Western Australia in September 2017: Hot days in the north; mild nights in the west

Rainfall in September was above average in the northwest and parts of the South West Land Division (SWLD) in Western Australia, whilst it was dry with little or no rain in the eastern Goldfields and Kimberley. Averaged across the State, rainfall was slightly above average. Daytime temperatures were above average in the northern and eastern WA resulted in the state-wide mean maximum temperature above average. Overnight temperatures were above average for the western half of WA, while it was cooler than normal in the Kimberley and western Eucla regions. The mean minimum temperature for WA was above average.

Wet in the northwest and parts of SWLD; dry in the eastern Goldfields and Kimberley

  • Rainfall averaged across WA was slight above average
  • Rainfall for the South West Land Division (SWLD) was near average, but the wettest for 3 years
  • Rainfall was above average near the south coast of SWLD; a number of sites either had their wettest September on record, or wettest September for over 50 years
  • A few sites in the west Pilbara and Gascoyne either set their new monthly records or being wettest September for at least 20 years, largely due to moderate falls, including a number of daily rainfall records on the 7th and 8th from a cloudband
  • Moderate to heavy falls, including a number of records, were recorded in the southwest WA between the 21st and 26th as a complex cut-off low moved across the southwest
  • Most sites in the Kimberley and eastern Goldfields recorded little or no rainfal

Above average daytime temperatures for most WA; above average overnight temperatures for western half

  • Mean maximum temperature for WA was 1.4 °C above average, 17th-highest in September on record
  • Mean maximum temperature for SWLD was 0.7 °C above average
  • Mean minimum temperature for WA was 0.6 °C above average
  • Mean minimum temperature for SWLD was about 1.2 °C above average, 6th-highestin September on record
  • Temperatures in the high-30s to low-40s were recorded in the north in mid-to-late September; Onslow Airport and Mount Magnet Aero both recorded their highest September temperature on record
  • Learmonth Airport had six consecutive days with maximum temperature of 35 °C or higher between the 15th and 20th, which was its equal longest run of such hot days in September in 42 years of record, equalling a run between 11 and 16 September 1981
  • Wet conditions on the 7th had Murchsion (south Gascoyn) experienced its coldest September day on record
  • Eyre recorded a minimum temperature of -5.1 °C on the 14th, which is the State's lowest September temperature on record
  • Northwesterly winds resulted in minima in the mid-teens in the SWLD on the 21st, with a number of mildest September night records in the Central Wheat Belt and Great Southern
  • Overnight temperatures were warmer than normal in the Pilbara; Onslow Airport and Paraburdoo Aero had their record high September mean minimum temperature
  • Overnight temperatures were 1 °C to 3 °C cooler than normal in the north and south Kimberley

Severe wind gusts in the south in late September

  • A strong cold front produced isolated thunderstorms and severe wind gusts in southern WA during the late morning and early afternoon the 21st. Albany Airport recorded a wind gust of 139 km/h, which was the 3rd-strongest gust recorded at the Airport in 51 years of record, only behind 150 km/h on 4 April 1978, and 143 km/h on 5 April 1978 as ex-TC Alby passed to the west of the State. Many trees were downed in the region as a result of the strong winds, though fortunately property damage was generally minor.

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Extremes in September 2017
Hottest day 40.7 °C at Onslow Airport on the 17th
40.7 °C at Wyndham Aero on the 23rd
40.7 °C at Wyndham Aero on the 30th
Warmest days on average 38.3 °C at Wyndham Aero
Coolest days on average 16.5 °C at Shannon
Coldest day 10.1 °C at Rocky Gully on the 25th
Coldest night -5.1 °C at Eyre on the 14th
Coolest nights on average 5.7 °C at Wandering
Warmest nights on average 25.8 °C at Browse Island
Warmest night 27.0 °C at Argyle Aerodrome on the 29th
27.0 °C at Troughton Island on the 29th
Warmest on average overall 29.0 °C at Wyndham Aero
Coolest on average overall 11.9 °C at Rocky Gully
Wettest overall 212.8 mm at Wereroa
Driest overall 0 mm at Argyle Aerodrome and others
Wettest day 88.4 mm at Mount William on the 21st
Strongest wind gust 139 km/h at Albany Airport on the 21st

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record highest September daily rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Doorawarrah 35.0 on the 7th 30.0 on the 11th in 1986 107
Byro 21.2 on the 8th 17.0 on the 9th in 2006 95
Jingemarra 27.8 on the 12th 23.5 on the 19th in 1974 90
Wokalup 53.0 on the 21st 49.8 on the 10th in 1996 66
Learmonth Airport 12.0 on the 7th 11.2 on the 4th in 1981 61
Mininer 15.2 on the 8th 12.4 on the 29th in 1986 54
Mordetta 22.0 on the 22nd 20.0 on the 23rd in 1992 46
Frankland 34.0 on the 25th 22.9 on the 14th in 1965 41
Mount Magnet Aero 25.6 on the 8th 23.0 on the 9th in 2006 23
Steep Point 24.0 on the 7th 9.8 on the 5th in 1997 22



Record highest September total rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
September
Doorawarrah 35.0 33.6 in 1955 118 3.7
Jingemarra 37.6 35.4 in 1984 90 7.8
Learmonth Airport 14.6 14.4 in 1981 62 2.1
Mettler 163.7 153.3 in 2003 51 62.2
Warra Jarra 99.2 86.8 in 1996 38 49.1
Murchison 43.0 41.0 in 2006 31 8.6
Mount Magnet Aero 41.6 36.6 in 2006 23 10.3
Steep Point 41.4 23.8 in 2014 22 12.1

Highest September total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
higher
Average for
September
Murgoo 37.0 44.2 in 1917* 7.0
Denham 40.0 55.1 in 1917* 8.1
Emu Creek Station 12.8 23.4 in 1920* 2.2
Cape Riche 149.0 197.5 in 1959 59.6
Chillinup 124.1 170.0 in 1959* 40.7
Ongerup 88.6 90.6 in 1963 38.9
Beebyn 39.4 41.9 in 1924* 4.8
Ardath 54.9 57.0 in 1983* 25.0
Mininer 15.8 35.6 in 1986 3.0
Carey Downs 25.0 29.0 in 1986* 3.0
Mount Padbury 12.0 =12.0 in 1984* 2.9
Tamala 30.5 37.8 in 1997 13.8

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported




Record highest September temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
September
Onslow Airport 40.7 on the 17th 40.0 on the 30th in 2015 52 30.1
Mount Magnet Aero 36.0 on the 19th 35.6 on the 20th in 2014 23 24.6



Record lowest September daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
September
Murchison 16.7 on the 7th 16.8 on the 4th in 1998 28 26.2



Record highest September daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
September
Corrigin 14.9 on the 21st 14.7 on the 11th in 2006 70 5.8
York 15.7 on the 21st 15.5 on the 30th in 2010 22 4.7
Lake Grace 14.7 on the 21st 13.9 on the 24th in 2013 21 6.4



Record lowest September temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
September
Eyre -5.1 on the 14th -4.6 on the 26th in 1989 30 7.7



Record highest September mean daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
September
Onslow Airport 17.4 17.2 in 2014 51 15.4
Paraburdoo Aero 15.3 15.2 in 2015 21 13.5



Summary statistics for September 2017
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
September
2017
Diff
from
average
Highest for
September
2017
Mean for
September
2017
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
September
2017
Total for
September
2017
Average
for
September
Rank of
September
2017
Fraction of
September
average
North Kimberley (district 01)
Kalumburu 37.2 +1.4 39.9 28th 17.8 -1.3 9.8 1st 0 1.7 lowest 0%
Mount Elizabeth 34.8 +0.6 37.3 26th 11.9 -2.9 5.6 1st 0 7.8 lowest 0%
Troughton Island 31.1 +0.8 32.7 19th 24.8 +0.2 22.0 1st 0 0.3 lowest 0%
Truscott 34.2 +0.8 37.0 19th 21.4 -0.6 16.8 1st 0 0.2 v low 0%
Wyndham Aero 38.3 +0.5 40.7 30th 19.7 -2.0 13.1 1st 0 3.7 lowest 0%
East Kimberley (district 02)
Argyle Aerodrome 36.8 +0.3 40.1 29th 20.7 -1.6 16.0 1st 0 2.3 lowest 0%
Halls Creek Airport 35.0   38.2 29th 14.9   8.4 1st 0
Kununurra Aero 37.4 +0.7 39.6 26th 17.5 -2.5 11.1 1st 0 4.2 lowest 0%
Warmun 36.5 +0.3 39.5 29th 16.5 -2.9 10.3 1st 0 4.3 lowest 0%
West Kimberley (district 03)
Broome Airport 33.0 +1.2 38.8 13th 18.7 +0.2 12.9 18th 0 1.4 lowest 0%
Curtin Aero 37.1 +0.5 39.3 19th 18.1 -0.2 12.1 10th 0 0.1 lowest 0%
Cygnet Bay 33.4 +0.9 37.5 20th 17.9 +0.1 12.4 18th 0 1.2 lowest 0%
Derby Aero 37.1 +1.7 39.9 19th 17.7 -1.7 12.9 18th 0 1.0 lowest 0%
Fitzroy Crossing Aero 37.7 +0.3 39.8 22nd 16.7 -1.9 11.3 1st 0 0.3 lowest 0%
De Grey (district 04)
Bedout Island 29.3 +0.6 32.4 18th 22.7 +0.6 21.3 13th
Karratha Aero 31.8 +1.0 38.0 19th 17.6 +0.7 14.2 30th 0 1.3 lowest 0%
Legendre Island 29.0   33.2 15th 21.0   18.7 27th
Mandora 34.6 +0.9 39.6 19th 16.5 +0.8 9.6 10th 0.8 1.0 high 80%
Marble Bar 35.1 +0.5 39.5 21st 17.1 +0.4 13.1 1st 0 4.1 v low 0%
Pardoo Station       16.5 +0.6 12.5 12th 0 2.8 lowest 0%
Port Hedland Airport 33.6 +1.3 39.6 20th 16.9 +1.5 13.8 29th 1.2 1.2 high 100%
Roebourne Aero 34.4 +1.1 40.5 20th 15.7 +0.3 11.0 28th 0 2.2 v low 0%
Fortescue (district 05)
Barrow Island Airport 27.9 +0.9 34.1 16th 20.6 +1.1 17.8 29th 1.8 1.2 high 150%
Learmonth Airport 30.5 +1.2 38.7 18th 14.8 +1.1 9.9 30th 14.6 2.1 highest 695%
Mardie 33.0 +0.8 40.6 17th 15.6 +1.2 11.1 30th 0 1.3 lowest 0%
Onslow Airport 31.4 +1.3 40.7 17th 17.4 +2.0 13.5 27th 0.4 1.4 average 29%
Wittenoom 32.6 +1.4 37.7 20th 18.0 +1.2 13.3 3rd 0 3.0 lowest 0%
West Gascoyne (district 06)
Carnarvon Airport 26.1 +1.6 36.1 18th 14.3 +0.4 10.1 4th 25.8 6.2 v high 416%
Denham 24.0 +0.1 32.0 14th 15.2 +0.3 10.5 3rd 40.0 8.1 v high 494%
Murchison 25.6 -0.6 34.6 18th 10.9 +1.4 4.0 5th 43.0 8.6 highest 500%
Shark Bay Airport 26.1 +0.2 34.5 14th 12.9 +0.2 9.4 27th 35.4 9.8 v high 361%
East Gascoyne (district 07)
Newman Aero 31.0 +0.6 36.2 20th 12.7 +0.6 4.7 4th 0.6 3.9 average 15%
Paraburdoo Aero 31.2 -0.1 37.2 19th 15.3 +1.8 10.5 27th 19.0 3.5 v high 543%
Murchison (district 07A)
Meekatharra Airport 26.2 +0.5 36.2 19th 12.6 +1.1 5.0 3rd 2.0 4.5 average 44%
Mount Magnet Aero 24.4 -0.2 36.0 19th 11.4 +1.1 4.1 3rd 41.6 10.3 highest 404%
Paynes Find 23.8 0.0 34.8 19th 9.5 +1.5 1.0 3rd 20.0 14.4 high 139%
North Coast (district 08)
Dalwallinu 21.5 +0.5 30.5 15th 8.0 +1.2 2.1 3rd 19.4 25.6 low 76%
Geraldton Airport 23.4   33.0 18th 9.8   3.1 3rd 49.4
Kalbarri 24.8 +0.8 32.2 6th 11.8 +1.0 8.1 3rd 31.0 24.1 high 129%
Morawa Airport 23.3 +0.2 32.3 18th 9.6 +2.0 4.0 3rd 18.8 23.8 average 79%
Mullewa 23.4 -0.1 33.0 18th 10.6 +2.0 4.6 3rd 24.7 21.7 average 114%
Wongan Hills 21.4 +0.7 30.5 15th 8.3 +0.7 2.5 3rd 38.0 29.8 average 128%
Central Coast (district 09)
Badgingarra Research Stn 21.0 +0.5 29.1 18th 8.3 +0.7 2.9 3rd 61.6 50.1 average 123%
Bickley 17.6 +0.1 24.8 15th 8.6 +0.4 3.5 2nd 127.0 125.9 average 101%
Garden Island HSF 18.9 +0.1 25.7 7th 12.2 +0.3 8.8 13th 76.4 67.7 average 113%
Gingin Aero 21.0 +0.4 28.9 15th 8.2 +0.8 1.6 4th 85.2 83.3 average 102%
Jandakot Aero 20.5 +0.5 27.7 15th 9.1 +0.9 2.7 27th 100.2 86.7 average 116%
Lancelin 21.0 +0.5 28.0 14th 10.2 -0.4 5.5 14th 103.1 57.5 v high 179%
Medina Research Centre 21.3 +1.0 27.5 15th 9.4 +0.3 2.7 15th 79.7 77.7 average 103%
Millendon (Swan Valley) 20.8   27.6 15th 9.3   3.3 29th 98.2
Pearce RAAF 20.7 +0.6 27.7 15th 9.7 +0.9 2.9 29th 88.4 69.5 high 127%
Perth Airport 20.8 +0.6 27.8 15th 9.7 +0.8 3.4 4th 80.0 73.2 average 109%
Perth Metro 20.7 +0.4 27.9 15th 10.1 +0.6 4.2 4th 77.4 81.0 average 95%
Rottnest Island 19.0 +0.2 24.3 7th 12.9 0.0 9.1 24th 98.0 56.0 v high 175%
Swanbourne 20.0 +0.1 26.6 15th 11.4 +0.4 6.8 2nd 100.8 83.3 high 121%
South Coast (district 09A)
Albany 17.5 +0.2 23.6 20th 9.8 +0.5 5.2 14th 150.0 102.0 high 147%
Albany Airport 17.9   24.4 19th 8.3   1.9 14th 154.8
Bridgetown 17.8 +0.2 23.5 8th 6.2 +0.3 -1.5 13th
Bunbury 19.0 +0.5 24.8 15th 7.8 -0.7 1.5 2nd 69.2 83.7 average 83%
Busselton Aero 18.6 +0.3 24.0 15th 7.9 +0.2 1.8 13th 73.8 77.6 average 95%
Cape Leeuwin 17.4 +0.3 22.0 8th 12.1 +0.3 8.5 2nd 86.4 90.9 average 95%
Cape Naturaliste 18.5 +1.2 23.4 15th 10.7 +0.3 6.4 2nd 63.4 76.3 average 83%
Collie East 18.6 +0.3 24.3 15th 5.8 +0.3 -1.5 13th 66.6 94.1 low 71%
Donnybrook 19.5 +0.7 24.9 15th 8.0 +0.9 1.5 2nd 82.2 102.9 average 80%
Dwellingup 18.1 +0.8 24.5 15th 7.2 +0.7 1.7 13th 133.8 131.5 average 102%
Esperance 18.9 -0.5 28.1 21st 10.2 +0.7 5.9 2nd 80.2 62.1 high 129%
Esperance Aero 19.1 +0.2 28.3 19th 8.8 +0.4 4.2 24th 75.4 58.8 high 128%
Jarrahwood 18.7 +0.5 23.8 15th 5.8 -0.2 -1.5 13th 96.8 106.0 average 91%
Mandurah 19.6 +0.6 27.1 15th 11.7 0.0 6.9 2nd 52.8 67.3 average 78%
Manjimup 17.3 +0.8 24.4 8th 7.6 +0.4 2.5 13th 105.4 108.8 average 97%
North Walpole 17.1 -0.2 23.7 8th 9.3 +0.1 4.6 13th 191.0 117.0 high 163%
Rocky Gully 16.7 +0.2 22.6 8th 7.2 +0.1 1.5 14th 121.0 98.0 average 123%
Shannon 16.5 +0.1 22.9 8th 7.6 +0.3 0.8 13th 126.8 113.9 average 111%
Windy Harbour 17.4 -0.3 23.3 8th 9.7 +0.3 4.5 2nd 181.3 115.8 v high 157%
Witchcliffe 17.5 +0.1 23.8 15th 8.7 +0.1 2.9 14th 119.2 115.1 average 104%
North Central (district 10)
Bencubbin 21.2 +0.2 28.7 19th 9.0 +1.8 2.4 3rd 29.5 21.9 high 135%
Cunderdin Airfield 21.5 +0.7 28.6 15th 6.3 +1.4 -0.2 13th 31.4 27.1 high 116%
Merredin 21.3 +0.8 28.9 19th 8.2 +1.5 -1.0 3rd 48.2 25.9 v high 186%
Northam 20.8 +0.3 27.7 15th 7.3 +0.5 0.8 14th 39.8 37.4 average 106%
York 21.3 +1.2 28.0 16th 5.8 +1.1 -1.0 14th 48.8 39.3 high 124%
South Central (district 10A)
Beverley 20.9 +0.6 27.6 16th 7.0 +1.2 0.2 14th 33.4 36.3 average 92%
Brookton 19.6 +0.4 26.6 16th 6.6 +1.2 -0.4 3rd 52.6 38.8 high 136%
Corrigin 19.6 +0.4 26.8 19th 6.8 +1.0 -0.9 14th
Hyden 21.3 +0.9 28.6 19th 7.5 +1.6 -0.5 13th 48.0 28.1 high 171%
Jacup 19.5 +0.7 28.0 16th 6.9 +0.7 0.9 13th 57.8 45.3 average 128%
Katanning 17.8 +0.4 24.5 16th 7.0 +0.9 1.4 5th 57.8 53.9 average 107%
Lake Grace 19.4 +0.2 26.9 19th 7.9 +1.5 1.0 14th 40.2 28.9 high 139%
Narembeen 20.9 +0.4 28.6 19th 7.8 +1.6 1.1 13th 48.9 26.2 v high 187%
Narrogin 18.4 +0.7 25.5 16th 7.0 +1.0 0.7 13th 49.3 46.7 average 106%
Ongerup 18.4 +0.5 26.4 16th 7.2 +0.7 0.0 13th 88.6 38.9 v high 228%
Pingelly     25.6 19th 6.9 +0.4 1.2 13th 8.8 40.8 v low 22%
Ravensthorpe 20.1 +0.6 29.0 19th 8.3 +0.9 3.5 14th 50.3 42.3 average 119%
Wagin 18.7 +0.5 24.8 16th 6.9 +0.7 0.1 13th 46.2 41.3 average 112%
Wandering 18.4 +0.1 24.7 16th 5.7 +1.0 -0.5 14th 56.8 61.2 average 93%
Eucla (district 11)
Balladonia     32.5 16th 6.1 -0.7 1.0 12th 18.8 19.7 average 95%
Eucla 23.0 +1.7 33.0 10th 9.3 +0.2 1.5 6th 3.6 22.3 v low 16%
Eyre 22.8 +1.5 33.7 16th 6.6 -1.1 -5.1 14th 11.7 23.7 low 49%
Forrest 24.8 +0.4 33.7 22nd 8.6 +0.4 2.0 6th 5.8 15.4 average 38%
Red Rocks Point 20.9 -0.4 31.9 10th 9.4 -0.6 3.3 14th 25.2 28.9 average 87%
South East (district 12)
Bulga Downs 25.0 -0.3 36.8 19th 9.4 +0.6 3.4 3rd 7.8 7.6 average 103%
Kalgoorlie-Boulder Airport 22.8 +0.5 34.5 19th 9.4 +1.4 1.3 3rd 11.0 14.0 average 79%
Laverton Aero 25.4 +0.9 34.5 16th 10.6 +0.2 2.5 3rd 1.6 7.5 low 21%
Leinster Aero 25.5 0.0 34.8 19th 11.0 +0.4 2.9 4th 5.6 3.9 high 144%
Leonora Aero 25.1 +0.1 35.2 19th 10.6 +0.5 2.3 3rd 5.8 7.7 average 75%
Munglinup West 19.7 -0.3 30.5 19th 7.6 +0.3 3.2 13th 52.2 41.1 average 127%
Norseman Aero 21.8 -0.5 35.3 19th 7.0 +0.8 -1.6 13th 24.4 22.3 average 109%
Salmon Gums Res.Stn. 20.3 -0.1 34.4 19th 6.2 +0.5 -1.5 14th 58.8 32.2 high 183%
Southern Cross Airfield 21.7 +0.1 33.8 19th 6.9 +1.6 -2.0 3rd 39.4 22.0 v high 179%
North East (district 13)
Carnegie     35.6 20th 11.8 +0.3 3.8 3rd 0.2 3.6 average 6%
Giles Meteorological Office 29.5 +2.0 36.3 22nd 13.7 +0.8 4.4 4th 2.4 10.3 average 23%
Telfer Aero 34.0 +1.2 38.5 21st 16.9 +0.4 11.8 5th 0 2.2 lowest 0%
Warburton Airfield 29.9 +1.9 36.8 20th 11.6 +0.3 6.7 3rd 8.8 5.5 high 160%
Wiluna     35.5 19th 11.1 +1.2 3.5 3rd 15.0 5.0 v high 300%
Offshore Islands (district 200)
Browse Island 28.8   30.5 17th 25.8   24.8 1st
Varanus Island 27.4 +0.5 32.2 17th     18.8 27th 0 0.5 v low 0%
Note: Observations for “Perth Metro” are taken from the current site at Mount Lawley (Bureau number 009225).
Comparisons are made against combined data from the current site (which opened in early 1993) and the previous site at Perth Regional Office (009034), which ran from 1876 to early 1992.
From 2017 on, information about Cocos and Christmas Islands can be found in the climate summary for the Remote Islands and Antarctica

Notes

The Monthly climate summary, generally published on the first working day of each month, lists the main features of the weather in Western Australia using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 9 am on Monday 2 October 2017. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the rainfall is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

Further information

Media
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