lower Southwest, with a number of sites breaking their highest mean minimum temperature on record.

Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
December
  • Rainfall:above average for WA
  • Maximum temperature: above average for WA
  • Minimum temperature: above average for WA

Temperatures above 44 °C were reported across southern WA during a heat event in the middle of the month, with several sites recording their highest December temperature on record. Tropical cyclone Christine crossed the Pilbara coast late in the month bringing heavy rainfall and destructive wind gusts.

Map of decile rank of rainfall Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature
Rainfall rank Maximum temperature rank Minimum temperature rank

Notes

A Annual Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in Western Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review, usually published in the fourth week of the month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 9 am on Thursday 2 January 2014. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

The ACORN-SAT dataset is being used for temperature area averages from December 2012 onwards. The major change from earlier datasets is that the ACORN-SAT dataset commences in 1910, rather than 1950, and hence rankings are calculated using a larger set of years.

Further information

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