New South Wales in spring 2019: A warm and dry spring with extreme bushfire weather

Rainfall in spring 2019 was below average over most of the State. It was one of the ten driest on record for New South Wales. Spring was generally warmer than average across New South Wales, especially for daytime temperatures. The continued dry and warm conditions contributed to the extreme bushfire weather seen throughout the season.

A very dry spring

  • Rainfall was below average over most of the State during spring, with more than half of the State recording very much below average (lowest 10%) rainfall.
  • Rainfall in New South Wales during spring was around 61% below average, the sixth driest on record, and the driest since 2002 (a major drought year for eastern Australia).
  • Areas of lowest on record rainfall were observed, largely in the northeast and southwest of the State, with many sites observing their lowest total spring rainfall on record or their lowest total spring rainfall for at least 20 years.
  • Every month in spring was below average for New South Wales, with October the sixth driest on record.
  • The only area of the State that saw close to average rainfall during Spring was in the central north around Bourke, largely due to a rainfall event in early November. During this event Bourke saw its highest spring daily rainfall on record.
  • The wettest spring day for New South Wales was during the rain event on 4 November which saw widespread rainfall across the State, though totals were only relatively large in the area around Bourke.
  • New South Wales has had the third-driest first 11 months of the year on record and the driest since 1940; every month in 2019 apart from March has seen markedly less rainfall than average

Very warm days

  • Spring 2019 was one of the ten warmest on record for daytime temperatures in New South Wales. Every month saw warmer than average daytime temperatures across much of the State with temperatures typically more than 3 °C above average over parts of the east.
  • Minimum temperatures were more mixed across the season. Dry, clear conditions resulted in below average minimum temperatures in some areas, especially in the south of the State. Central areas stretching to the east coast saw above average minimum temperatures.
  • Extreme heat in late November saw heatwave conditions across most of the State, with some sites in the south observing their highest spring temperature on record.
  • The warmest day for spring 2019 averaged over the State as a whole occurred during this event on 21 November, with a Statewide average of 39.4 °C. The warmest observed temperature of the season was recorded during this event, 44.7 °C at Wanaaring on 21 November.
  • Some sites had their highest spring mean daily maximum temperature on record. These sites included Inverell with 60 years of observations, and Bega, Scone and Tamworth all with 27 years of observations.
  • Very much below average minimum temperatures were seen across the south of the State in spring.
  • It has been the warmest January to November period on record for New South Wales. It has also been the warmest January to November period on record for daytime temperatures (2018 and 2017 were the second and third warmest respectively) and for minimum temperatures.

Extreme bushfires during the season

  • The warm temperatures at the start of September combined with very low humidity and gusty winds resulted in the fire weather index for the 6th being the highest measured over much of the northeast for any September since national gridded records began in 1950.
  • By 9 September, more than 50 fires were active in New South Wales, covering tens of thousands of hectares and destroying several properties. For further information see special climate statements.
  • Fires continued into October but intensified and became widespread in early November. A Statewide total fire ban and State of Emergency was declared across the State on 11 November due to the present and forecast extreme and catastrophic bushfire conditions across many regions. These included the Greater Sydney and Hunter Valley regions which saw the first forecast Catastrophic conditions for those areas since that rating was introduced.
  • Fires continued throughout November with hot and windy conditions on the 19th seeing a renewed increase in fire activity in the northeast of the State. Southern areas saw very-high to severe fire danger forecast in the following days.
  • There were multiple occasions of smoke haze and dust covering wide areas of the State during the season, especially during November, which also impacted on major urban centres.

Significant spring storms

  • A cold front crossed the east of the state from the 16th to 18th September. Some sites had their coldest spring day (lowest maximum temperature) on record on the 17th during the passage of this front.
  • Major storms on the 26th November saw strong winds across New South Wales with damage to trees and structures. There were major power outages in Sydney.

Further information

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Extremes in spring 2019
Hottest day 44.7 °C at Wanaaring Post Office on 21 Nov
Warmest days on average 31.9 °C at Mungindi Post Office
Coolest days on average 8.2 °C at Thredbo AWS
Coldest day -2.9 °C at Thredbo AWS on 7 Sep
Coldest night -8.3 °C at Thredbo AWS on 17 Sep
Coolest nights on average 0.3 °C at Thredbo AWS
Warmest nights on average 16.9 °C at Byron Bay (Cape Byron AWS)
Warmest night 30.4 °C at Fowlers Gap AWS on 21 Nov
Warmest on average overall 22.5 °C at Mungindi Post Office
Coolest on average overall 5.7 °C at Perisher Valley AWS
Wettest overall 394.6 mm at Perisher Valley AWS
Wettest day 143.0 mm at Careys Peak (Barrington Tops) on 18 Sep
Strongest wind gust 139 km/h at Thredbo AWS on 21 Sep and Newcastle Nobbys Signal Station AWS on 25 Nov

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record highest spring daily rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Castle Hill (Kathleen Ave) 92.0 on 18 Sep =92.0 on 7 Sep 2006 35
Lower Mangrove (Popran Rd) 110.0 on 18 Sep 69.6 on 7 Sep 2006 22
St Ives (Richmond Avenue) 92.6 on 18 Sep 92.2 on 21 Oct 2004 22
Bourke Airport AWS 66.2 on 4 Nov 45.6 on 5 Nov 2015 21



Record lowest spring total rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Warialda Post Office 25.9 35.3 in 1915 140 171.4
Bingara Post Office 16.0 40.7 in 1918 137 182.8
Drake (Village Resource Centre) 41.2 47.3 in 1915 126 205.7
Byron Bay (Jacaranda Drive) 40.8 73.1 in 1988 120 299.7
Mullumbimby (Fairview Farm) 38.4 74.3 in 1968 117 283.6
Uralla (Dumaresq St) 45.2 46.3 in 1957 117 208.2
Oberon (Albion St) 36.3 53.0 in 1957 115 216.1
Croppa Creek (Krui Plains) 22.8 26.8 in 1968 106 136.0
Harwood Island (Harwood Sugar Mill) 27.9 35.4 in 1915 105 216.9
Turrawan (Wallah) 19.5 28.8 in 1957 105 144.1
Delungra (Pearsby Hall) 38.0 38.5 in 1957 95 169.4
Urbenville 44.2 50.6 in 1991 76 197.8
Bonalbo Post Office 33.7 44.3 in 1951 68 195.7
Brays Creek (Misty Mountain) 44.0 67.4 in 1951 65 232.6
Grafton Research Stn 25.4 41.1 in 1951 63 179.5
Woolbrook (Woolbrook Road) 53.4 72.8 in 1982 61 210.2
Rosebank (Repentance Creek) 25.2 69.8 in 1962 59 305.3
The Channon 27.8 62.6 in 1941 59 237.2
Emmaville (Ben Vale) 68.8 97.2 in 1994 58 221.9
Uralla (Blue Nobby) 45.0 55.0 in 1980 55 218.6
Lillian Rock (Williams Road) 40.0 66.7 in 1968 53 254.4
Whiporie Post Office 25.2 53.8 in 2002 52 205.4
Green Pigeon (Morning View) 30.2 72.6 in 1968 51 263.3
Tabulam (Muirne) 34.6 109.2 in 1980 50 245.4
Murwillumbah (Bray Park) 41.1 75.4 in 1994 47 258.8
Pindari Dam 34.1 54.3 in 2014 47 195.6
Hillston ( Aldinga) 20.4 22.0 in 1980 45 104.5
Rosebank (Upper Coopers Creek) 22.4 97.6 in 1994 42 300.5
Kunghur (The Junction) 31.0 78.7 in 1991 41 234.3
Guyra Hospital 66.4 95.0 in 2014 38 235.3
Kingscliff (Woram Place) 58.2 89.1 in 2014 37 322.3
New Italy (Vineyard Haven) 46.1 51.5 in 1915 35 224.0
Wiangaree Post Office 30.0 77.9 in 2012 29 199.9
Bigga (Bigga St) 88.4 98.5 in 1902 28 177.2
Nundle (Keeva) 83.4 88.8 in 2012 27 226.3
Tamworth Airport AWS 62.8 67.4 in 2014 27 179.5
Albury Airport AWS 58.8 68.4 in 2002 26 162.2
Ballina Airport AWS 15.4 79.4 in 2002 26 290.9
Inverell (Raglan St) 41.0 80.8 in 2014 25 218.2
Port Macquarie Airport AWS 82.8 94.4 in 2012 25 279.3
Casino Airport AWS 37.4 54.4 in 2002 24 203.3
Armidale (Tree Group Nursery) 51.0 62.4 in 2014 23 203.2
Glen Innes Airport AWS 86.2 110.0 in 2014 23 259.9
Lightning Ridge Visitor Information Cent 23.6 34.4 in 2006 23 120.1
Merimbula Airport AWS 41.4 79.6 in 2006 22 173.2
Eungella (Oxley River) 51.5 67.5 in 2012 21 236.9
Millbank 46.0 55.0 in 1991 21 187.4
Evans Head RAAF Bombing Range AWS 40.2 88.6 in 2002 20 251.5
McLeans Ridges (Lascott Drive) 19.6 76.4 in 2002 20 256.9

Lowest spring total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
lower
Average for
spring
Bombala (Therry Street) 54.0 48.4 in 1899* 164.6
Tenterfield (Federation Park) 45.8 38.8 in 1926* 210.6
Culcairn Bowling Club 47.2 46.6 in 1936* 152.4
Barraba (Clifton Lane) 44.4 24.6 in 1944 178.3
Deniliquin (Visitor Information Centre) 37.5 35.0 in 1944* 106.0
Yamba Pilot Station 67.8 52.9 in 1951 230.9
Inverell Research Centre 41.8 40.9 in 1951* 208.7
Wallabadah (Woodton) 65.4 37.9 in 1957* 196.5
Weabonga (Stoneleigh) 55.0 36.3 in 1957* 217.6
Wylie Creek (Aloomba) 31.0 23.8 in 1944* 172.7
Coonabarabran (Showgrounds) 51.4 10.4 in 1957* 172.5
Sapphire (Argyle) 55.8 53.7 in 1957* 195.8
Barraba (Mount Lindsay) 60.6 52.5 in 1957* 231.7
Old Koreelah (McPherson) 49.2 41.8 in 1968* 176.0
Bulga (Down Town) 49.6 48.6 in 1968* 156.6
Bowning (Wanganui) 67.2 56.1 in 1958* 173.0
Condobolin Ag Research Stn 20.0 16.6 in 1982 118.1
Deepwater Post Office 83.4 67.6 in 1980* 206.4
Glen Elgin (Glenbrook) 92.4 90.3 in 1980* 209.8
Glen Innes Ag Research Stn 74.3 67.6 in 1980* 219.3
Hunter Springs (Wondecla) 91.0 74.4 in 1980* 266.9
Moonan Flat (High St) 60.4 15.0 in 1980* 168.5
Dunedoo Post Office 42.7 34.0 in 1982* 147.9
Uralla (Salisbury Court) 56.4 49.2 in 1980* 199.2
Baradine Forestry 39.0 36.0 in 1980* 151.1
Loomberah (Pendene) 67.4 64.2 in 1980* 197.5
Tumut (Simpson Street) 105.0 90.8 in 1982* 214.1
Belowra Station 61.0 59.6 in 1982* 192.7
Mulwala Post Office 54.0 26.8 in 1982* 128.4
Menindee Post Office 6.7 5.1 in 1989 62.0
Parramatta North (Masons Drive) 62.8 47.3 in 1989 201.8
Condobolin Retirement Village 21.0 16.7 in 1982* 108.4
Lithgow (Cooerwull) 82.5 42.8 in 1957* 182.1
Nelligen (Thule Road) 87.6 80.0 in 1944* 231.0
Quirindi (Spring Vale) 63.5 59.8 in 1980* 170.3
Cooma Visitors Centre 54.3 49.0 in 1991* 137.4
Werris Creek (Yandilla) 59.3 54.4 in 1982* 162.8
Adaminaby Alpine Tourist Park 100.4 99.4 in 1991* 188.1
Krambach (Tipperary) 78.0 70.0 in 1994* 219.3
Broke (Harrowby) 76.6 50.4 in 1991* 151.3
Point Lookout 88.2 32.8 in 1996* 255.2

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported




Record highest spring temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Burrinjuck Dam 39.5 on 21 Nov 39.4 on 26 Nov 1997 55 20.4
Hume Reservoir 40.5 on 21 Nov 40.3 on 17 Nov 1980 54 21.2
Bombala (Therry Street) 37.5 on 21 Nov 36.9 on 26 Nov 1997 53 18.7
Cooma Visitors Centre 36.5 on 21 Nov = 36.5 on 20 Nov 2009 47 19.5
Braidwood Racecourse AWS 39.2 on 21 Nov 38.4 on 20 Nov 2009 29 19.3
Bombala AWS 37.9 on 21 Nov 37.4 on 26 Nov 1997 28 17.9
Albury Airport AWS 40.9 on 21 Nov 40.3 on 26 Nov 1997 27 22.0
Cabramurra SMHEA AWS 27.6 on 21 Nov 27.2 on 20 Nov 2009 23 12.3



Record lowest spring daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Richmond RAAF 12.6 on 17 Sep 13.3 on 25 Sep 2011 27 25.1
Penrith Lakes AWS 12.9 on 17 Sep 13.6 on 22 Nov 1996 25 25.5
Nowra RAN Air Station AWS 12.2 on 17 Sep 12.5 on 24 Sep 2011 20 23.0



Record highest spring mean daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Inverell Research Centre 27.2 26.6 in 2009 60 23.1
Tabulam (Muirne) 27.2 26.5 in 2002 49 23.6
Glen Innes Ag Research Stn 23.9 23.1 in 1980 42 20.1
Guyra Hospital 21.6 20.9 in 2002 35 18.3
Braidwood Racecourse AWS 22.0 21.4 in 2006 28 19.3
Bega AWS 23.8 23.5 in 2006 27 21.9
Mount Boyce AWS 20.2 19.9 in 2014 27 17.6
Mudgee Airport AWS 26.2 26.0 in 2006 27 23.0
Scone Airport AWS 28.6 28.0 in 2014 27 25.2
Tamworth Airport AWS 28.6 28.2 in 2014 27 25.3
Armidale Airport AWS 23.2 22.7 in 2002 25 20.3
Mangrove Mountain AWS 24.7 24.6 in 2013 25 22.6
Casino Airport AWS 30.0 29.4 in 2014 24 27.3
Inverell (Raglan St) 27.6 27.0 in 2014 24 24.6
Moree Aero 30.5 30.4 in 2014 24 27.8
Armidale (Tree Group Nursery) 24.3 23.5 in 2002 22 21.1
Glen Innes Airport AWS 24.0 23.6 in 2002 22 20.9

Highest spring mean daily maximum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Average for
spring
Tenterfield (Federation Park) 25.3 26.2 in 1915* 22.2

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported




Record lowest spring temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Parkes Airport AWS -4.0 on 10 Sep -3.6 on 9 Sep 2017 23 8.1



Lowest spring mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
lower
Average for
spring
Lake Victoria Storage 9.7 9.2 in 1971* 10.6
Murwillumbah (Bray Park) 13.4 13.3 in 1984* 14.1
Bombala (Therry Street) 3.9 3.5 in 1994* 4.6

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported




Record highest spring mean temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
spring
Tabulam (Muirne) 20.1 = 20.1 in 2002 48 18.1
Woolbrook (Woolbrook Road) 15.3 14.9 in 2018 47 13.0
Cessnock Airport AWS 18.6 18.5 in 2014 29 17.4
Mudgee Airport AWS 16.9 = 16.9 in 2014 27 15.4
Scone Airport AWS 19.5 19.4 in 2002 27 17.5
Dubbo Airport AWS 19.1 = 19.1 in 2006 26 17.3

Highest spring mean temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Average for
spring
Coonabarabran (Showgrounds) 17.2 =17.2 in 1988* 15.7

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported




Summary statistics for spring 2019
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
spring
2019
Diff
from
average
Highest for
spring
2019
Mean for
spring
2019
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
spring
2019
Total for
spring
2019
Average
for
spring
Rank of
spring
2019
Fraction of
spring
average
Western (Far Northwest) (district 46)
Fowlers Gap AWS 28.5 +0.5 43.7 21 Nov 12.8 -0.4 2.1 11 Sep 2.8 50.7 v low 6%
Smithville AWS 29.5   43.6 21 Nov 13.0   1.9 11 Sep 11.4
Tibooburra Airport 29.8 +0.7 43.1 21 Nov     5.7 10 Sep 16.0 55.3 average 29%
Wanaaring (Borrona Downs AWS) 29.6   44.6 21 Nov 14.9   3.5 10 Sep 14.8
White Cliffs AWS 29.0 +0.4 43.6 21 Nov 14.3 -0.3 5.1 10 Sep 33.4 57.0 average 59%
Wilcannia Aerodrome AWS 28.6 +0.3 44.0 21 Nov 11.3 -0.7 1.5 10 Sep 26.4 59.7 low 44%
Western (Lower Darling) (district 47)
Broken Hill Airport AWS 26.6 +1.2 42.2 21 Nov 12.0 +0.3 2.8 10 Sep 17.6 65.9 v low 27%
Lake Victoria Storage 25.6 +1.6 42.0 20 Nov 9.7 -0.9 1.5 28 Sep 20.4 73.7 v low 28%
Menindee Post Office 28.0 +1.5 43.8 20 Nov 11.5 +0.1 2.5 11 Sep 6.7 62.0 v low 11%
Mulurulu AWS 26.7   43.5 21 Nov 10.1   -0.1 10 Sep 12.2
Pooncarie Mail Agency 27.4 +0.1 44.2 20 Nov 10.6 -0.5 0.5 11 Sep 25.7 68.0 low 38%
Western (Upper Darling) (district 48)
Bourke Airport AWS 30.1 +0.6 42.6 21 Nov 13.2 -0.4 3.2 12 Sep 101.8 81.5 average 125%
Brewarrina Hospital 30.6 +1.8 41.6 21 Nov 12.4 -0.3 3.0 12 Sep 56.6 88.3 average 64%
Cobar Airport AWS 28.0 +1.2 41.3 21 Nov 11.2 -0.5 -0.4 10 Sep 49.4 93.0 low 53%
Cobar MO 28.0 +2.0 40.8 21 Nov     2.2 10 Sep 42.8 93.9 low 46%
Lightning Ridge Visitor Information Cent 30.6 +1.4 41.7 20 Nov 13.9 -0.4 4.5 12 Sep 23.6 120.1 lowest 20%
Noona AWS 27.8   42.1 21 Nov 13.5   3.6 10 Sep 52.2
Wanaaring (Delta AWS) 29.6   43.0 21 Nov 12.6   1.7 12 Sep 62.8
Wanaaring Post Office 30.4 +1.1 44.7 21 Nov 12.5 -0.6 2.5 11 Sep 32.8 61.0 average 54%
Western (Southwest Plains) (district 49)
Balranald (RSL) 25.6 +1.0 41.9 21 Nov 9.3 -0.6 1.1 11 Sep 33.6 87.5 low 38%
Euabalong (Mount Hope AWS) 26.7   41.6 21 Nov 9.2   -1.8 10 Sep 41.6
Ivanhoe Aerodrome AWS 27.3 +0.3 43.4 21 Nov 12.1 -0.1 1.8 10 Sep 23.4 56.8 low 41%
Central Western Plains (South) (district 50)
Condobolin Ag Research Stn 26.6 +1.7 39.4 21 Nov 10.9 +1.4 1.0 11 Sep 20.0 118.1 v low 17%
Condobolin Airport AWS 27.2 +1.8 40.7 21 Nov 11.2 +1.5 0.9 11 Sep 17.8 116.9 v low 15%
Peak Hill Post Office 27.4 +2.7 39.2 21 Nov 12.0 +0.6 0.9 10 Sep 60.4 134.0 low 45%
West Wyalong Airport AWS 25.7 +1.1 40.1 21 Nov 9.9 +0.7 0.7 11 Sep 41.0 120.9 v low 34%
Central Western Plains (North) (district 51)
Coonamble Airport AWS 28.9 +1.4 39.2 20 Nov 11.9 +0.5 2.0 11 Sep 62.6 126.3 low 50%
Girilambone (Okeh) AWS 28.9   40.3 20 Nov 13.7   4.2 12 Sep 61.0
Trangie Research Station AWS 28.0 +2.9 38.6 21 Nov 12.0 +1.9 2.7 10 Sep 27.8 121.4 v low 23%
Walgett (Brewon AWS) 29.8   40.7 20 Nov 12.2   2.1 12 Sep 61.8
Northwest Plains (West) (district 52)
Mungindi Post Office 31.9 +3.1 42.9 20 Nov 13.1 -0.1 3.2 11 Sep 35.0 111.6 low 31%
Walgett Airport AWS 30.4 +1.6 41.8 20 Nov 11.6 -0.4 0.8 11 Sep 28.4 105.6 v low 27%
Northwest Plains (East) (district 53)
Moree Aero 30.5 +2.7 41.5 20 Nov 13.0 +0.3 3.1 10 Sep 34.0 145.5 v low 23%
Northwest Slopes (North) (district 54)
Barraba (Clifton Lane) 27.8 +2.8 36.9 20 Nov 8.1 0.0 -1.8 11 Sep 44.4 178.3 v low 25%
Narrabri Airport AWS 29.9 +2.1 40.1 20 Nov 12.2 0.0 -0.2 10 Sep 59.6 138.5 low 43%
Northwest Slopes (South) (district 55)
Gunnedah Airport AWS 29.3 +2.2 38.5 7 Oct 9.7 -0.2 -0.4 10 Sep 38.2 144.5 v low 26%
Quirindi Post Office 28.5 +3.3 38.0 23 Nov 9.4 +0.8 -1.0 10 Sep 72.8 170.8 v low 43%
Tamworth Airport AWS 28.6 +3.3 37.9 7 Oct 10.0 +0.4 -0.3 10 Sep 62.8 179.5 lowest 35%
Woolbrook (Woolbrook Road) 23.9 +3.0 33.2 22 Nov 6.7 +1.5 -5.0 10 Sep 53.4 210.2 lowest 25%
Northern Tablelands (West) (district 56)
Armidale (Tree Group Nursery) 24.3 +3.2 34.6 20 Nov 5.0 -1.0 -4.3 11 Sep 51.0 203.2 lowest 25%
Armidale Airport AWS 23.2 +2.9 33.0 20 Nov 7.6 +0.2 -1.7 11 Sep 60.6 216.2 v low 28%
Glen Innes Ag Research Stn 23.9 +3.8 34.0 20 Nov 6.8 -0.3 -2.0 10 Sep 74.3 219.3 v low 34%
Glen Innes Airport AWS 24.0 +3.1 33.9 20 Nov 4.8 -1.0 -4.3 15 Sep 86.2 259.9 lowest 33%
Guyra Hospital 21.6 +3.3 31.4 20 Nov 6.4 -0.1 -2.6 10 Sep 66.4 235.3 lowest 28%
Inverell (Raglan St) 27.6 +3.0 37.3 20 Nov     -1.1 24 Sep 41.0 218.2 lowest 19%
Inverell Research Centre 27.2 +4.1 37.1 20 Nov 10.6 +0.5 1.9 8 Sep 41.8 208.7 v low 20%
Tenterfield (Federation Park) 25.3 +3.1 33.2 29 Nov 6.1 -1.7 -3.8 10 Sep 45.8 210.6 v low 22%
Northern Tablelands (East) (district 57)
Tabulam (Muirne) 27.2 +3.6 37.1 20 Nov 12.8 +0.3 5.6 10 Sep 34.6 245.4 lowest 14%
Upper North Coast (district 58)
Ballina Airport AWS 25.9 +1.0 38.0 8 Nov 13.8 -0.2 6.3 4 Sep 15.4 290.9 lowest 5%
Byron Bay (Cape Byron AWS) 24.0 +0.3 31.0 16 Nov 16.9 0.0 10.8 11 Sep 37.8 238.3 v low 16%
Casino Airport AWS 30.0 +2.7 40.7 8 Oct 12.1 -1.2 3.1 11 Sep 37.4 203.3 lowest 18%
Evans Head RAAF Bombing Range AWS 27.1 +1.6 41.5 8 Nov 14.8 -0.3 9.5 4 Sep 40.2 251.5 lowest 16%
Grafton Airport AWS 28.3 +1.7 38.9 7 Oct 11.6 -1.3 3.8 10 Sep 61.4 216.5 v low 28%
Grafton Research Stn 29.2 +2.2 40.6 7 Oct 13.1 -0.2 5.2 4 Sep 25.4 179.5 lowest 14%
Lismore Airport AWS 29.3 +2.1 40.3 8 Oct     3.7 1 Sep
Murwillumbah (Bray Park) 27.8 +1.4 37.5 8 Nov 13.4 -0.7 5.1 8 Sep 41.1 258.8 lowest 16%
Yamba Pilot Station 24.8 +1.4 38.3 8 Nov 15.8 +0.5 10.0 11 Sep 67.8 230.9 v low 29%
Lower North Coast (district 59)
Coffs Harbour Airport 24.5   34.3 8 Nov 13.4   5.0 8 Sep 181.4
Dorrigo (Old Coramba Rd) 22.4 +1.5 32.5 7 Oct 9.4 -0.5 1.7 8 Sep 191.0 360.4 low 53%
Manning (district 60)
Forster - Tuncurry Marine Rescue 23.2 +0.4 35.6 26 Oct 14.2 +0.1 9.5 16 Sep 90.5 229.2 v low 39%
Port Macquarie Airport AWS 25.2 +1.2 37.0 7 Nov 11.0 -1.2 2.1 9 Sep 82.8 279.3 lowest 30%
Taree Airport AWS 25.7 +1.1 38.0 26 Nov 11.0 -1.1 3.6 12 Sep 93.5 223.7 v low 42%
Yarras (Mount Seaview) 28.1 +2.8 39.0 22 Nov 11.2 -0.2 4.0 12 Sep 329.6 359.3 average 92%
Hunter (district 61)
Cessnock Airport AWS 27.5 +2.6 38.6 22 Nov 9.9 -0.1 1.8 11 Sep 70.0 167.2 low 42%
Cooranbong (Lake Macquarie AWS) 25.1 +0.8 36.8 12 Nov 10.0 -1.1 2.7 12 Sep 121.2 240.3 v low 50%
Gosford AWS 24.1   35.9 25 Oct 12.0   5.3 12 Sep 184.2
Maitland Airport AWS 27.4   38.8 22 Nov 10.8   4.1 15 Sep 77.4
Mangrove Mountain AWS 24.7 +2.1 34.9 25 Oct 10.7 -0.8 3.1 11 Sep 193.2 238.0 low 81%
Merriwa (Roscommon) 27.5 +2.4 38.3 22 Nov 9.5 +0.8 0.7 10 Sep 55.4 146.0 v low 38%
Murrurundi Gap AWS 24.0 +2.5 33.7 22 Nov 11.6 +0.7 2.9 11 Sep 68.2 172.3 v low 40%
Nelson Bay (Nelson Head) 23.5 +0.4 34.1 26 Nov 14.6 +0.6 6.7 6 Nov 217.1 247.2 average 88%
Newcastle Nobbys Signal Station AWS 23.0 +1.0 35.4 12 Nov 15.0 +1.1 9.3 11 Sep 163.4 215.7 average 76%
Newcastle University 25.5 +1.0 37.2 12 Nov 13.1 -0.2 6.8 15 Sep 147.5 235.6 low 63%
Norah Head AWS 23.9 +1.4 36.2 12 Nov 14.7 -0.1 9.5 11 Sep 172.6 216.2 average 80%
Paterson (Tocal AWS) 27.4 +2.5 39.2 26 Nov 11.4 -0.1 4.4 12 Sep 116.2 199.1 low 58%
Scone Airport AWS 28.6 +3.4 39.7 22 Nov 10.5 +0.7 1.2 12 Sep 67.2 152.7 v low 44%
Singleton Defence AWS 27.9   39.3 22 Nov 12.7   6.9 25 Sep 58.2
Williamtown RAAF 25.5 +1.9 37.8 12 Nov 12.0 +0.2 5.3 12 Sep 172.2 216.6 average 80%
Central Tablelands (North) (district 62)
Mudgee Airport AWS 26.2 +3.2 36.9 21 Nov 7.7 -0.1 -2.4 10 Sep 61.6 176.5 v low 35%
Central Tablelands (South) (district 63)
Bathurst Agricultural Station 23.3 +3.3 36.4 21 Nov 5.9 -0.3 -2.8 12 Sep 84.4 166.4 low 51%
Bathurst Airport AWS 23.4 +3.0 36.3 21 Nov 6.2 -0.2 -3.4 10 Sep 86.6 161.9 low 53%
Lithgow (Cooerwull) 21.0 +1.5 34.1 21 Nov 5.2 -1.3 -4.6 10 Sep 82.5 182.1 v low 45%
Marrangaroo (Defence) 21.5   33.9 21 Nov 3.5   -6.7 10 Sep 90.2
Mount Boyce AWS 20.2 +2.6 33.4 21 Nov 8.1 +0.5 -0.3 17 Sep 131.6 222.0 low 59%
Orange Airport AWS 20.4 +2.1 33.5 21 Nov 5.5 -0.2 -2.4 10 Sep 102.8 235.9 low 44%
Springwood (Valley Heights) 24.8 +1.3 36.7 19 Nov 11.5 -0.2 5.2 10 Sep 199.5 224.7 average 89%
Central Western Slopes (North) (district 64)
Coonabarabran (Showgrounds) 26.4 +2.2 36.5 20 Nov 8.0 +0.9 -2.0 11 Sep 51.4 172.5 v low 30%
Coonabarabran Airport AWS 25.4 +1.9 35.7 20 Nov 12.7 +1.2 2.9 10 Sep 49.6 152.6 v low 33%
Dunedoo Post Office 27.9 +3.5 38.9 21 Nov 9.4 +0.2 -0.6 10 Sep 42.7 147.9 v low 29%
Central Western Slopes (South) (district 65)
Cowra Airport AWS 25.8 +1.7 39.7 21 Nov 8.2 +0.7 -3.0 10 Sep 40.4 143.3 v low 28%
Dubbo Airport AWS 27.7 +2.7 38.8 21 Nov 10.4 +0.7 -1.2 10 Sep 32.0 146.1 v low 22%
Forbes Airport AWS 26.7 +1.8 39.7 21 Nov 9.0 +0.1 -2.9 10 Sep 21.8 123.6 v low 18%
Parkes Airport AWS 26.2 +2.1 38.4 21 Nov 7.2 -0.9 -4.0 10 Sep 37.8 154.2 v low 25%
Wellington (D&J Rural) 27.1 +2.4 37.1 20 Nov     -0.4 24 Sep 70.5 156.9 low 45%
Metropolitan (East) (district 66)
Bankstown Airport AWS 25.8 +2.1 37.6 19 Nov 11.9 +0.2 5.1 12 Sep 129.4 180.2 low 72%
Canterbury Racecourse AWS 24.3 +0.9 35.9 12 Nov 11.6 -0.5 5.6 11 Sep 164.8 185.1 average 89%
Holsworthy Aerodrome AWS 25.2   37.1 19 Nov 11.1   3.5 15 Sep 129.6
Sydney (Observatory Hill) 24.2 +2.2 37.2 25 Oct 14.6 +1.1 8.1 11 Sep 173.2 229.2 average 76%
Sydney Airport AMO 24.9 +2.4 38.2 25 Oct 14.4 +1.3 7.9 10 Sep 135.4 210.5 low 64%
Sydney Harbour (Wedding Cake West) 21.6 +0.6 35.3 12 Nov 15.2 -0.1 9.3 17 Sep
Sydney Olympic Park AWS (Archery Centre) 25.5   37.3 19 Nov 12.2   5.3 24 Sep 144.6
Terrey Hills AWS 22.9 +0.5 35.7 12 Nov 12.9 -0.3 6.5 11 Sep 229.2 238.1 average 96%
Metropolitan (West) (district 67)
Badgerys Creek AWS 26.4 +1.8 38.2 19 Nov 10.4 -0.2 2.2 12 Sep 117.2 155.4 average 75%
Horsley Park Equestrian Centre AWS 26.0 +1.5 37.7 19 Nov 11.4 -0.4 3.9 11 Sep 144.2 161.8 average 89%
Penrith Lakes AWS 27.7 +2.2 39.1 19 Nov 11.7 -0.5 4.5 11 Sep 134.6 167.9 average 80%
Richmond RAAF 27.0 +1.9 38.7 19 Nov 10.7 -0.4 1.6 12 Sep 143.8 170.0 average 85%
Illawarra (district 68)
Albion Park (Shellharbour Airport) 23.7 +0.9 36.4 12 Nov 10.2 -0.7 1.5 12 Sep 111.0 188.6 low 59%
Bellambi AWS 21.9 +0.6 35.6 12 Nov 13.5 -0.6 7.5 17 Sep 185.0 221.4 average 84%
Camden Airport AWS 26.8 +2.6 38.0 19 Nov 9.7 -0.2 1.0 12 Sep 103.4 174.0 low 59%
Campbelltown (Mount Annan) 26.5 +1.8 38.0 19 Nov 9.9 -0.5 2.4 12 Sep 87.4 136.4 low 64%
High Range AWS (Wanganderry) 21.1   34.8 21 Nov 8.9   -0.2 17 Sep 82.0
Holsworthy Defence AWS 25.3   37.3 19 Nov 10.9   3.7 10 Sep
Jervis Bay (Point Perpendicular) 21.1 +0.3 33.6 12 Nov 13.7 +0.1 7.3 17 Sep 149.8 218.1 low 69%
Jervis Bay NSW (Jervis Bay Airfield AWS) 21.6   35.6 25 Oct 12.1   5.5 24 Sep 186.4
Kiama (Bombo Headland) 22.3 +1.0 36.4 12 Nov 13.6 -0.3 8.1 17 Sep 130.2 210.6 low 62%
Moss Vale AWS 21.3 +1.9 35.2 21 Nov 7.5 -0.4 -3.0 11 Sep 78.8 146.6 low 54%
Nowra RAN Air Station AWS 24.3 +1.3 36.6 19 Nov 10.7 -0.2 3.7 10 Sep 105.0 180.2 low 58%
South Coast (district 69)
Bega AWS 23.8 +1.9 40.3 21 Nov 7.7 -1.0 -1.9 11 Sep 63.2 143.7 v low 44%
Braidwood Racecourse AWS 22.0 +2.7 39.2 21 Nov 5.2 -0.6 -5.2 11 Sep 86.2 175.6 low 49%
Green Cape AWS 19.3 +0.2 25.0 6 Nov 11.9 -0.5 7.5 11 Sep 66.2 144.9 v low 46%
Merimbula Airport AWS 21.0 +0.4 33.1 12 Nov 8.6 -0.6 1.6 11 Sep 41.4 173.2 lowest 24%
Montague Island Lighthouse 19.6 +0.7 32.4 12 Nov 13.5 +0.6 8.2 17 Sep 135.4 193.2 low 70%
Moruya Airport AWS 21.4 -0.1 35.6 25 Oct 8.6 -0.9 0.8 1 Sep 115.4 194.9 v low 59%
Moruya Heads Pilot Station 20.3 +0.2 34.4 25 Oct 11.0 +0.3 5.4 1 Sep 123.0 214.3 low 57%
Narooma (Marine Rescue) 20.6 +1.0 34.5 25 Oct 11.2 -0.1 5.6 11 Sep 107.4 205.8 low 52%
Ulladulla AWS 21.0 +0.5 34.6 12 Nov 12.5 0.0 5.9 17 Sep 150.0 240.5 low 62%
Southern Tablelands (Goulburn-Monaro) (district 70)
Bombala (Therry Street) 20.9 +2.2 37.5 21 Nov 3.9 -0.7 -5.3 1 Sep 54.0 164.6 v low 33%
Bombala AWS 19.4 +1.5 37.9 21 Nov 4.0 -0.9 -4.5 1 Sep 70.2 149.4 v low 47%
Canberra Airport 23.1 +1.5 39.0 21 Nov 5.9 -0.4 -3.1 11 Sep 80.2 154.1 v low 52%
Cooma Airport AWS 19.9 +1.7 35.4 21 Nov 3.1 -0.6 -7.3 11 Sep 70.0 147.1 v low 48%
Goulburn Airport AWS 22.4 +2.6 38.5 21 Nov 4.8 -0.7 -5.9 10 Sep 80.2 146.6 low 55%
Goulburn TAFE 22.1 +2.4 38.5 21 Nov 7.2 +0.1 -1.5 11 Sep 73.0 161.1 v low 45%
Mount Ginini AWS 12.7 +0.4 28.1 21 Nov 2.8 -0.2 -6.3 17 Sep 145.8 263.3 low 55%
Taralga Post Office 21.2 +2.9 37.0 21 Nov 5.0 -0.4 -3.5 11 Sep 97.2 198.3 v low 49%
Tuggeranong (Isabella Plains) AWS 22.7 +1.7 38.0 21 Nov 5.9 -0.8 -2.9 1 Sep 79.4 181.9 v low 44%
Southern Tablelands (Snowy Mountains) (district 71)
Perisher Valley AWS 10.8   27.1 21 Nov 0.5   -7.6 10 Oct 394.6 527.9 low 75%
Thredbo AWS 8.2 +0.6 23.6 21 Nov 0.3 +0.3 -8.3 17 Sep 288.8 422.2 average 68%
Thredbo Village 14.4 +1.0 29.4 21 Nov     -6.2 1 Sep 372.7 543.2 low 69%
Southwest Slopes (South) (district 72)
Albury Airport AWS 23.0 +1.0 40.9 21 Nov 7.6 -0.9 -0.5 10 Sep 58.8 162.2 lowest 36%
Cabramurra SMHEA AWS 12.4 +0.1 27.6 21 Nov 4.3 -0.1 -5.3 10 Sep 223.2 334.3 low 67%
Hume Reservoir 22.6 +1.4 40.5 21 Nov 8.8 -0.4 0.3 10 Sep 67.6 180.6 v low 37%
Khancoban AWS 21.5 +0.3 37.9 21 Nov 5.7 -1.1 -1.9 10 Sep 162.2 241.3 low 67%
Tumbarumba Post Office 21.0 +1.7 36.4 21 Nov 4.8 -0.5 -3.5 10 Sep 119.8 259.0 v low 46%
Wagga Wagga AMO 24.2 +2.4 40.1 21 Nov 7.8 -0.1 -1.8 10 Sep 91.2 151.1 low 60%
Southwest Slopes (North) (district 73)
Burrinjuck Dam 23.3 +2.9 39.5 21 Nov 8.1 -0.3 -0.5 11 Sep 101.2 239.6 v low 42%
Cootamundra Airport 23.8 +1.4 39.5 21 Nov 5.9 -0.8 -4.1 10 Sep 51.0 149.9 v low 34%
Grenfell (Manganese Rd) 24.9 +2.3 38.4 21 Nov 8.0 -0.9 -2.6 10 Sep 33.2 153.1 v low 22%
Gundagai (Nangus Rd) 24.1 +1.5 39.5 21 Nov     -1.5 10 Sep 90.3 172.2 low 52%
Temora Airport 25.2 +1.0 39.9 21 Nov 6.9 -0.6 -2.5 10 Sep 44.6 123.2 v low 36%
Riverina (East) (district 74)
Corowa Airport 23.5 +1.0 41.0 22 Nov     -1.5 13 Sep 64.1 140.9 low 45%
Deniliquin Airport AWS 24.6 +0.7 43.8 21 Nov 7.7 -1.2 -0.7 11 Sep 37.0 109.0 v low 34%
Kapooka (Defence) 24.9   41.0 21 Nov 7.6   -2.6 10 Sep 68.2
Narrandera Airport AWS 25.8 +1.7 42.1 21 Nov 8.8 -0.4 -0.7 10 Sep 52.0 110.4 low 47%
Tocumwal Airport 23.9 +1.1 42.5 21 Nov 8.2 -0.8 0.0 11 Sep 53.9 116.0 low 46%
Yanco Agricultural Institute 25.3 +0.6 37.1 20 Nov 10.6 -0.3 1.5 10 Sep 61.4 101.4 average 61%
Riverina (West) (district 75)
Griffith Airport AWS 25.9 +1.7 42.4 21 Nov 9.3 +0.1 0.1 10 Sep 44.0 104.7 v low 42%
Hay Airport AWS 25.9 -0.1 43.8 21 Nov 9.5 -0.5 -0.1 10 Sep 35.2 86.6 low 41%
Hillston Airport 26.5 +1.8 42.5 21 Nov 10.7 +0.3 0.5 10 Sep 28.8 92.3 v low 31%
Lake Cargelligo Airport 26.8 +1.3 41.8 21 Nov 11.9 +1.3 2.4 10 Sep 32.2 103.9 v low 31%
Note: From 2017, information about Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands can be found in the climate summary for the Remote Islands and Antarctica

Notes

The Seasonal climate summary, generally published on the first working day of each month, lists the main features of the weather in New South Wales using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. More extensive discussion of significant weather events, along with later information and data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 10 am on Monday 2 December 2019. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

In some situations, some or all of the rainfall is in the form of hail or snow. In these cases the totals given are for the water equivalent: the depth of liquid water that results from melting any frozen precipitation. There can be significant 'undercatch' of snow in strong winds, meaning the true precipitation can be higher than that reported.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

Where temperature area averages are mentioned, they are derived from the ACORN-SAT dataset.

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